Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Basic Concepts Of Retrosynthesis (Part1)

17,255

Published on

Published in: Technology
5 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
17,255
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
564
Comments
5
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. RETROSYNTHETIC APPROCH TO ORGANIC SYNTHESIS Prof. Dr. Shaikh S. Nizami Department of Chemistry University of Karachi
  • 2. BASIC CONCEPTS (Part 1)
  • 3. CONTENTS <ul><li>Definition of synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Polarity of bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Arrow notations </li></ul><ul><li>Basic concepts of Retrosynthesis </li></ul>
  • 4. READING MATTERIALS
  • 5. DEFINATION <ul><li>The preparation of a desired organic compound from a readily available starting material is known as organic synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>[Synthesis---- singular] </li></ul><ul><li>[Syntheses--- plural] </li></ul>
  • 6. DESIRED ORGANIC COMPOUND <ul><li>The compound we wish to prepare </li></ul><ul><li>It is called Target Molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Desired Organic Compound is denoted by TM </li></ul>
  • 7. STARTING MATERIAL <ul><li>Readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>contains five carbon atoms or less apart from aromatic ring </li></ul>
  • 8. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>To get a pure sample of the desired organic compound </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid the reactions that will produce a mixture of products </li></ul>
  • 9. PURE COMPOUND <ul><li>To study </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacological properties </li></ul>
  • 10. Reasons for synthesizing Organic Compound <ul><li>1. Proof of structure of a natural compound </li></ul><ul><li>2. To prepare compounds that are useful to mankind e.g. pharmaceutical, polymers, dyes etc. </li></ul>
  • 11. Reasons for synthesizing Organic Compound 3. To prepare specific compounds to study reaction mechanisms or biological metabolism e.g. labelled compounds 4. For the intellectual challenges – new problems demand new solutions and can lead to the development of NEW CHEMISTRY, reagents, etc .
  • 12. SOME FASCINATING COMPOUNDS
  • 13. BOND POLARITY (Polar covalent bond) <ul><li>Most heteroatom are more electronegative than carbon i.e. O, N, Br, Cl, </li></ul><ul><li>Partial positive charge appears on carbon (  +) </li></ul>
  • 14. BOND POLARITY (Polar covalent bond) <ul><li>Si, Mg,Li are electropositive compared with the carbon </li></ul><ul><li>The polarity in these case is reversed </li></ul><ul><li>partial negative charge appears on carbon (  -) </li></ul>
  • 15. ARROW NOTATION Simple reaction arrow “ reacts to give” Delocalisation arrow “ two different ways to draw the same delocalised structures” Equilibrium arrow Curved arrow “ two structures are interconverting” “ motion of two electrons” Fish-hook arrow “ motion of one electron” Retrosynthesis arrow “ could be made from”
  • 16. RETROSYNTHESIS It is reverse of the synthetic steps We have a reliable reaction in mind
  • 17. RETROSYNTHETIC ANALYSIS <ul><li>1. The process of WORKING BACKWARD from the TM in order to devise suitable synthetic route </li></ul>2. Retrosynthetic Analysis can be done by two methods a) Disconnection b) Functional Group Interconversion
  • 18. DISCONNECTION <ul><li>1.A paper operation involving an imagined cleavage of a bond. </li></ul><ul><li>2.As a result of disconnection usually negative ion and positive ion are formed which are called ‘ SYNTHONS ’ </li></ul><ul><li>3.Disconnection is shown by a wavy line like ~ or VVVVVVVV </li></ul>
  • 19. JIGSAW PUZZLE (Target Puzzle)
  • 20. PUZZLE (Disconnection)
  • 21. DISCONNECTION OF C-C SYNTHONS
  • 22. FUNCTIONAL GROUP INTERCONVERSION ( FGI ) <ul><li>The process of writing one functional group for another to help synthetic planning is known as FGI </li></ul>
  • 23. FUNCTIONAL GROUP INTERCONVERSION ( FGI ) <ul><li>FGI can be done by </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITION </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSTITUTION </li></ul><ul><li>ELIMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>OXIDATION / REDUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>FREE RADICAL REACTION </li></ul>
  • 24. SYNTHONS <ul><li>These are idealized fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Synthons are shown by a + or – sign like anion or cation (Not real anion or cation) </li></ul><ul><li>May or may not be intermediate in the corresponding reactions </li></ul>
  • 25. SYNTHETIC EQUIVALENT <ul><li>The actual compound used to </li></ul><ul><li>function as synthon </li></ul><ul><li>Denoted by a triple line  </li></ul><ul><li>Known as REAGENT </li></ul>
  • 26. Retrosynthetic analysis, Synthons & Synthetic equivalents R — R  ……………………………………………………………………… R + + R - R - + R +     TM RBr, RI, ROMe, ROTs RMgBr, RLi, LiCuR 2 Synthons Synthetic equivalents
  • 27. DESIGNING A SYNTHESIS <ul><li>Recognize the functional groups in the target molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnect by methods corresponding to known and reliable reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat as necessary to reach available starting material </li></ul>
  • 28. SYNTHESIS <ul><li>Write out the plan according to the analysis, adding reagents and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Modify the plan according to unexpected failure in the laboratory </li></ul>
  • 29. RETOSYNTHETIC ANALYSIS Hawthorn perfume
  • 30. EFFECTIVE SYNTHESIS <ul><li>An understanding of reaction mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>A working knowledge of reliable reactions </li></ul>
  • 31. EFFECTIVE SYNTHESIS <ul><li>An appreciation that some compounds are available </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding of stereochemistry </li></ul>
  • 32. 1 st RETROSYNTHETIC ANALYSIS CH 3 CH 2 OH
  • 33. SYNTHESIS
  • 34. 2 nd RETROSYNTHETIC ANALYSIS CH 3 CH 2 OH & SYNTHESIS
  • 35. 3 rd RETROSYNTHETIC ANALYSIS CH 3 CH 2 OH & SYNTHESIS
  • 36. 4 th RETROSYNTHETIC ANALYSIS CH 3 CH 2 OH & SYNTHESIS

×