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Human Trafficking And Globalization
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Human Trafficking And Globalization

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  • 1. “Trade in people and their  parts that involves the use of improper means- e.g. force, fraud, deception, coerci on, or the abuse of power or authority- to recruit or transport them within or across borders for the purposes of exploitation.” - UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2008
  • 2. Smuggling- unauthorized border crossings  Trafficking is a crime against a person, while  smuggling is the facilitated illegal entry from one country to another There is no coercion or forced labor involved in  smuggling In the eyes of the law, a trafficked person is seen  as a victim, while a smuggled person is seen as a criminal
  • 3.  Many types of people are trafficked  Age, gender, level of education  Many marginalized groups are at risk (ethnicity, nationality, class background)  Gender differences depending on type of work  Migrants are vulnerable, due to tight immigration laws and lack of knowledge about migration laws  Orphaned children especially vulnerable (from HIV or in areas of conflict)
  • 4. Economic  Social  Personal  Civil unrest  Political prosecution  Gender based  discrimination
  • 5. 1) Process 2) Means 3) End
  • 6. Process- Recruiting, harboring, moving, obtaining a person Traffickers include: ▪ Recruiters ▪ Recruitment agencies ▪ Transporters ▪ Middlemen- who ‘buy’ and ‘sell’ ▪ Debt collectors ▪ Employers
  • 7. Methods:  Through acquaintance/family  Newspaper adds  Fake employment agencies  Front businesses  Abduction
  • 8. Means – force, fraud, coercion  Low-risk enterprise for traffickers  Organized crime, mafia etc.  Informal networks  Small-scale or shot-term  Family based or freelance operations
  • 9. Methods:  Threats of deportation  Holding passports  Threats to family members  Isolation  Verbal, physical and sexual abuse  Giving drugs  Providing misinformation
  • 10. End – involentary servitude, debt bondage, slavery, sex trade Adults (varies)- Particularly Women-  Sweatshops  Domestic service  Factory work  Marriages  Agriculture  Sex trade  Organ harvesting  Hotel/motel housekeeping  Begging/peddling  Restaurant work
  • 11. Children- Sex trade Begging Work in mines Early marriages Soldiers Fishing Crime Jockeys
  • 12. Lack of data   Difficult to obtain data on trafficked persons  Majority seems to be women and children Estimates of numbers vary   Range from 500,00 to 4 million people trafficked per year
  • 13. Both Domestic and international  Generally from poor areas of developing  countries into comparatively wealthier ones  Several Regions- flow of trafficking: ▪ Europe and Eurasia ▪ Asia ▪ Latin America and US ▪ Middle East ▪ Africa *Traffic also among regions
  • 14. destination area source area To Middle East
  • 15. To US destination area source area To Middle East Africa
  • 16. destination area source area
  • 17. Criminal  Political  Anthropological  Sociological  Economic  Legal  Feminist 
  • 18.  Although human trafficking is not a new problem, the dynamics of globalization are fueling its growth  Though growing trade and effortless world travel  Humans as commodities, as part of quot;hyper- capitalismquot;  Incorporation into global market supply and demand  Global trade networks  As migration and transnationalism  Looking at a variety of motivating factors  Transnational networks
  • 19.  Influences the economic “push” and “pull”  Changing lures of immigration  Tight immigration laws: promote alternate migration practices  Trafficking becoming part of the global economy  Transnational network  Exploit uneven development
  • 20.  Combination of political corruption and organized crime promotes significant growth on global scale  Political instability/corruption -> vulnerability  Traffickers take advantage of  transparent borders,  broadband communication  Political/economic upheaval  Mass migrations
  • 21.  The global effort to combat human trafficking is organized around prevention, prosecution, and protection  Economic development, with a special emphasis on women and girls, constitutes perhaps the best long- term approach to combating human trafficking.  Prosecution of traffickers also has a strong prevention aspect. Breaking up trafficking networks and imprisoning traffickers stops the recruitment and movement of trafficked persons.  Between 2001 and 2005, the United States successfully convicted only 138 human traffickers (US DOJ, 2006
  • 22. A Slow War on Human Trafficking   Julia Mead, NY Times, May 2006 Globalization and Human Trafficking   Loring Jones, Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, v. 34, 2007 Human Trafficking:  Globalization, Exploitation, and Transnational Sociology,  Stephanie A. Limoncelli, Sociology Compass, v. 3, Dec 2008

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