Witkin and the GET• Born: 2 August 1916 Died: 8 July 1979)• American psychologist, specialized in thespheres of cognitive psychology and learningpsychology.• Pioneer of the theory of cognitive styles andlearning styles.• GET stands for Group Embedded Test
Are you field dependent or fieldindependent?1. Do you spend less than three secondswatching yourself in a mirror? YES – NO2. On your birthday, do you like having aparty with all your friends? YES – NO3. When you read a text or article do youlike to comment about it with others?YES – NO4. Are you concerned if you don’t haveany likes on a picture you’ve posted inyour facebook account ? YES- NO5. Do you feel you learn better whenworking in groups? YES -NO
ANSWERS• More than 3 Yes: You are fielddependent• More than 3 No: You are fieldindependent• Only Yes: Extremely dependent.• Only No: Extremely independent.
SOCIALCHARACTERISTICS OFTHE FIELD DEPENDENT• Person oriented• Interested in otherpeople• Sensitive to other people• GregariousSOCIALCHARACTERISTICS OFTHE FIELDINDEPENDENT• More impersonal• Detached• Less sensitive• More aloof• Cerebral and objectoriented
Field dependent – Field independent• Personal Orientation• Impersonal orientation• Analytic• Holistic• Socially sensitive• Not so socially aware• FD• FI• FI• FD• FD• FI
Criticism• William and Burden (1997):“… There is no such thing as ‘intelligence’ or‘field dependence’ or ‘motivation’ but it cansometimes be convenient to treat such entitiesas if they do exist so that we can construct teststo measure them…’
To what extent cognitive style oflearning style affects the success (orotherwise) of learning a foreignlanguage?• The studies are not conclusive
CONCLUSIONS• There is no relation between cognitive styles andacademic achievement.• Teachers should be aware of the differentcognitive styles to guide students better.• Teachers should try to accomodate the cognitivestyles through varying ways of instructions.• Factors such as cultural background, age, sex andlevel of education seem to influence the style thelearner develops.
Presented by Liliana Melendez and Gerard Cooper
Learning a second language is acomplex process, which consists ofseveral factors.
Skehan (1989) mentioned five variablesamong which the independent onesare: Teaching Learner Context The learner variable consists of Individualfactors: Cognitive Affective Physical and Psychological
Among the Cognitivefactors, intelligence, languageaptitude, cognitive styles, and learningstrategies must be accounted for.
Skehan states that language aptitude isthe most consistent predictor of successin language learning; therefore, it is animportant factor which should bedeveloped.
Even though Krashen says thatlanguage aptitude is not connected toformal instruction, Skehan believes thatlanguage aptitude includes both. The way to develop language aptitudeis by means of adequate instruction,individual learning, and taking intoconsideration learner characteristicsand skills.
Definition Approaches or techniques learners use to try to learnan L2. They can be behavioral, mental and typicallyproblem-oriented.
Characteristics Contributes to the main goal: Communicativecompetence. Allows learners to become autonomous. Problem oriented. Not always observable and Often conscious. Can be taught- strategy training. Flexible