<ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Exchange and Respiration </li></ul>
HEMOGLOBIN <ul><li>Hemoglobin (abbreviated Hb) is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cel...
HEMOGLOBIN (continue)
Gas exchange and respiration
Gas exchange and respiration
What is a Pulse Oximeter? <ul><li>A Pulse Oximeter is a device used to perform the diagnostic procedure for determining th...
TYPES OF OXIMETERS <ul><li>Designs: </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse Oximeter as part of an anesthetic machine </li></ul><ul><li>A ...
Pulse Oximeter  as part of an anesthetic machine
Pulse Oximeters  (continue) <ul><li>Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Finger/mobile </li></ul>
What does a Pulse Oximeter tell you? <ul><li>A Pulse Oximeter can detect hypoxia (too little oxygen to fulfill the needs o...
Pulse Oximeters  may be used in patients: <ul><li>Undergoing surgical procedure under general anesthesia  </li></ul><ul><l...
Pulse Oximeters  may be used in patients: <ul><li>Emergency situations like loss of consciousness, trauma etc.  </li></ul>...
Pulse Oximeters  may be used in patients: <ul><li>In the ICU, Pulse Oximetry is used extensively on mechanically ventilate...
Pulse Oximeter  reading may not be accurate: <ul><li>Reduced peripheral pulsatile blood flow  </li></ul><ul><li>Venous con...
Pulse Oximeter  reading may not be accurate: <ul><li>Pulse oximetry struggles to distinguish between different forms of he...
The following won’t affect the Pulse Oximeter reading: <ul><li>Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice </li></ul>
But what is a &quot;normal&quot; reading? <ul><li>Firstly, we would ask &quot;normal for whom&quot;?  </li></ul><ul><li>A ...
How does a Pulse Oximeter Work? <ul><li>The measurements are obtained by simply shining two wavelengths of light (1 is a v...
Q1 If a patient’s saturation is unacceptably low, what are your immediate actions? <ul><li>Check Airways, Breathing and Ci...
Q1 If a patient’s saturation is unacceptably low, what are your immediate actions? <ul><li>Check Airways, Breathing and Ci...
Q2 An elderly patient is admitted with pneumonia and has a pulse oximetry reading of 75% breathing air. With oxygen 6L per...
Q2 An elderly patient is admitted with pneumonia and has a pulse oximetry reading of 75% breathing air. With oxygen 6L per...
Q3 What happens to the pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a cardiac arrest?  <ul><li>The pulse would be...
Q3 What happens to the pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a cardiac arrest?  <ul><li>The pulse would be...
Q4 What happens to the Pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a respiratory arrest?  <ul><li>The saturation...
Q4 What happens to the Pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a respiratory arrest?  <ul><li>The saturation...
In conclusion… <ul><li>Pulse Oximetry is a useful modality for assessing a patient’s pulse rate and Hemoglobin Oxygen satu...
THANK YOU for your undivided attention!!! <ul><li>I appreciate the opportunity to invest into your lives!! </li></ul>
WOULD YOU LIKE TO OWN A PROFESSIONAL PULSE OXIMETER? <ul><li>CLICK HERE TO  ORDER A PROFESSIONAL QUALITY  PULSE OXIMETERAN...
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Pulse Oximetry

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An overview of the medical applications of Pusle Oximetry

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Transcript of "Pulse Oximetry"

  1. 1. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Exchange and Respiration </li></ul>
  2. 2. HEMOGLOBIN <ul><li>Hemoglobin (abbreviated Hb) is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of vertebrates. Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body, where it releases the oxygen for cell use. </li></ul>
  3. 3. HEMOGLOBIN (continue)
  4. 4. Gas exchange and respiration
  5. 5. Gas exchange and respiration
  6. 6. What is a Pulse Oximeter? <ul><li>A Pulse Oximeter is a device used to perform the diagnostic procedure for determining the: </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) that is saturated with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>The oxygen saturation (SpO2) is a measure of how much oxygen the blood is carrying as a percentage of the maximum it could carry and is sometimes referred to colloquially as the &quot;sats&quot; reading </li></ul><ul><li>The heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>The heart rate refers to the number of times that the heart contracts in a period of one minute </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF OXIMETERS <ul><li>Designs: </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse Oximeter as part of an anesthetic machine </li></ul><ul><li>A portable desktop unit </li></ul><ul><li>A finger/mobile pulse Oximeter </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pulse Oximeter as part of an anesthetic machine
  9. 9. Pulse Oximeters (continue) <ul><li>Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Finger/mobile </li></ul>
  10. 10. What does a Pulse Oximeter tell you? <ul><li>A Pulse Oximeter can detect hypoxia (too little oxygen to fulfill the needs of the brain and body) before a patient shows signs of becoming cyanotic (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to not enough oxygen in the blood). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pulse Oximeters may be used in patients: <ul><li>Undergoing surgical procedure under general anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Undergoing surgical procedure under conscious sedation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pulse Oximeters may be used in patients: <ul><li>Emergency situations like loss of consciousness, trauma etc. </li></ul><ul><li>After surgery during the recovery phase </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring the blood oxygen saturation in various aviation situations </li></ul><ul><li>Sport applications – e.g. mountaineering </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pulse Oximeters may be used in patients: <ul><li>In the ICU, Pulse Oximetry is used extensively on mechanically ventilated patients, as it can frequently detect problems with oxygenation before they are noticed clinically, as well as a valuable guide for weaning patients off ventilation and helping to assess the adequacy of a patient's oxygen therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>This continuing assessment process has been instrumental in the introduction of Pulse Oximeter usage within the community and homecare environment of patients suffering from a variety of heart and lung diseases and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse Oximeters are routinely used in certain hospital wards and in casualty departments for immediate assessment of patients </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pulse Oximeter reading may not be accurate: <ul><li>Reduced peripheral pulsatile blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Venous congestion (partial obstruction of the veins) of an arm or leg </li></ul><ul><li>Bright overhead lights, such as in an operating theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Shivering or significant, repeated movement of the sensor </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pulse Oximeter reading may not be accurate: <ul><li>Pulse oximetry struggles to distinguish between different forms of hemoglobin, such as carboxy-hemoglobin (hemoglobin combined with carbon monoxide) </li></ul><ul><li>Nail varnish may cause falsely low readings with most pulse Oximeters, especially those colored blue or black </li></ul>
  16. 16. The following won’t affect the Pulse Oximeter reading: <ul><li>Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice </li></ul>
  17. 17. But what is a &quot;normal&quot; reading? <ul><li>Firstly, we would ask &quot;normal for whom&quot;? </li></ul><ul><li>A fit, healthy person should have an oxygen saturation level between 95% & 99%. Results lower than this, and especially below 90% may be caused by problems including lung diseases, such as COPD, breathing difficulties, cigarette smoking or circulatory problems such as excessive bleeding or blood vessel problems. </li></ul>
  18. 18. How does a Pulse Oximeter Work? <ul><li>The measurements are obtained by simply shining two wavelengths of light (1 is a visible red beam, the other an invisible infrared beam) at e.g. the fingertip. </li></ul><ul><li>By measuring how much light has been absorbed by the oxygen in the blood, an oxygen saturation or “sats” reading is established and displayed as a percentage of the maximum amount of oxygen the blood could carry. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Q1 If a patient’s saturation is unacceptably low, what are your immediate actions? <ul><li>Check Airways, Breathing and Circulation (ABC) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Q1 If a patient’s saturation is unacceptably low, what are your immediate actions? <ul><li>Check Airways, Breathing and Circulation (ABC) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Q2 An elderly patient is admitted with pneumonia and has a pulse oximetry reading of 75% breathing air. With oxygen 6L per min, saturation improves to 85%. What are the implications of this oximetry reading?
  22. 22. Q2 An elderly patient is admitted with pneumonia and has a pulse oximetry reading of 75% breathing air. With oxygen 6L per min, saturation improves to 85%. What are the implications of this oximetry reading? <ul><li>The patient was severely hypoxic (Lack of Oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase oxygen flow </li></ul>
  23. 23. Q3 What happens to the pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a cardiac arrest? <ul><li>The pulse would be lost (causing the alarm to sound) and the saturations will decrease </li></ul>
  24. 24. Q3 What happens to the pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a cardiac arrest? <ul><li>The pulse would be lost (causing the alarm to sound) and the saturations will decrease </li></ul>
  25. 25. Q4 What happens to the Pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a respiratory arrest? <ul><li>The saturations decrease until cardiac arrest occurs </li></ul>
  26. 26. Q4 What happens to the Pulse Oximeter reading of a patient immediately after a respiratory arrest? <ul><li>The saturations decrease until cardiac arrest occurs </li></ul>
  27. 27. In conclusion… <ul><li>Pulse Oximetry is a useful modality for assessing a patient’s pulse rate and Hemoglobin Oxygen saturation in a number of routine and emergency medical situations </li></ul><ul><li>The clinician should be aware of the limitations of Pulse Oximetry and the various factors that may produce a falsely low or high reading </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep the basics principles of medicine in mind, and keep a high level of suspicion - especially when the figures don’t make sense! </li></ul>
  28. 28. THANK YOU for your undivided attention!!! <ul><li>I appreciate the opportunity to invest into your lives!! </li></ul>
  29. 29. WOULD YOU LIKE TO OWN A PROFESSIONAL PULSE OXIMETER? <ul><li>CLICK HERE TO ORDER A PROFESSIONAL QUALITY PULSE OXIMETERAND HEART RATE MONITOR WITH AN OLED COLOR SCREEN AND FINGER PULSE WAVE GRAPH! </li></ul><ul><li>$59.00 </li></ul>
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