Networked Protest Individuals. ACitizenship Typology of PersonalizedMedia UsePresentation at „Protest and the Media“ University of Westminster, London12-13 June 2013Dr. Mundo Yang, University of Siegen
Research Project >Consumer Netizens< 2011-2014• Media Diaries (Couldry/Markham) Participation Diaries• Eventually, 26 persons, diaries (8 weeks long), interviews• Eligible: persons who consume ethically, and use Internet, atleast sometimes.• Insights about everyday activities of individual consumer• Insights about everyday activities of individual consumernetizens, protest, engagement in a wide sense.• On the individual level: How do citizens engage in theireveryday lives? Special focus on political consumerism,protest and online-practices. Consumer Netizens• Looking for many different types.
Today‘s Presentation• Research Question: Personalization and online-mediatization of protest engagement?• Two theoretical sources:
First, Connective Action Approach (Bennett/Segerberg)• Individual Level:Personalization, Lifestyle-Orientation instead of collectivism• Collective Level:Personal Social Networks online, as well as offline, instead of fixedPersonal Social Networks online, as well as offline, instead of fixedoffline-organization• Macro-Level/Organizational Field-Level:Loose, diverse networks of individuals/issues instead ofmobilization en bloc
Second, Masspersonal Communication (O‘Sullivan 2005)• Specification of terms like network, swarm, crowd, in orderto denote specific communication constellations on the net.• Different to mass media: Static, dyadic, ego-alter, sender-receiver-communication• More dynamic, shifting constellations of ego-alter-alteri,triadic: you and me, and potentially, everybody else, too.triadic: you and me, and potentially, everybody else, too.• Typical Example: Jonah Peretti vs. Nike, sneakers withsweat-shop logo. Publication of personal Email-Communication via the net.• Drift between personal and public communication, individualand mass.
• 1. Connective Action Approach (Bennett/Segerberg),lifestyle-politics, individualization/personalizationbeyond collectivism/organization• 2. Masspersonal Communication (O‘Sullivan 2005):• 2. Masspersonal Communication (O‘Sullivan 2005):network, swarm, crowd, cascades: More dynamic,shifting constellations of ego-alter-alteri, triadic: youand me, and potentially, everybody else, too.• Beyond mass media: One <-> Many, dyadicProf. Dr. Sigrid BaringhorstUniversität Siegen
Three Case Studies onConnective Action, Media, and Protest• Partial analysis of participation diaries and tape-• Partial analysis of participation diaries and tape-recorded interviews• Additionally, analyses of tape-recorded interviews withtwo prominent consumer netizens• --> Typology of four different forms of networkedindividualism/citizenshipProf. Dr. Sigrid BaringhorstUniversität Siegen
I. Participation Diarists: Participation inE-Signature-Campaigns (ESCs)
Prof. Dr. Sigrid BaringhorstUniversität Siegen
• Common in the German-speaking Realm• Campact (~860.000)• Avaaz (world-wide 15 Mio.)• NGO-driven Campaigns: e.g. Foodwatch• NGO-driven Campaigns: e.g. Foodwatch• Organized Connective Action (Meso-Level)• (Individualized Connective Action (ICA) not relevant, since allfollow E-Signature-Campaigs of NGOs/platforms)
Micro-Level-Usage• 17 of the 26 participation diarists reportedparticipation in ESCs• Two theory-driven types according to CollectiveAction (ColA), Organized Connective ActionAction (ColA), Organized Connective Action(OCA)
First Type: ColA (6): NGO-PeopleFraming:• A) Framework of orientation towards organized milieu:Active Members of environmental organizations and politicalorganizations with a sustainability orientation (e.g. green party). Sharecollective political consciousness, world-views. Speak a lot in terms ofgeneral values and global problems. Socialization in politicalorganizations.• B) Collective Action Frames in online-signature campaigns: Unpersonaldescriptions, emphasis of staging NGOs. Comparative Horizons: CompareESCs with the normal mode of organized protest: Rene Rembert organizesa local e-signature-campaign, but street protest is more real. ESCs is justa convenient alternative. Markus Breuer frames ESC as his emergencysolution to lack of time, less important than his prior intensive offline-activism.• ESCs as second best options, as clicktivism.
Communication Constellation:C) mass media-like:ESC-Platform <-> ParticipantsOne <-> ManyOne <-> Many>>At Campact, I have signed a petition fortaxing the rich.http://campact.de/vst/sn2/signer<<
Framing:• A) Framework of orientation: Personal lifestyle/social network. Various motifs:Vegan/Vegetarian ethics, animal rights, sustainable job perspective, net-politics/netizens. Main perspective: Me-my-friends-and-my-family in accordancewith general ethical standards. Avoid doing harm to other people, animals and theenvironment.• Anne Mond about her ethical consumerism #00:17:07-0#:Second Type: OCA: Organized Connective Action (11)• >> In the first place, I do that for myself, of course, but of course, too, because Iwant to change something, I want to better the world, because like the world isnow, I don‘t like it. I think this hasn’t got a future, if there is no change. If allpeople, if everybody thinks, alas, I can‘t change anything on my own and stays likethat, then nothing will change, of course. Instead I have got to say on my own, ok, Ido it now and maybe that motivates someone else, to say: „Yeah, if she can do it, Ican do it, too!” <<
Framing:• B) Personal Action Frames. Lifestyle-centred perspective on ESCsbeyond/without organizations:• Personal efficacy: Anne Mond „A good deed every day“ and „Many amickle makes a muckle“, Happy to be the 83.795th signer (Monicamickle makes a muckle“, Happy to be the 83.795th signer (MonicaBayram)• Criticize lack of effectiveness, (Bellinger, Inka Weiß, Monika Bayram)• Personal needs: Criticism of being spammed (Claudia Maas, LukasBellinger).• Thematic absence of or explicit distance to political organizations(explicit Marc Kunze)
Communication Constellation:• C) Additional use of masspersonal communicationsocial media• Mobilizing your friends for ESCs. Building personal• Mobilizing your friends for ESCs. Building personalpublics:• Motives: Counterbalancing mass media agenda, activatefriends and followers for moral issues (Sarah Damm),
Comparing OCA and ColA• OCA=personal empowerment, ColA=self-criticalslacktivists• OCA-Group: Women play a more leading and active rolemasspersonal communication.• Critical remark: Social Media: >Mess-Personal-Communication<?, e.g. Philipp Greif bemoans justCommunication<?, e.g. Philipp Greif bemoans just„cats, ponies, and Michael Jackson“• NGOs as guarantees for validity. OCA-people activechecking the up-to-dateness, validity of ESCs (e.g. Hoaxor problematic: Kony 2012)
II. Freimüller-Shitstorm/Smart Storm in aNutshell
• Switzerland: Legislation of restriction Carbon Dioxide-, CO2-Emissions in industries• Corporate lobbying-campaign of economiesuisse (federation of enterprises) againstCO2-law, CO2-list with 200 supporting corporations• Freimüller (former Greenpeace Campaigner, now runs campaign service agency)identifies vulnerable corporations on this CO2-lists with Social Media presence,selects Mammut, outdoor-manufacturer with sustainable-image strategy• Posts the following on the Facebook-Wall:>>Dear Mammut team,On http://www.mammut.ch/de/cr_sustainable_ecological.html you write aboutsustainability and climate protection. How come that, at the same time, you activelyagitate on http://co2.ch/firmen-verbaende.php?id=m against the introduction of theCO2-law? What a shame!<<• Starts with max. 50 friends a campaign (only 400 fans). Mammut resigns one daylater from the list. Next step, further corporations on the list. Eventually, theeconomiesuisse campaign is abandoned.
Prof. Dr. Sigrid BaringhorstUniversität Siegen
A case of Individualized Connective Action?Framing:• A) Freimüller as part of environmental activism, collective orientation, NGO-Campaign-Style• B) Personal Action Frame, indignant facebook –fans, customers, citizensCommunication Constellation:• C) Tactical use of masspersonal communication, personal communication withcorporations in front of potential mass audience on the Web, but also latercorporations in front of potential mass audience on the Web, but also latercooperation with print, TV, and other media. Offline-events.• Picture: Dear Sunrise (Mobile Telefone Company) I quit!• >>Ten years before, I could have called them, …. What elsecould I have done to inform all the people I know?<<
III. Raphael Fellmer: MasspersonalConnective ActionIndividual Lifestyle = Public Project:Prefigurative Live Without Money.Informs public through own Blog and Mass MediaStrict reuse of wasted goods, DIY,exchanging, sharing goods and services
Framing:• A) Framework of Orientation: Me saving the world –without Organisations.• Epiphany/awakening moment/cognitive liberation andself-radicalisation during a sailing trip to Latin Americaself-radicalisation during a sailing trip to Latin America• Originally founded an small NGO, but then dropped it• NGOs: Problem of means and ends. You need to usewrong means to achieve right results. (Cooperationwith state and market)• Ergo: Dropping the NGO-approach, start being your ownidol
Framing:• B) Personal Action Frame:• Personal perception of social and environmental crisis• Personal experience of convivial, market-free lifestyles• Personal experience of convivial, market-free lifestyleson his trip• Deep personal feeling of responsibility green milieu• Solution: Consequently, money-free, sustainablelifestyle
Communication Constellation:• C) Strong media resonance to his Blog and Social Mediaactivities. http://de.forwardtherevolution.net/• Coverage in TV, Radio, Newspapers.• http://bit.ly/xQWu0n• http://bit.ly/xQWu0n• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATmPO6_Nk54• The Blog functions as a personal public, mixing privateand public concerns, giving practical tips. Blog roll to10 other Bloggers who live(d) without money (worldwide)