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‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB): Water and Wetlands’, Presentation by Dr Daniela Russi, Policy analyst, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP). Multidisciplinary Research Week 2013. #MDRWeek.
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‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB): Water and Wetlands’, Presentation by Dr Daniela Russi, Policy analyst, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP). Multidisciplinary Research Week 2013. #MDRWeek.

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Multidisciplinary Research Week 2013 at the University of Southampton. #MDRWeek. World Water Day and International Year of Water Cooperation 2013. …

Multidisciplinary Research Week 2013 at the University of Southampton. #MDRWeek. World Water Day and International Year of Water Cooperation 2013.
‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB): Water and Wetlands’, Presentation by Dr Daniela Russi, Policy analyst, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP).
See the latest videos, interviews, pictures, tweets and views from the floor at: www.southampton.ac.uk/multidisciplinary

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  • 1. World Water Day: Water Cooperation Multidisciplinary Research Week 2013 ‘The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB): Water and Wetlands’, by Dr Daniela Russi, Policy analyst, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP).
  • 2. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB): Water and Wetlands Presentation of the Final Report dr. Daniela Russi Policy analyst Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) Friday 22 March 2013 World Water Day University of Southampton
  • 3. Presentation overview 1. TEEB & the TEEB for Water and Wetlands 2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing? 3. Measuring to integrate the values of water and wetlands into decision making 4. Wetlands and poverty alleviation 5. Recommendations: transforming our approach to water and wetlands
  • 4. Presentation overview 1. TEEB & the TEEB for Water and Wetlands 2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing? 3. Measuring to integrate the values of water and wetlands into decision making 4. Wetlands and poverty alleviation 5. Recommendations: transforming our approach to water and wetlands
  • 5. TEEB’s genesis, aims and progress G8+5 “Potsdam Initiative – Biological Diversity 2010” Potsdam The economic significance of the global loss of biological diversity Importance of recognising, demonstrating & responding to values of nature Engagement: ~500 authors, reviewers & cases from across the globe TEEB End User Reports Brussels 2009, London Interim Report Climate Issues TEEB W&W 2010 TEEB Books Update Nature & GE TEEB Synthesis TEEB OceansEcol./Env.Economicsliterature CBD COP 9 Input to Bonn 2008 UNFCCC 2009 India, Brazil, Belgium, Jap an & South Africa Sept. 2010 TEEB studies The BD COP 10 Netherlands, German Nagoya, Oct 2010 y, Nordics, Norway, I
  • 6. TEEB Water and Wetlands – available at http://www.teebweb.org/wetlands/ Core Team Case contributions Reviewers Discussions at Rio+20, Ramsar COP 11, CBD COP11Full Report: Russi D., ten Brink P., Farmer A., Badura T., Coates D., Förster J., Kumar R. and Davidson N. (2013).The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands. IEEP London, Brussels.Executive Summary: ten Brink P., Russi D., Farmer A., Badura T., Coates D., Förster J., Kumar R. and Davidson N.(2013) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands. Executive Summary.
  • 7. 1. TEEB & the TEEB for Water and Wetlands2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing?3. Measuring to integrate the values of water and wetlands into decision making4. Wetlands and poverty alleviation5. Recommendations: transforming our approach to water and wetlands
  • 8. What are wetlands? The broad definition of the Ramsar convention: Areas where the water table is at or near the surface level, or the land is covered by shallow water Areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6m Photo credit: Nick Davidson A list of islands or bodies of marine water deeper than 6m (e.g. coral reefs)The definition includes human-made wetlands (e.g. aquaculture, farmponds, inundated agricultural land)Inland wetlands cover at least 9.5 M km2 (i.e. 6.5% of the Earth)Inland and coastal wetlands cover a minimum of 12.8 M km2
  • 9. Wetlands & ecosystem servicesWithout wetlands, the watercycle, carbon cycle and nutrient cycleswould be significantly alteredWetlands provide water fordrinking, irrigation, energyproduction, forestry…They also provide multiple ESS(e.g. regulation of water quality andquantity, reduction of flood and droughtrisk, nutrient cycling, cultural ESS, …)
  • 10. The evidence base: range of values of ecosystem services Open oceans (14) Woodlands (21) Sources: de Groot et al 2012 building on TEEB 2010 Grasslands (32) Temperate Forest (58) Rivers and Lakes (15) Tropical Forest (96) Inland wetlands (168) Coastal systems (28) Coastal wetlands (139) Coral reefs (94) 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 Values of both coastal and inland wetland ecosystem services are typically higher than for other ecosystem types
  • 11. Wetlands : historical loss of natural capital Since 1900 the world has lost around 50% of its wetlands (UNWWAP 2003) and around 60% loss in Europe (EEA 2010)  Between 1980 and 2005, 20% of mangroves have disappeared. Some countries have lost up to 80% (FAO 2007) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/World_map_mangrove_distribution.png ~20% of the world’s coral reefs destroyed 24% of the remaining reefs under imminent risk of collapse through human pressures (Wilkinson C., 2004; Nellemann et al 2008)
  • 12. Consequence: loss of ESSLosses in human well-being and negative economicimpacts on communities, countries and business Photo credit: Nick Davidson We need to reverse this trend, as wetlands provide natural infrastructure that can help meet a range of policy objectives
  • 13. 1. TEEB & The TEEB for Water and Wetlands2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing?3. Measuring to integrate the values of water and wetlands into decision making4. Wetlands and poverty alleviation5. Recommendations: transforming our approach to water and wetlands
  • 14. Taking account of public goods can change what is the“right” decision on land/resource use US$ Based only on private gain, the “trade-off” Shrimp Farm /ha/yr choice favours conversion….. Mangroves $12,392/ha10000 after $9632/ha adding Storm public protection5000 benefits $1220/ha from Fishery $584/ha nursery $584/ha mangroves private profits private private 0 profits profits Net of public less costs of subsidies restoration needed after 5 years All values are NPV If public wealth is included, the “trade-off” choice over 9 years and a changes completely….. 10% discount -ve $11,172/ha rate, given in 1996 US$. Source: Barbier et al, 2007
  • 15. Instruments to manage & protect wetland ESS by integrating the values of water and wetlands into decision making Site management and investment Regulation and land-use planning, including establishment of PA and zoning, IWRM, ICZM, MSP Property rights (ownership, use, access, etc.) Market – based instruments: • Taxes, fees, charges, including subsidy reform • Tradable permit schemes, water banks • Liability rules • Payment for Ecosystem Services • Voluntary schemes, including offsets
  • 16. 1. TEEB & The TEEB for Water and Wetlands2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing?3. Measuring to integrate the values of water and wetlands into decision making4. Wetlands and poverty alleviation5. Recommendations: transforming our approach to water and wetlands
  • 17. TEEB For Water and WetlandsThe importance of healthy wetlands for the poor Poorest communities tend to depend more on ESS for their livelihood and as insurance against risks They have less access to alternatives (e.g. water depuration/mineral water; few alternative livelihood options) Over 600 M of the rural poor currently live on lands prone to degradation and water stress, and in upland areas, forest systems, and drylands that are vulnerable to climatic and ecological disruptions (Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, 2007). Over a billion people in developing countries rely on fish as a primary source of protein (World Bank and FAO, 2009)
  • 18. TEEB For Water and Wetlands Ensuring healthy and well-preserved wetlands is crucial to alleviate poverty Water plays a key role in agriculture, fishing and energy production Improving/restoring wetlands is often a cost-effective way to improve not only water security, but also food and energy security Wetland wise management improves resilience to climate change by mitigating its effects (e.g. increased storms, droughts and floods) Well preserved wetlands contribute to social cohesion and economic stability by ensuring livelihood for local communities and preserving cultural identity
  • 19. TEEB For Water and Wetlands How? Examples: Water sanitation can be improved through wetland restoration Access to clean freshwater can be ensured by healthy wetlands Restored wetlands can provide livelihood for local communities (e.g. by supporting viable fish populations or attracting tourists)
  • 20. Mexico PSAH: Hydrological services: Aquifer recharge PES to preserve forest Improved surface water quality, reduce frequency & damage from floodingDifferent payments to forest owners: Results:• e.g. cloud forest US$ 40 per ha/year; Deforestation rate fell from 1.6 % to 0.6 %.• e.g. other tree-covered land US$ 30 per 18.3 thousand hectares of avoided deforestation ha/year Avoided GHG emissions ~ 3.2 million tCO2e 78% of payment Reduce Deforestation to forests owners Address Poverty in areas with high marginalization - within this 1/3 under the extreme poverty line Source: Muñoz-Piña et al (2008); Muñoz et al (2010) PES can help reduce both environmental degradation and poverty
  • 21. Valuation of ESS from Nakivubo wetlands, UgandaServices provided by the Nakivubo swamp include natural water purification andtreatment & supporting small-scale income activities of poorer communitiesPlans to drain the Nakivubo Swamp (>40sqkm) for agricultureAssessment of waste water treatment options (Emerton 2004):Maintaining the wetlands: ~235.000$ p.a.Running a sewage treatment facility of equivalent capacity: ~2Mio. US$ p.a.Policy Solution: draining plans abandoned & Nakivubo Swamps designated as PA Recognising and demonstratingTEEBvalues is critical for decision making Sources: TEEBCases for the for local and regional policy
  • 22. Establishment of a MPA: Tubbataha Reefs, PhilippinesUNESCO World Heritage site, contains 396 species of corals & has higher speciesdiversity per square meter than the Great Barrier ReefProblem Recognition - 1998 Bleaching & losses>>Stakeholders meetingPolicy Solution“No-take” areas agreed +user fee for diversImpacts of policy • Increase live coral cover at 40% from 1999 to 2003, 50% in 2004 • Fish biomass in nearby reefs doubled since 2000 • Between 1999 and 2004 perceived fish Sources: Tongson catches increased from 10 to 15-20 kg/day 2007, Samonte-Tan et al. 2008, Dygico 2006; in • Significant increase in living standards from 2000 to 2004 TEEBCases for TEEB forHealthy ecosystems improve livelihood options local and regional Policy
  • 23. Working for Water (WfW): the Manalana wetland, SA Severely degraded by erosion that threatened to consume the entire system In 2006 WfW public work programme invested €86,000 to reduce erosion and improve the wetland’s ability to continue providing its beneficial services The value of livelihood benefits from degraded wetland was just 34 % of what could be achieved after investment in ecosystem rehabilitationResults: • Rehabilitated wetland now contributes provisioning services at a net return of 297 EUR/household/year; • Livelihood benefits ~ 182,000 EUR by the rehabilitated wetland; x2 costs • The Manalana wetland acts as a safety net for households. Recognising and demonstrating the valuesal. 2008; Wunder et al 2008a; http://www.dwaf.gov.za/wfw/ Sources: Pollard et and potential for increased value is critically important
  • 24. 1. TEEB & The TEEB for Water and Wetlands2. Water and wetlands: what benefits do we derive and what do we risk losing?3. Measuring to integrate the values of water and wetlands into decision making4. Wetlands and poverty alleviation5. Recommendations: transforming our approach to water and wetlands
  • 25. TEEB For Water and Wetlands Transforming our approach to water and wetlands Wetlands protection/improvement should be integrated in water management at all levels, involving all categories of stakeholders Protecting/restoring wetlands is a way to improve water security, energy security, food security In many cases win-win solutions can be achieved (e.g. improving biodiversity while ensuring water security and enhancing livelihoods)
  • 26. Thank you ! TEEB Reports available on www.teebweb.org, www.ramsar.org and www.ieep.eu See also www.teeb4me.com Daniela Russi drussi@ieep.euIEEP is an independent, not-for-profit institute dedicated to the analysis, understanding and promotion of policies for a sustainable environment. www.ieep.eu
  • 27. World Water Day: Water Cooperation Multidisciplinary Research Week 2013See the latest videos, interviews, pictures, tweets and viewsfrom the floor at:Website: www.southampton.ac.uk/multidisciplinaryBlog: http://blog.soton.ac.uk/multidisciplinary/tag/mdrweek/Youtube: Search #MDRWeek Follow us on Twitter @Multisoton #MDRWeek

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