Social MediaEVOLUTIONorREVOLUTION ?MajuMunirahJing Jenny
SOCIAL MEDIA?“A group of Internet-based applications that build onthe ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0,and that allow the creation and exchange of UserGenerated Content”Kaplan & Haenlein (2010)http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=KOYbnbXHR6U
AGENDA1Groupwork Research Background Importance of Research Topic Literature Review: What have been investigated? What have not yet know??? Relevant conferences and journals2Individualresearchproposal Determinants of e-WOM adoption via social mediaamong young consumers – Jenny YouTube versus Television: Advertising valueperceptions among New Zealanders - Munirah Social media in SMEs innovation in NZ – Jing Social media within organizations:Motivation forknowledge sharing using intra-organisational socialmedia in banks – Maju
Our Group Research Model• YouTube V/sTelevision -Munirah• SM withinbanks - Maju• eWOM via SM- Jenny• SM in SME -JingSocialMediaSocialMediaoutsidewithin
Social media- An emerging research areaSM – fundamentally changing the way wecommunicate, collaborate, consume & create.Organisations must change in order to not react but to leadcustomer experiences & relationships“SM has transformed the whole nature of interactionamong members of society”(Qualmann,2009)Explosion in the usage of SM
Social media- An emerging research areaResearch in - Higher conversion of SM referral customers over website visiting.Disconnectbetween CEOs &Future consumersMost organisations still view SM as athreat (Bradley & McDonald, 2011)73% have a/c66% have corporate page.Univ. of Massachusetts Dartmouth study:Findings of IBM Global CEO & Student study: CEO-Students(future customers) disconnect
SM – Area of investigation?• Finding of Pew Research centre & Docstoc study:Womenbigger userMajority useSM70% of CityViral environment – Concerns & ChallengesNo longer niche Society game changer
Past LiteratureSocial Media & Users’ perspective: gender, ethnicity (US), or religion.CRM Online WOMMarketing (advertising) e.g.Education 2.0 IS technology (business practice)Privacy
Future Research• Social graph analysis• Social media search and management• Exploiting social graphs• Identity algorithms• Mobile social networks• Social ranking and opinion sites• Business and social networking• Architectures for open and federated social networkplatforms
Who are the researchers?????• Researchers– From cross-functional and cross-disciplinary area• Including: economics, marketing, computer science, sociology andstrategy management– Information systems scholars play the central role• Examining the relationship between social media and businesschanges• Affiliation:– The Pew Internet & American Life Project• non-profit• provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shapingAmerica and the world• aims to examine how Americans use the internet and how theiractivities affect their lives
What are being researched?Users and societyPlatforms andintermediariesFirms and industriesDesign andfeaturesStrategy andtacticsManagementand organizationMeasurementand valueLevel of analysisActivities of producers and usersSource: Racherla & King (2012)Aral et al. (2013)
Research methodology• Quantitative approaches (58.5%) :– dominant across the disciplines– remove research bias and errors• Survey• Experiment• Action research• Qualitative approaches (15.6%):– in-depth understanding of a new phenomenon• Case studies• Grounded theory• Mixed methods (6.2%)
Relevant conferences and journalson social mediaThe top international conferences on social mediaSource: http://socialmediatoday.com/nealschaffer/1153446/12-best-social-media-conferences-attend-2013The International Conference on Electronic Commerce (ICEC)is considered one of the top forums on the exchange of new ideasrelated to emerging technologies and managerial practices inelectronic commerce, IT services and mobile business.In recent years,The major topics ICEC seeks submissions onSocial networking, virtual communities and sponsored advertising.
Top relevant international journals onsocial mediaInternationalJournal of ElectronicCommerceJournal of ElectronicCommerce Research(JECR)New Media & Society Communication Journal of Computer-Mediated CommunicationJournal of InteractiveMarketingInformation SystemResearch
Determinants of e-WOM adoption via social media among youngconsumersPresented by Huong Tran (Jenny)
“Social media are fundamentallychanging the way wecommunicate, collaborate, consume, and create”(Aral, Dellarocas, & Godes, 2013,p.3)Social media as an emerging and demanding researcharea in both practical and academic arenas.
Online Word-of-mouth via social media• Social media have extended WOMnetworks “from one’s immediatecontacts to the entire Internet world”(Cheung, Lee, & Rabjohn, 2008, p.10)• From the marketing perspective, it isvital to understand how e-WOM viasocial media influences consumers’purchase behaviors as they becomeactive members in online communities(O’Reilly & Marx, 2011)• Recently, there are many relevantconferences and journals, which call forpapers on the emerging topics of socialmedia, particularly e-WOM effects viathese new media.
New Zealand has more than60% of total population beingsocial media users withlargest age groupcurrently from 18-24“Contemporary youth are considered as aninteresting group to investigate with regard toeffects of digital media because they tend to bemore exposure to these new technologiescompared with the elders”Flanagin & Metzger (2008)Source: Facebook Statistics and Metrics by ContinentsUser age distribution on social media in NewZealand in 2012
Venn diagram of the studySocial mediaOnlineWord-of-mouthInformationadoptionYoungpeopleMy research focusE-WOM is defined as “any positive or negative statement made bypotential, actual, or former customers about a product or company,which is made available to a multitude of people and institutionsvia the Internet”Hennig-Thurau et al., (2004)
Comparison of traditional WOMand online WOMCriteria Traditional WOM Online WOMSources of information(reviews, advice, andopinions)Close people (family members,friends, colleagues, etc.)Online members who may becompletely strangersFormat of information Verbal exchange Mainly text-based interactionNumber of senders andreceiversA small number ofcommunicatorsOne-to-one communicationUnlimited numbers of senders andreceiversOne-to-world communicationPersuasive power More personal More diverseStrength of close ties andhomophily among membersImportant Less important
What have been known????? Prior work has elaborated that eWOM via social media has significantimpacts on• Customers’ consumption behaviors (e.g., Doh & Hwang, 2009;Needham, 2008),• Customer satisfaction with products and services (e.g., Anderson,1998; Wu, Sun, & Youn, 2006)• The marketing effectiveness (e.g., Chen & Xie, 2008) Most of previous studies on online WOM focused on factors ormotives that drive consumers to generate/transmit online opinions.
Research gapReceiver of WOM QI: Why do people listen? QII: The power of WOMSender of WOM QIII: Why do people talk?QIV: What happens to thecommunicator?Antecedents of WOM(Causes)Consequences of WOM(Effects)Multiple Dimensions of WOM Communication EpisodesFocus of the studyUnit of analysisLittle attention on which factors affectingadoption of e-WOM via social media forpurchase decisions.Source: Racherla & King (2012)
Research modelH2H7H6H5H4H3TimelinessAccuracyComprehensivenessSource credibilitySource expertiseSource biasPerceivedusefulnessInformationadoptionH1RelevanceArgument quality
MethodologyMixed-method approachEmergingconceptsIdentify focused areas in discussionLiterature reviewTheoreticalmodelsInitial modelFocus groupsFinal modelSurveyFindingsRefine the main constructs
A discussion of possible resultsHypothesis From To Possible resultH1 PerceivedusefulnessE-WOMadoptionStrongly supportedOnline members adopt the comments or reviewsfor solving their problems only if they perceivethe information is valuable and helpful (Cheunget al., 2009)H2 Relevance PerceivedusefulnessSupportedInformation from social media, especially fromsocial networking sites with high “homology” ismore relevant for members (Brown et al., 2007)H3 Timeliness PerceivedusefulnessNot supportedSocial media enables users to retrieve relevantinformation in previous discussion easily and thepast opinions might be also useful (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004)
A discussion of possible resultsH4 Accuracy PerceivedusefulnessNot supportedIt is difficult for youth with limited experience to assesswhether online information is definitely true or false,especially with low involvement (Needham, 2008)H5 ComprehensivenessPerceivedusefulnessSupportedConsumers seek and tend to rely on more detailedproduct-related information (price, features, review…)(O’Reilly & Marx, 2011)H6 SourceexpertisePerceivedusefulnessNot supportedAny user can have unlimited freedom to register andpublish content on social media without formal check.Therefore, young consumers pay little attention to thisaspect (Flanagin & Metzger, 2008).H7 Source bias PerceivedusefulnessNot supportedSimilarly, there is seldom evidence about the backgroundand motivation of senders. Thus, source bias is lessrelevant to perceived usefulness (Cheung et al., 2009)
ImplicationsMarketers: to better promote for companies’brands/products to accelerate consumer decision process atthe right time.Online community operators or forumsadministrators:To pave the ways for better websitemanagement and facilitating higher onlineinformation adoption rate.The research could help marketingresearchers and practitioners to gaininsightful understanding about theinfluence of new form of WOM via socialnetworking platform.
Future research• A cross-national survey on the impacts of online WOM in bothWestern and Asia countries.– The objective of this survey is to discover the role of cultural factors in thetransmission and consumption of e-WOM.• Quantitative data analysis to investigate closely thecorrelation among service delivery costs, sales revenue,advertising and promotion costs, and e-WOM exchange.• Lastly, future research could exclusively concentrate onexamining the effects online WOM across products andthroughout different stages of consumer decision process.
Target conference and journalIn recent years, ICEC seeks forsubmissions of papers onsocial networking,virtual communities,and sponsoredadvertising, whichcoincides with my researchfocus of e-WOM exchange viasocial media.The journal focuses onidentifying issues andshaping ideas associatedwith the expandingelectronic andinteractive marketingenvironments, which isthe major focus of myresearch.
ConclusionThe authority to publish information on social media now belongs to almost end-users There is inevitably high uncertainty in credibility and reliability ofonline information.It is necessary to conduct in-depth investigation to examine which factors determiningconsumers’ perceived usefulness and consequently their adoption behaviors.
YouTube versus Television: Advertising value Perceptions amongNew Zealanders Presented by Munirah
Social Media Advertising• Advertising is the act of calling theattention of the public to something• In recent times, consumers interactwith media more than they do withphysical entities.• Therefore, it is essential to evaluatethe various marketing the mediaprovides critically
Previous Studies• Television advertising started in 1949• Prior to that, word of mouth and printedadverts. Were main ads method• You Tube advertising started in 2005• Founders: Steve Chen, Jawed Karim andChad Hurley• Why in New Zealand???
• Research question:Is YouTube advertising replacing othermeans of communicating, like thetelevision, to the consumers?• Research objective:To help New Zealand businesses developthe economical and effective marketingstrategy
Research FrameworkH 1A: Perceived entertainment in YouTube adverts is positively associated with positive attitudes towards theadvertising among New Zealanders.H 1B: Perceived entertainment in television adverts is positively associated with positive attitudes towards theadvertising among New Zealanders.H 2A: Perceived informativeness in You Tube adverts is positively associated with positive attitudes towards theadvertising among New Zealanders.H 2B: Perceived informativeness in television adverts is positively associated with positive attitudes towards theadvertising among New Zealanders.H 3A: Perceived irritation in You Tube adverts is positively associated with positive attitudes towards the advertisingamong New Zealanders.H 3B: Perceived irritation in television adverts is negatively associated with positive attitudes towards theadvertising among New Zealanders.
Methodology• Research Type: mixed method• Research Method: post & electronicmail survey and interview• Target Group: New Zealanders• Sample size: 20000 surveys and 20interviews• Time: 3 months• Analysis: SPSS, Nvivo
ResultsAttiude towads TV AdsEntertaningInformativeIrritatingPreferenceTV adsYouTubeads
Limitation & Implication• The result cannot refer to all businesstypes in New Zealand industry• There are more factors that can affectthe customer’s response• There is no incentives for participantsto answer the survey
Target conference and journal• Conference:– International Conference of Electronic Commerce(ICEC)• Journal:– Marketing Journal
Social media in B2B innovation in SMEs Presented by Jing
Introduction• Why in New Zealand?– NZ businesses lag behind the rest of the world inthe use of social media, with 38% of businessesutilize social media compared with a globalaverage of 43%– Trail trading partners:• Australia (44.9%)• USA (46%)
Introduction• Why in SMEs (Small and medium enterprises)?– Definition: firms have < 20 fulltime employees– Vital to the NZ economy• represent 97.2% of all NZ businesses• employ 30.2% of all NZ workers• contribute 27.8% of NZ GDP– Characteristic:• Flexible, adaptive and innovative—good fit for social media• However, organizational structure and decision makingusually reflects the personality of managers/ owners.
Introduction• Why in B2B?– Existing studies focus on B2C and intra-organization– B2B differs from B2C• Customers: fewer than B2C sector, are organizations instead ofsingle consumer• Products: purchased by professional buyers, who trend to acquireinformation about the products in order to evaluate alternatives.• Why in B2B innovation processes?– Lags behind peer countries in innovation sectors– Low adoption of SM in innovation in B2B context– Previous studies focus on single tools or stage– Lack of academic research and well reportedcase studies, particularly in NZ context
Previous research• NZ: Delwyn, N. Clark. (2010)– Innovation management. First in-depth study of innovation activity/management in NZ– survey• USA: Kim, H. D., Lee, I., & Lee, C. K. (2011)– Web 2.0 and SMEs. Guideline for SMEs attempting to access technology– survey• UK: Michaelidou, N., Siamagka, N. T., & Christodoulides, G. (2011)– Social media and B2B SMEs. light the way to attract customers.– Survey• Finnish: Kärkkäinen, H., Jussila, J., & Väisänen, J. (2010)– Social media and B2B innovation. Recognize potentially effective ways toreduce the gap between use and potential of SM in B2B innovation.– Survey• China: Wang, S., Hong, Y., Archer, N., & Wang, Y. (2011)– Motivation-capability of online B2B SMEs. Generate a framework– Case study
What is known• Current use of Social media in SMEs
What is known• Social media in B2B VS B2C
Research gapB2B SMEsSocialmediaBusinessInnovationGapPrevious studies focus on B2C and intra-organization contextlack of academic research and well reported case studies in B2B
Research Question• Aim:– identify status of social media utilization in SMEsand B2B innovation in order to enable SMEs tobetter adopt social media• Question:– Why do SMEs adopt social media?– How do SMEs use social media in businessinnovation processes?• Including: what kind of social media tools are used ineach stage?
Research Methodology• Methodology: Qualitative– good for exploratory study, initial research• Method: Case study– Answer “How””Why”• Sample: six owners/ managers (adopters)SMEs (less than 20 fulltime employees)• Data collection: semi-structured interview (30 mins)• Time: 3 months• Data analysis: content analysis, cross-cases analysis
Potential resultsPurposes A B C D E FBrandingInformation sharingUnderstand/ AttractcustomersInternal communicationsInteract with suppliersReceive feedbackIncrease awarenessCollaborative relationshipSales support…Other (sample)Q1: Why do SMEs adopt social media?
Potential resultsA B C D E FBlogs Attracting and activating leaduser to participate in innovation… … … …Micro-blogs marketing-Read whatcustomers saying… … … …Wikis Idea generation ...… … …Social networking Customer as co-producer … … … …Mashups Automately gather data … … … …Virtual worlds … … … …Social workspace Exchange opportunities-collaboration… … … …Other choice (example) … … … …Q2: How do SMEs use social media in business innovation processes?Table1: Front EndTable2: Development phase…Table3: Commercialization…
Limitation• Bias from research method:– Limitation of case study– Limitation of single method• Bias from sample:– Small number– SMEs have embraced SM• Bias from time:– Technology change
Outcomes and future research• Outcomes– Taking mentioned above areas into consideration:contribution of social media in SMEs and B2B innovationprocess– Provide insights into the extent of use and the reason whyB2B SMEs adopt social media– Useful for SMEs owners and their advisors those seeking abetter understanding of the potential of SM• Potential future research– Extent findings from qualitative research can be generatedto quantitative research (large scale)– SMEs VS large firms– Cross industry / country– Customer perspective
Target conference and journal• Conference:– International Conference of Electronic Commerce(ICEC)• Journal:– International Journal of Electronic commerce
Social media within organizations:Motivation for knowledge sharing using intra-organisational socialmedia in banks Presented by Maju
Intra-organsational SM have distinct technicalfeatures that unleash passion for engagement andknowledge sharing (KS) and address draw back ofcurrently used tech. (Paroutis & Saleh, 2011)INSEAD 2010 Survey of 1060 global executives -50%said their company has implemented SM & 60% ofthem felt it had positive impact internally.Wells Fargo (Large US Bank) forced to followemployee into intra organisational SM“Have Fun at office” – Motto of employees? –Now of corporations.
Very on KSStill on KSBank employees are one of the largest knowledgeworker segment in any economyMost in manufacturing industry.or banking
Kaung-Hsun Shih, 2010 – “How Banks createintellectual capital? The role of KS”– “Analysis ofknowledge sharing in banking industry”.– “Determinants of KSusing web 2.0 technologies
Very limited knowledge on motivation of knowledge workers like bankemployees for basic usage of intra SM and for KS in intra SM.Motivationfor KSBankingIntra SM
Research question: 1) How does the?Research question: 2) of banksemployees to through a intraorganisational ?Research question: 3) What are forthrough aintra organisational ?Research objective: To to betterits to.
• Research Type: Case study based mixed method• Research Method: SM post, email, mail &telephonic survey (questionnaire administration)and interview• Target Group: Bank employees of 3 case banks.One MNC Bank, One National bank, One smallregional Bank.• Sample size: 100 surveys and 20 interviews• Time: 3-6 months
Banks Cultural influence on KSValued (27%)Useful (20%)Fun (20%)EasyProcessesF2F preferred
Barriers to KS through intra SM Time & EffortDoes it help?ReciprocityExisiting betterNew SM not goodNo rewardsNo Knowledge to shareNot sure of knowledgeLoosing KnowledgeLoosing Power
The towards . If thehistoric culture does not support it doesn’t matter what channel we use or whatextrinsic motivational factor the management offer.enjoyment of helping othersReciprocitybonding etcrewardspromotionMore time and effort requiredDoes it really help otherNot getting knowledge in returnLosing knowledgeLosing power or leverage knowledge gave.factors of bank employees to use intra SM
Though the study was done with case banks in NorthAmerica, Europe and Asia, considering the limitation of studya larger sample can confirm possible findings betterIt would be interesting to investigate further on KS influencingfactors like sex, age or experience of respondents tomotivation towards KS via intra SM in banks.Also further research on “sensitive / properitary informationsharing and organisational response” on motivation to KSmay be interesting.
• Conference:– International Conference of Electronic Commerce(ICEC)• Journal:– International Journal of Electronic commerce