RDFa Introductory Course Session 1/4 What RDFa
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RDFa Introductory Course Session 1/4 What RDFa

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Session 1/4. What RDFa. An introductory one day workshop on RDFa and its relevance, organised and delivered by Netskills.

Session 1/4. What RDFa. An introductory one day workshop on RDFa and its relevance, organised and delivered by Netskills.

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RDFa Introductory Course Session 1/4 What RDFa RDFa Introductory Course Session 1/4 What RDFa Presentation Transcript

  • Generic model for the provision of metadata RDFa = Resource Description Framework in attributes HTML What is RDFa?
  • What is RDFa Session 1/4
  • Metadata It’s all about metadata ‣ data about data ‣ many and varied versions of metadata ‣ add background information, put things in context, add value, make much more useful by showing relevance ‣ different levels of metadata—may need pointer to further information to fully explain a piece of metadata or describe how to interpret ‣ enable ways of classifying, connecting, rating, structuring, promoting, that wouldn't be possible otherwise—especially if a common "vocabulary" for the metadata terms is used RDFa
  • Add meaning and context RDFa
  • Add meaning and context RDFa
  • RDFa
  • Metadata Increases specificity Improves common, wide, unambiguous understanding Content becomes computable RDFa
  • Benefits of having meaningful metadata Seamless use of data in a web page with desktop applications ‣ use of microformats tools to generate contact information in a web page ‣ viewing of web page containing microformats using Firefox and Operator extension: https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/4106 ‣ transfer of data in the web page to desktop address book http://microformats.org/code-tools http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HCard
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 L T M L H X M D L pt T M cr i s X H va as J a em ch S S ic C S a nt m eb Se w a x Q L a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 L T M L H X M D L pt T M cr i s X H va as J a em ch S S ic C S a nt m eb Se w a x Q L a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M D L pt T M cr i s X H va as J a em ch S S ic C S a nt m eb Se w a x Q L a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M cr i s X H va as J a em ch S S ic C S a nt m eb Se w a x Q L a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M Need for standards and common vocabularies cr i s X H va as J a em ch S S ic C S a nt m eb Se w a x Q L a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M Need for standards and common vocabularies cr i s X H va as Early vocabularies J a em ch S S ic C S a nt m eb Se w a x Q L a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M Need for standards and common vocabularies cr i s X H va as Early vocabularies J a em ch Resource Description Framework S S ic C S a nt m eb Se w a x Q L a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M Need for standards and common vocabularies cr i s X H va as Early vocabularies J a em ch Resource Description Framework S S ic C S a nt m eb RDF files and separate metadata records Se w a x Q L a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M Need for standards and common vocabularies cr i s X H va as Early vocabularies J a em ch Resource Description Framework S S ic C S a nt m eb RDF files and separate metadata records Se w a x Q L Issues with RDF a j AR SP N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M Need for standards and common vocabularies cr i s X H va as Early vocabularies J a em ch Resource Description Framework S S ic C S a nt m eb RDF files and separate metadata records Se w a x Q L Issues with RDF a j R S PA Microformats and similar grassroots driven pragmatic solutions N W L S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M Need for standards and common vocabularies cr i s X H va as Early vocabularies J a em ch Resource Description Framework S S ic C S a nt m eb RDF files and separate metadata records Se w a x Q L Issues with RDF a j R S PA Microformats and similar grassroots driven pragmatic solutions N W L Embedded metadata S O O J RDFa
  • Metadata evolution on the web 9 2 The World Wide Web—HTML, HTTP, URLs 1 9 Primitive metadata, some semantics about a document L T M L H X M Use of meta tags in head of HTML document D L pt T M Need for standards and common vocabularies cr i s X H va as Early vocabularies J a em ch Resource Description Framework S S ic C S a nt m eb RDF files and separate metadata records Se w a x Q L Issues with RDF a j R S PA Microformats and similar grassroots driven pragmatic solutions N W L Embedded metadata S O O J RDFa RDFa
  • What is RDFa? RDFa = Resource Description Framework in attributes http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-syntax/ http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer/
  • What is RDFa? Generic model for the provision of metadata RDFa = Resource Description Framework in attributes http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-syntax/ http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer/
  • What is RDFa? Generic model for the provision of metadata RDFa = Resource Description Framework in attributes HTML http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-syntax/ http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer/
  • Google webmaster help pages on RDFa Marking up content using RDFa RDFa is a way to label content to describe a specific type of information, such as a restaurant review, an event, a person, or a product listing. These information types are called entities. Each entity has a number of properties. In general, RDFa uses simple attributes in XHTML tags (usually with <span> or <div>) to assign brief and descriptive names to entities and properties. http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=146898
  • Entities Entities supported by Google i.e. Google provides a standard set of properties for each of the following: ‣ person ‣ organisation ‣ event ‣ review ‣ recipe Each corresponding set of properties, that can be assigned using RDFa in a web page, is recognised by Google crawler/spider software and handled in a special way when search results that include the web page are listed (rich snippets). The entities and properties are visible to both human readers and computers! http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=99170
  • Google’s properties for the “person” entity http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?answer=146646
  • Marking up content with RDFa (extended HTML) The essence of RDFa... ... is to provide a set of attributes that can be used to carry metadata in an XML language (hence the 'a' in RDFa). These attributes are: ‣ about—a URI or CURIE specifying the resource the metadata is about ‣ rel and rev—specifying a relationship or reverse-relationship with another resource ‣ href, src and resource—specifying a related resource ‣ property—specifying a property for the content of an element ‣ content—optional attribute that overrides or supplements the (HTML) content of the element when using the property attribute ‣ datatype—optional attribute that specifies the datatype of text specified with the property attribute ‣ typeof—optional attribute that specifies the type(s) of the subject (the resource that the metadata is about) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RDFa
  • Thinking it through... Producing RDFa ‣ identify entities ‣ identify entity properties ‣ identify an appropriate source of entity and property descriptions (vocabulary, namespace, metadata set, schema, ontology, taxonomy—all used loosely interchangeably) ‣ markup content using RDFa HTML attributes to provide references to entity and property types in chosen vocabulary and the corresponding content that describes each entity instance and property value ‣ ensure nesting of markup implies correct semantic meaning RDFa
  • Simple RDFa web page <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#"> <head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"> <title>Simple RDFa example</title> </head> <body> <div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person"> My name is <span property="v:name">George Munroe</span>, also known online as <span property="v:nickname">mungeo</span>. I am involved in several ventures but my home web site is at: <a href="http://www.platypusconsultancy.com" rel="v:url">www.platypusconsultancy.com</a>. I live in <span rel="v:address"> <span typeof="v:Address"> <span property="v:locality">Donegal</span>, <span property="v:region">Ulster</span> </span> </span> and work as a <span property="v:title">consultant trainer</span> at <span property="v:affiliation">Netskills</span>. </div> </body> </html> RDFa
  • CSS styles can be added in usual way—use class for <span> blocks... <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Simple RDFa example</title> <meta name="description" content="A very simple RDFa web page, using Google webmaster guidelines"> <style type="text/css"> <!-- body { font: normal 14px Verdana, sans-serif; background-color: #99ccff; } a.url, a.url:visited { text-decoration: none; color: #ffffff; background-color: #000000; } a.url:hover { color: #000000; background-color: #ffffff; } .name { font-size: 1.5em; color: #119933; } .nickname { font-size: 1.5em; color: #993311; font-style: italic; } .address { font-size: 1.5em; color: #113399; } .title { font-size: 1.5em; color: #991199; } .affiliation { font-size: 1.5em; color: #999911; } --> </style> </head> RDFa
  • RDFa markup Get headings right, XHTML good practice, RDFa data type dictionary <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"> http://rdfa.info/wiki/How-to-validate
  • RDFa markup Validate markup using W3C service http://validator.w3.org/
  • Practical exercise Creating an HTML page containing RDFa ‣ use Notepad or a similar text editor on your PC to create the sample RDFa file provided by Google in the webmaster help pages, but including information about yourself ‣ use the W3C validator to check that all markup in your file is correct ‣ open this file with a web browser on your PC and verify that the information appears correctly (to human readers) ‣ edit your sample file to add additional properties and entities, select some additional sample material from the Wikipedia RDFa introduction if you have sufficient time to experiment ‣ after each edit verify that the markup is valid and that the information appears correctly when viewed with a web browser
  • RDFa markup Most common mistakes Not specifying the XHTML+RDFa DTD ‣ <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http:// www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd"> Forgetting to declare prefix mappings ‣ <div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person"> The about attribute should resolve to a URL ‣ all RDFa subjects are URLs, absolute or relative RDFa XHTML markup should be well formed ‣ if a document is not well formed then parsers may have difficulty producing the correct output http://rdfa.info/wiki/Common-publishing-mistakes