The computer as we know it today had its beginning with 19th century by English mathematics professor name “Charles Babbage”. He designed the Analytical Engine and it was this design that the basic framework of the computers of today are based on.
The word “computer” comes from the word “compute” which means “to calculate” . Hence people usually consider a computer to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic operations at high speed. A computer is an electronic machine that accepts data, stores and processes data into information. The computer is able to work because there are instructions in its memory directing it. It is an information processing machine. The main part of computer are HARDWARE and SOFTWARE. All computer system can perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, styling and outputting data and information.
Super computer Mainframe computer Personal computer Super computer This computer is: Largest, Fastest, Most powerful and Most expensive computer.
Mainframe computer This is the little smaller and less powerful then super computer, but like super computer it is also expensive. This types of computer handling all kinds of scientific and business applications. Personal computer This is the computer that most people use in their daily lives. This computer is much smaller, less powerful and less expensive than the supercomputer and the mainframe computer.
Speed: A computer is a very high speed data processing machine capable of operating at electronic speeds. Most instruction in a computer are carried out in less than a million of a second. Accuracy: Computer are always produce accurate results although while working at high speeds. Instruction execution is carried out without any mistakes. Storage: Computer can store large amount of data and information in its memory. At any stage there would be no data loss or data corruption once it is stored.
Decision making: Computer also helps to chose best decision from various alternatives. Automatic: A computer is an automatic machine, it is works by itself without human intervention. Versatility: It is one of the most wonderful characteristic of computer. In this one moment is preparing result, next moment is chat an online, another is listening music etc. No feelings:Computer are devoid of emotions. They have no feelings and no instincts because they are machine.
First generation (1940-1956) Second generation (1956-1963) Third generation (1964-1971) Fourth generation (1971-Present) Fifth generation (Present-Beyond)
FIRST GENERATION (1942-1956) It used vacuum tubes for circuitry & magnetic drums for memory They were very expensive Difficult to operate It relied on machine language They could only solve one problem at a time Generated a lot of heat Input was based on punch card and paper tape And output was displayed after long time UNIVAC and ENIAC are examples of 1st generation computer
SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963) It used Transistors It was smaller , faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient, more reliable than their first generation It moved from machine language to symbolic or assembly language It also relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output This generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.
THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971) They were smaller and more powerful than second generation They had faster and larger primary and secondary storage as compared to second generation They developed the integrated circuit Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips which increased the speed and efficiency of computers It instead of punched card and printouts and used keyboards and monitors with an operating system , which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time
FOURTH GENERATION (1971-PRESENT) The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers They consumed less power than 3rd generation They had larger and faster primary and secondary storage as compared to 3rd generation They were more reliable and less prone to hardware failures than 3rd generation From the CPU and memory to input and output controls It also saw the development of GUIs, mouse and handheld devices.
FIFTH GENERATION (Present and Beyond) It based on artificial intelligence It also more powerful, cheaper, reliable and easier to use desktop machine It easier to produced commercially Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come It main goal to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self- organization.
Input Unit Storage Unit OUTPUT RESULT CONTROL UNIT CPU ALU
INPUT: It accepts instructions and data from outside It converts these instructions and data in computer acceptable form It supply the converted instructions and data to computer system for further processing.STORAGE UNIT Data and instructions required for processing Received all data and information from input device Intermediate results of processing After processing kept all data inside the computer system Storage all instruction and data into primary and secondary storage
OUTPUT: It accepts the results produced by a computer, which are in coded form Convert them to human acceptable form And it supplies the converted to outside world Again the output is also stored inside the computer for further processingARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT: (ALU) The actual processing of data and instruction are preformed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by ALU are: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logical and comparison
CONTROL UNIT: It determined the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed. It stores the all information in the main memory, interprets the instructions and issues signals causing other units of the system to execute them. It manage and coordinates the operations of all other components of the computer systemCENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT: (CPU) It is combination of ALU and CU It also known as the brain of any computer system It takes all major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations just like a brain.
ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: High speed Unemployment Accurate result Lack of security More expensive More storage capacity Help to take decision Give automatic result Multiple uses No feelings
In Tourism In Bank In Education In Entertainment In Business In Transportation
In tourism: Railways and airline reservations for booking ticket In hotels used it to check availability of roomsIn banks: Terminals are provided in the branch and the main computer is located centrally It use take information such as current balance, deposits, savings, overdraft, interest charges etc It use in bank for payment and received cash It use to keep all information of employees , customer etc in banks.
In Education: It posses the knowledge given to them by experts It helps to keep all information about students in any college, schools etc. It help to us in teaching by ppt, internet etcIn industry: It helps to keep all information about employees and officer It use to record all transaction about industry as like a/c, finance etc. It help to tests quality control and manufacturing of product
In transportation: In this it measure the all information plane’s altitude , position, speed, height and direction and to keep the plane flying in the right direction In fact the auto-pilot feature has made the work of pilot much easyIn entertainment: Computer are also great entertainment as like various types of games like cricket, chess, football etc It use to see movies, listening songs etc In this also available brain test games