Political advertising
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Political advertising

on

  • 1,396 views

Political Advertising in general. Study Case: Malaysia's 2004 General Election's findings.

Political Advertising in general. Study Case: Malaysia's 2004 General Election's findings.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,396
Views on SlideShare
1,396
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
37
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Political advertising Political advertising Document Transcript

    • POLITICALADVERTISING
    • - Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and HazelGaudet (scholars, 1944).
    • contents introduction characteristics ADEX (adv. expend)general elections 2004
    • introduction•Horstetter, Zukin and Buss (1978) ascited in Kaid (2004), that adsincreased viewers levels ofinformation.•Benze and DeClerq (1985) foundimage content more prevalent thanissues for candidates of both sexes.•Political communication, requiresthree participating actors (thecandidate, the voter, and thejournalist) to perform well-definedfunctions.
    • definition the communication process by which a source purchases the opportunity to expose receivers through mass channels to political messages with the intended effect of influencing their political attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.in context of the traditional who says what to whom with what effect – the famous Lasswell (1948)
    • characteristics•1) control of message•2) use of communicationchannels for messagedistributionads elements•Prospective; Focuses on issuecontent and position taking.•Retrospective; Less‘responsible’, focuses on creditclaiming & blaming placing.•Benevolent leader; Emphasizeson candidate qualities
    • free&paid media•Politicians strive for frequentand ample coverage in freemedia especially on tv.•Regular media coverage; is‘free’, allows candidates toappear in media for freesometimes on public tv andradio. (e.g., the news)•Paid media; allow candidatesto decide what, when & howlong they are covered for.
    • Ex: USA
    • USA;
    • TV viewing is at a RECORD LEVELRM 2.9b with the average person watchingTotal adv more than.. ..4in hoursspending in firsthalf of 2008 a day 2010.RM 1.6b Growth of TVAd revenues in advertisingnewspaper, agrowth of 16% RM 948msince H1 2007 ADEX advertising expenditure
    • OUTDOORMEDIA & DIGITALADVERTISINGCAN REACH RM 6 b or 11%growthTOP LEADIND BRANDs ALL TOP 3 – TELCO COMPANIES; CELCOM (RM 95m), DIGI (RM51m) & MAXIS (RM 44.7m) 4TH PLACE, WITH RM 47 m BARISAN NASIONAL
    • Top Brands RM (million)Celcom 95.0DiGi 51.0Maxis 44.7Barisan Nasional 27.9Table 1. Source: Nielsen Media Research Service; Media Specialists Association; “Newspaper and TV Ads Drive StrongAdex Growth” by The Star, 16 August 2008Top Brand in H1 2008 Rank H1 2007 H1 2008 Increase vs. H1 (RM’000) (RM’000) 2007 (RM’000)Celcom 1 48, 069 94, 984 98%DiGi 2 74, 181 51, 004 -31%Maxis 3 52, 403 44, 711 -15%Barisan Nasional 4 47 27, 893 58900%Grand Brilliance 5 5, 387 22, 932 326%TM 6 27, 367 22, 530 -18%Petronas 7 21, 503 21, 175 -2%KFC 8 15, 688 20, 166 29%Air Asia 9 10, 146 18, 992 87%Giant 10 13, 668 18, 018 32%
    • Top Growth Category in H1 2008 Rank H1 2007 H1 2008 Increase vs. H1 (RM’000) (RM’000) 2007 (RM’000)Political Parties 1 480 30, 750 30, 370Airlines 2 21, 543 45, 249 23, 717Government Institutions-Local 3 74, 386 95, 470 21, 084University 4 26, 068 41, 816 15, 748Tonic & Vitamin 5 27, 057 42, 480 15, 423
    • generalelections ‘04
    • mainstream •Mainstream Malaysian newspapers and television broadcasters have extremely close links with the governing parties. • Print media, major newspapers -3 English, 2 Malay, 5e Chinese, and 2 Tamil-language dailies. •In broadcast media, Radio Television Malaysia is the public service broadcaster which provides two free- to-air television channels. • Four privately owned free-to-air television channels, and a growing number of private subscription-based channels.
    • General elections ‘04•BN - least three differentadvertising agencies. TVCwere produced by Leo Burnettwhile two other agenciesresponsible for print and postercampaigns.•Ad blitz;TV, radio, printmedia, billboards and for the firsttime, direct mail.•The product advertised wasAbdullah Badawi of the BN.•Compared with previouscampaigns, the 2004 ads weredesigned to transmit the ‘feel good’factor rather than to use threats
    • Mainstream Daily Circulation Berita Harian 218,000 Utusan Malaysia 238,000 Nanyang Siang Pau 148,000 Sin Chew Daily 300,000 New Straits Times 147,000 The Star 293,000Table 6: Statistics for audited circulation for the year 2004 as acquired from Media Guide 2005Medium of Language Frequency PercentageMalay dailies 1,157 27.1Chinese dailies 2,138 50.2English dailies 967 22.7Table 8: Quantity of news items according to medium of languageNewspaper dailies ofthree main languages
    • Medium of Language Pro- BN Against- Neutral Pro- Opp. Against- BN Opp. Malay dailies (n=1,157) 545 13 486 63 50 (47.10%) (1.12%) (42.01%) (5.45%) (4.32%) Chinese dailies (n=2,138) 660 139 925 249 165 (30.87%) (6.50%) (43.26%) (11.65%) (7.72%) English dailies (n=967) 428 35 323 100 81 (44.26%) (3.62%) (33.40%) (10.34%) (8.38%) Table 9: News directions according to medium of languageMedium of Language Political Parties Other SourcesMalay dailies (n=1,157) 578 (49.96%) 579 (50.04%)Chinese dailies (n=2,138) 677 (31.67%) 1,461 (68.33%)English dailies (n=967) 432 (44.67%) 535 (55.33%)Table 10: News items quoted from leaders of political parties and other sources
    • findings•6.6 % of the political informationduring the campaign period of 14 -21 March 2004 were commercialin nature.•Out of the total of 4,562 itemsthat under study, 300 items werefound as sponsored information orpolitical advertising.• Further examination on thesponsors to these ads, it was obvthe ruling political partycontributed 79.7 percent of thetotal political advertising inmainstream dailies.
    • conclusion•In countries withparliamentary systems, it isusually the party thatgoverned the country hasthe most dominant role.•Thus, encourages party bias.•GE ‘04 the directions duringthe said election had shownthat the local mainstreamdailies, regardless oflanguages, were more infavour of the ruling politicalparty.