Conflict & negotiation


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Conflict & negotiation

  1. 1. Conflict and Negotiation 1
  2. 2. CONFLICT  Conflict is a situation in which two or more people disagree over issues of organizational substance and/or experience some emotional antagonism with one another There are two kind of conflicts: 1. Substantive Conflicts, is conflicts that occurs in the form of fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment 2. Emotional Conflicts, is conflicts that involves interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, and the like 2
  3. 3. LEVELS of CONFLICTS 1. Intrapersonal Conflicts, is conflicts that occurs within the individual due to actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations 2. Interpersonal Conflicts, is the conflicts that occurs between two or more individuals 3. Intergroup Conflicts, is conflicts that occurs among groups in a organization 4. Interorganizational Conflicts, is conflicts that occurs between organizations 3
  4. 4. Constructive and Destructive Conflicts  Constructive Conflicts, is conflicts that result in positive benefits to the group  Destructive Conflicts, is conflicts that works to the group’s or organization’s disadvantage 4
  5. 5. Conflicts Situations 1. Vertical Conflicts, is conflicts that occurs between hierarchy levels, 2. Horizontal Conflicts, is conflicts that occurs between person or group at the same hierarchy level 3. Line -staff Conflicts, is conflicts that occurs between line and staff representatives 4. Role Conflicts, is conflicts that occurs when the communication of task expectations proves inadequate or upsetting 5
  6. 6. CONDITIONS THAT CREATE CONFLICTS     Work-flow Interdependence, when a person or group must rely on task contributions from one or more others to achieve goals Power And/or Value Asymmetry, exists when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values Role Ambiguity or Domain Ambiguity, Resources Scarcity 6
  8. 8. CONFLICTS MANAGEMENT APPROACH Conflict resolution occurs when the reasons for a conflict are eliminated 1. Indirect Conflict Management Approach a. Appeals to common goals b. Hierarchical referral c. Organization Redesign d. Use of mythology and scripts 2. Direct Conflict management Techniques a. Lose-lose conflicts b. Win-lose conflicts c. Win-win Conflicts 8
  9. 9. INDIRECT APPROACH 1. Appeal to Common Goals, involves focusing the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion 2. Hierarchical Referral, use the chain of command for conflicts resolution problem are referred up the hierarchy for more senior manager to reconcile 9
  10. 10. INDIRECT APPROACH 3. Organizational Redesign, by decoupling, buffering, linking pins, and liaison group - Decoupling, involves separating or reducing the contact between two conflicting groups - Buffering is a conflict management approach that sets up inventories to reduce conflicts when inputs of one group are the outputs of another group - Linking Pins are persons who are assigned to manage conflict between groups that are prone to conflict - Liaison Groups are groups that coordinate the activities of certain units to prevent destructive conflicts between them 10
  11. 11. INDIRECT APPROACH 4. Scripts, is behavioral routines that become part of organization’s culture and Myths is proclamation or beliefs about situations that deny the necessity to make trade-offs in conflicts resolutions 11
  12. 12. DIRECT TECHNIQUES 1. Lose-lose Conflicts, occurs when nobody really gets what he or she wants, by Avoidance, Smoothing, and Compromise - Avoidance is where everyone pretends the conflict doesn’t really exist and hopes that it will simply go away - Smoothing involves playing down differences among conflicting parties and highlighting similarities and areas of agreement; it is also known as accommodation - Compromise occurs when each party involved in a conflict gives up something of value to the other 12
  13. 13. DIRECT TECHNIQUES 2. Win-lose Conflicts, occurs when one party achieves its achieves its desires at the expense and to the exclusion of the other party desires, by Competition, Authoritative Command - Competition is a conflict management technique whereby a victory is achieved through force, superior skill or domination - Authoritative Command is a direct conflict management technique where a formal authority dictates a solution and specify what is gained and lost by whom 13
  14. 14. DIRECT TECHNIQUES 3. Win-win Conflicts, is achieve by collaboration to address the real issues in a conflicts situations and the use of problem solving to reconcile differences. - Collaboration is a direct and positive approach to conflict management that involves a recognition by all the conflicting parties that something is wrong and needs attention through problem solving - Problem solving involves gathering and evaluating information in solving problems and making decisions 14
  15. 15. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT GRID Cooperative Smoothing or Accommodation Collaboration and Problem Solving Seeking true satisfaction of everyone’s concerns by working through Differences; finding and Compromise Solving problem Working towards so everyone gains partial satisfaction of as a results everyone’s concerns seeking acceptable rather than optimal solution that no one Competition or totally wins or loses Authoritative Letting the other’s wishes rule; smoothing over differences to maintain superficial Harmony Cooperativeness (attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns) Command Working Avoidance Uncooperative Downplaying disagreement, failing to participate in the situation, and/or staying neutral at all cost Unassertive against the wishes of the other party, fighting to dominate in win-lose competition, and/or forcing things to a favorable collusion through the exercise of authority Assertiveness (attempting to satisfy one’s own concern) Assertive 15
  16. 16. USE CONFLICTS MANAGEMENT STYLES      Collaboration and Problem Solving, used to gain true conflict resolution, time and other circumstances permitting Avoidance, used when an issue is trivial or more important issues are pressing or to let people cool down and regain perspective Authoritative Command, used when quick and decisive action is vital or when unpopular actions must be taken Accommodation, used when conflicts issues are more important to others than to oneself or when a person wants to build credits for use in later issues Compromising, used for temporary settlements to complex issues or to arrive at expedient solutions when time is limited 16
  17. 17. NEGOTIATION  Negotiation is the process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences  Four major action settings for negotiations: 1. Two Party Negotiation, manager negotiates directly with one other person 2. Group Negotiation, manager is a part of a group whose members are negotiating to arrive at a common decision 3. Intergroup Negotiation, manager is apart of a group that is negotiating with another group 4. Constituency Negotiation, manager involve negotiation with other person and each individual party represent a board constituency 17
  18. 18. ETHICAL NEGOTIATIONS  Since any negotiation involves with different preferences trying to reach a joint decision, ethical behavior is often an issue, but sometimes not.  Why people act unethically in negotiations: 1. Profit Motive, the desire of each party to get more 2. Sense of Competitions, the beliefs among negotiations parties that there are insufficient resources 3. Concerns for Justice, search by each party for outcomes defined as fair only from narrow perspective of one’s self-interests 18
  19. 19. EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS    Criterion 1: Quality, the negotiations results offer a quality agreement that is wise and truly satisfactory to all sides Criterion 2: Efficiency, the negotiations is efficient and no more time consuming or costly than absolutely necessary Criterion 3: Harmony, the negotiations is harmonious and fosters rather than inhibits good interpersonal relations 19
  20. 20. APPROACHES IN NEGOTIATION  Distributive Negotiation, is negotiation in which the focus is on positions staked out or declared by the parties involved who are each trying to claim certain portions of the available pie  Integrative Negotiation, is negotiation in which the focus is on the merits of the issues, and the parties involve try to enlarge the available pie rather than stake claims to certain portion of it 20
  21. 21. INTEGRATIVE AGREEMENT  Attitudinal Foundations of Integrative Agreement: 1. Each party must approach the negotiation with willingness to trust the other party 2. Each party must be willing to share information with the other party 3. Each party must willing to ask concrete question of the other party  Behavioral Foundations of Integrative Agreement: 1. Ability to separate people from problem 2. Ability to focus on interest 3. Ability to avoid making premature judgements 21 4. Ability to judge possible agreements
  22. 22. BARGAINING ZONE  Bargaining zone is the zone between one party’s minimum reservation point and the other party’s maximum reservation point in a negotiating situation BARGAINING ZONE 30,000 Ei 35,000 Gr 40,000 Er Ei Employer’s initial offers Gr Graduating senior’s minimum reservation point Er Employer’s maximum reservation offer Gi Graduating senior’s initial offers 45,000 Gi 22
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