Review a policy related to education of your country in the following respect. Guidelines Implementation Constraints and Recommendation
Review a policy related to education of your country in the following respect. Guidelines Implementation Constraintsand Recommendation By Mohamed Ahmed Nur MED. MASTER OF EDUCATION MAY.20121Page
INTRODUCTION The recent complex changes and education trends in the world work and society calls for proper implementation of guidance services in Somalia particularly in the school system. Some of these trends are unstable homes, poor academic performance, drug abuse, high risk sexual exploitation, cultism; kidnapping e.t.c of latest concern to the government and stakeholders of education is the trend where some graduates of primary school and secondary school are unable to pass common entrance examinations into secondary and tertiary levels. Also, some graduates of the tertiary institutions are no longer fit into the labor market because of unemployment and underemployment among others. This trend calls for proper implementation of Guidance services in Somalia, to remedy the sorry situation. The Government in realization of this need has in the National Policy on Education (2009), stated that it is desirable to provide Guidance in each post- primary secondary school in Somalia. Also, FAI (1990) supported the idea as Minister of Education by saying that a mandatory student Guidance Service should be established in all Somali Institutions of Higher learning because through such services, the true conditions of the Somalia Economy and its ever increasing labor market demands will be met by students as employees or employers of labor in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy. Also noted that developmental needs of young people call for proper guidance in these issues: Developing concepts of good values, and desirable behavior in society.Understanding personal assets and liabilities. Making plans for deep personal relationship. Making good vocational plans for the future. This needs of2 youths call for proper implementation of guidance services. Other areas of needsPage
in Somalia are areas where manpower is in short .supply such as engineering, agriculture, architecture, medicine and aviation; these areas call for guidance of youths in order to reduce the problem of unskilled and incompetent workforce. CONCEPTS DEFINITION Some basic concepts would be clearly defined to give clear direction for adequate implementation of guidance services by stakeholders, these concepts are guidance. Guidance literally means to "guide", inform, direct, watch over, aid and assist individual, students in making choices, adjustments and solving problems they encounter in teaching and learning situations." The individual is assisted to understand, accept and use his abilities, aptitudes and interests to achieve his goals and aspirations. Guidance therefore is a process of helping individuals to understand themselves and their world. It is developmental in nature, the individual is assisted to understand, accept and use his abilities, aptitudes, and it is an integral part of the education process where students are assisted to understand themselves, their abilities, interests and goals. Guidance held the individual to view himself objectively and realistically thus he/she get self-insight, motivation for wise decision-making skills. The major goal of guidance is facilitation of personal development of the individual/student. Guidance services therefore should be properly implemented at all stages of the educational process from primary to tertiary level. The individual is assisted to understand his feelings, thinking and behaviors particularly behaviors that make him to live a happy life. It is more private and confidential than guidance, hence it is known as the nucleus of the guidance programmed. Counseling helps the individual to take an honest look at himself, locate his strengths and weaknesses, consider those feelings, thought and behavior patterns in the context of laws, rules and regulations approved by society.3Page
Counseling makes him to consider alternates in the light of existing facts and information to make an informed, wise and personal decision. Counseling aids growth, independent thinking and self-reliance. The individual/student understands what he can do with his head, hands and soul that are of great benefits to him and the society. Counseling makes the individual to be self- directed and self-actualized, hence he can solve his problems when assisted. The National Policy on Education (2009) again pointed out the guidance services, are important education services that are essential for successful implementation of the Somalia educational system. It advocated setting up guidance services as earlier mentioned in all post-primary schools with professionally trained counselors to administer such services. Equity and inclusive education policy The ministry expects each board, by the beginning of the 2010–11 school year (September 2010) for example, to have in place equity and inclusive education policy that addresses the eight areas of focus, a guideline on religious accommodation, and an implementation plan. Policy review A board may need to revise or expand upon an existing equity and/or antiracism/ ethno cultural policy or develop a new one. As well, during its cyclical process of reviewing and revising its policies, a board is expected to take steps to align all its other policies and procedures (e.g., on safe schools, student discipline, staff hiring) with its equity and inclusive education policy. This process will help the board to embed the principles of equity and inclusive education in all aspects of board and school operations.4Page
Continuous improvement The ministry expects a board to demonstrate continuous improvement such that, wherever a board starts, progress is evident on an annual basis towards the goal of embedding the equity and inclusive education policy into the operations of the board. A board is expected, at a minimum, to meet the timelines stated in the strategy and PPM No. 119. However, the implementation of any action item may be accelerated for boards that are ahead of the ministry’s implementation timelines, particularly where the action item pertains to employment. Implementation plans Implementation plans need to be aligned with the strategy and should be developed in consultation with the full range of education and community stakeholders, including parents, staff, and students. A board may establish a committee, or may use an existing equity committee, that is representative of the community to assist in policy development and implementation The proper implementation of the guidance services in schools can only be effective, if all stakeholders can properly play their roles in the implementation process. The stakeholders or team players and requirements are listed as follows; The Federal and State Ministries of Education. Human Resource provision (Counselors, teachers, parents, students, other support staff). Provision of physical and material resources The provision of fund (Financial Resource Provision) The Society (Religious Bodies, NGOs) support.5Page
The Federal and State Ministries should play the leadership role of policy formulation and implementation. Consequently in the year 1988, the Federal Ministry of Education at the meeting of the National Council on Education set up the following policy guidelines for states to implement concerning guidance and services in Somali schools. 1. States should intensify training programmers to produce enough guidance for all post primary institutions within the state. 2. Train career masters/mistresses using the criteria spelt out in the taskforce report on guidance interim measure before the production of adequate qualified guidance. 3. States are to use their scholarship schemes in training guidance at Bachelor and Master of Education levels. 4. Federal Government would also train more guidance at Masters Level through her yearly scholarship programmed. 5. All qualified guidance should be redeployed to function as full time guidance in schools and not used as teachers of subjects. 6. States should have guidance units/sections in the Ministries of Education headed by a trained qualified guidance. 7. States should create separate budgetary allocation for implementing guidance services and programmers, in all levels of operation namely (Ministry, District and School levels). 8. The implementation of guidance services in the state should be supervised, monitored and evaluated on regular basis. These policies are yet to be adequately implemented. This paper suggests that the states should target having at least one guidance per school. Also, the state should develop a "model/standard guidingcentre" with modern equipment and infrastructure in the state capital for schools in the state to copy or emulate. This "model guiding centre" should carry out major guidance6 services/programmers that will act as a basic pattern/guide to all otherPage
schools in the state. The Federal Government is to assume the leadership role of policy formulation and the State Government of setting up of one "model Guidance centre" in her capital city for all schools in the state to use a guide. The implementation of Guidanceservices and programmers requires adequate funding which is the key factor for proper implementation of the guidance services, the areas that should be funded are training of human resources through scholarship scheme at Bachelor and Masters level. Training career Masters/Mistresses and provision of adequate allowances for the school guidance committee or team. The school guidance committee should be made up of the following members; 1. The principal, who should be the chairman 2. The Counselor, who should be the Secretary 3. The HODs for Science, Arts, Commerce and Technical vocational subject’s members. 4. Senior House Master/Mistress -Member 5. Physical Education Teacher - Member 6. The School Medical Personnel/Nurse - Member 7. Representative of the Parents Teachers Association(PTA) and students representative when necessary –members. The role of the guidance committee will be to assist each school in planning, organizing and mapping out strategies for effective implementation of guidance programs in their schools. They will also assist the school on issues relating to students values, behavior reports, and procurement of physical facilities support, encouraging smooth and cordial relationship between the guidance and the school personnel and parents, in the implementation of the guidance services and program delivery. Other relevant personnel that can work7Page with the Guidance are computer literate typist who will do correspondence work
and also assist in the gathering of educational, vocational, personal, social information and running other errands for the counselor particularly in reaching out to students, teachers and parents in the school and outside the school community. Provision of Physical and Material ResourcesFacilities The Guidance should be given a standard office located in a place where privacy is possible. At least two rooms should be provided, the clerical staff room and the consulting room for counseling. The office should be modestly furnished and comfortable. The basic furniture provision expected in such an office is as follows; Bulletin Board or Notice Board, Bookshelves, Suggestion box for students to slot in their needs and concerns. Special cabinets for storing and retrieving students cumulative record folders. Filling cabinets for files.Audiovisual materials such as projectors, computers, radio and cassettes.Connection to internet facilities/school net. Computer Discs (CDs), empty tapes, desks and laptops. A small library shelf with books, magazines, journals, newspapers and career/vocational information guides. This library holding should be relevant to guidance practice and current. Psychological tests such as scholastic, aptitude and intelligence tests, achievement and mental ability tests, interest, inventories to measure (expressed interest, manifest interest, tested interest and invented interest tests). Personality inventories for detecting normal and maladjusted personalities and self-concepts. Non-test instruments such as anecdotal records, observation and interview schedules and the personal data perform for getting information on student’s background such as parents’ status, salary education, nature of work and other relevant information. These material resources are listed in8 details, so that schools will make adequate budget provision for procurement ofPage
the .materials. Other relevant records/documents that should be in the Counselor’s office are continuous assessment records for all classes. Proceedings and communiqué of workshops, seminars, conferences and talks within the state and from other states. These documents/papers should be put together and bound into a volume for reference, when needed. Also, Psychological tests should be procured or developed e.g. MOPS, ATAS, SHI, vii etc.For effective implementation of guidance services. The roles of other major stakeholders in the implementation of the guidance services are summarized as follows; 1. The principal should assume a leadership role by being interested in the services/programs. 2. He should assist the guidance be effective in implementing the program. 3. He should ensure that a good rapport exists between the counselors and other stakeholders, by supervising, monitoring as well as evaluating the counselor’s work in the school. The guidance role is summarized as follows; Giving students information, guidance and counsel on educational vocational/occupational/career, social, personal/group concerns and some issues of students’ development problems and capacity building. The guidance should render also the following services to students; Educational services such as issuance of transcripts, vocational/occupation, referral services, placement service helping students to choose (subjects, courses and in class selection). Curriculum development or improvement, continuous assessment program. He should help students in development of good study skills and habits. Help students to choose right subject combinations.9Page Advising school teachers, and administrators.
Organizing orientation and remedial programmers for new students. Helping students to get information concerning further studies. Assisting students to facewith success challenging subjects. Helping students to face and cope with examination anxiety and anxiety when speaking in class or in public or wherever they are called to speak in the" school community or society. Assisting students to use the library effectively. Making occupational information available to students. Helping students to organize and use their time and resources effectively. Helping students to develop proper decision making and leadership skills and a host of other life and social skills students can be assisted to get, if they are encouraged to consult the guidance for help because counseling is a developmental process, in which one individual (the guidance) provides to another individual or group (the client), guidance and encouragement, challenge and inspiration in creatively managing and resolving practical, personal and relationship issues, in achieving goals, and in self-realization which only counselors can handleeffectively. It is suggested that the following important services be offered in every school from primary to tertiary level. 1. Orientation service/program for new students 2. Study skills examination phobia/anxiety skills 3. Decision making, healthy interrelationship skills particularly between boys and girls. 4. Remedial and referral guidance programs 5. Vocational and occupational information guidance programs 6. Placement service (counsel on choice of subjects, class and course selection programmers).10 7. Stress management and management of time and resources programs)Page 8. Use of library, textbooks, internet search programs
9. Local research into educational, vocational and personal social problems, concerns of students in schools at all levels. 10. Organizing seminars, talks, workshops, conferences at least annually, this will help stakeholders to get adequate information for proper implementation of guidance and counseling services in all schools in the state. Also support and 11. Encouragement of counselors to do their best, in implementing the program. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS It is clear from all, we have discussed and examined that the implementation of guidance services and programs in schools is an enormous task thatrequires concerted effort by all stakeholders. Stakeholders therefore should totally accept to do their best, be focused and committed to follow the principles and ethics of the profession, have mutual trust and respect for each other as a team in their working relationship. Remove suspicion on the activities of counselors, encourage and support committee counselors to do their best as11 counselors.Page
Encourage and support counselors, but have the courage to call them to order when they stray. Always maintaining a good working relationship with counselors, to be able achieve the counseling and guidance goal of assisting students to critically examine themselves to understand their positive and negative feelings of fear, anxiety, and value orientation for adequate personality development and growth which helps the school to be more productive. Finally, is also recommended that all resources (physical, social, economic and human) needed for the implementation of the -guidance and counseling program in schools be provided by the stakeholders in and outside the school community. References Blatchford. P &Mortimore.P. (1994).The Issue of Class Size For Young Children in the School: What Can We Learn from Research? Oxford Press. UK. De Grauwe. A. (1999).Improving School Efficiency: The Asian Experience.An ANTRIEP Report. Paris: IIEP/ UNESCO.12Page Ontario human rights Code R.S.O. (1990). Available at www.OHRC.on.ca.
Or www.e-s.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_90h19_e.htm. Rummens. J.A.(2004). Operationalizing Race and Its Related Grounds in Ontario. Canada. Thornton. N. (2000). School Leadership in A Challenging Time. Presentation made at the ANTIRIEP seminar, Shanghai, Sep 19-21 2000.13Page