The writers of the cc often refer to “rich texts that are worthy of rereading”. It is difficult to provide the kind of instruction students need without a rich and worthy text to support the rigor. CCSS call for text-centered instruction so having a bank of rich texts (texts that are complex, with academic vocabulary, able to support strong text dependent questions, and add to students’ body of knowledge) that are worthy of rereading (students see value of rereading because each read brings a deeper understanding of the text). This would be a great place to involve participant discussion – what else makes a text “rich and worthy”? Participants will choose a text to use for the remainder of the PD.
The text is the vehicle by which we teach the Standards
According to the : Instructional Criteria for the CCSS in ELA and Literacy, Grades 3-5; and ELA, Grades 6-12, there are two important facts to consider in text selection: Text complexity Range and quality of texts Let look at text complexity first. Remind participants of Spring RESA pd (and that it is available in LiveBinder) Students should have opportunities to encounter appropriately complex texts at each grade level to develop the mature language skills and conceptual knowledge they need in order to be college and career prepared Some percentage of students will enter grade three or later grades without a command of foundational reading skills such as decoding. It is essential for these students to have age-appropriate materials to ensure that they receive the extensive training and practice in the foundational reading skills required to achieve fluency and comprehension. Students that need additional assistance must not miss out on essential practice and instruction their classmates are receiving to help them read closely, think deeply about texts, participate in thoughtful discussions, and gain knowledge of both words and the world. Short texts are useful to enable students at a wide range of reading levels to participate in the close analysis of more demanding text. These texts allow time to read and re-read deliberately and slowly to probe and ponder the meaning of individual words, the order in which sentences unfold and the development of ideas over the course of the text.
One of the myths we have heard… Longer texts help build stamina and persistence, allow for close reading of certain key passages
In elementary: scientific and historical text should be given the same time and weight as literary text 6-12 – Literary Nonfiction extends well beyond historical documents to include the best of nonfiction written for a broad audience on a wide variety of topics such as science, contemporary events and ideas, nature, and the arts An article in National Geographic would be an example of literary nonfiction.
Elementary – seeing a topic in a well-rounded picture. Balance of informational and literary text. The quality of texts provided should be high Students should have opportunities to grapple with a range of works that span many genre, cultures, eras AND MODEL THE KINDS OF THINKING AND WRITING THAT STUDENTS SHOULD ASPIRE TO IN THEIR OWN WORK In grades 9-12, foundational documents from American history, selections from American literature and world literature, a play from Shakespeare, and an American drama are all required. For example: in elementary, looking as a school at texts and deciding where texts should go…
K-5 delete Students should experience Shakespeare every year, and one entire play should be read sometime during the four years of high school. U.S. documents are now a part of English I-IV. Freshman year is all genre. Sophomore year and senior year is global or world literature.
K-5 delete Junior is American Literature. Senior year is global rather than brit lit. It is the other half of the global body of literature from sophomore year.
Secondary delete In addition, consider these: Remind participants of the 50-50 balance of literary and informational text
Scaffolding should not replace the text by translating its contents It should not be an alternate easier text
Photo is linked to the TCH website.
Make sure the texts you are choosing addresses the Standards and the needs of your students. We must first ask…. What do we want our students to learn?
This speaks to your Reader and task considerations. You think about your reader and the task you are going to assign based on your assessment measures. Think about what are the natural areas of focus for this text. With what standards do my students need the most practice? Resources: text complexity placemats and exemplars.
This is how text selection should feel. Not stressful!!
When embraced or actualized with all students in mind, universal design would be the foundation of instructional practice. If students continue to struggle after instructed by a teacher utilizing universal design, the next course of action would be differentiated instruction, followed by individualized instruction. This is the framework for appropriate instruction or the best practice to use to meet the needs of all students.
With UDL, students are more… Engaged in their own learning Learning at greater breadth and depth Achieving at higher levels Motivated to continue learning
Share this site: National Center on UDL http://www.udlcenter.org/ Video is linked.
Universal Design is the foundation of what we need to do for all students. After setting the goals and considering barriers. Eliminate the barriers by incorporating the 3 principles of UDL. Multiple means of Representation: Graphs, Charts, multimedia. Number two-Action & Expression- Give students multiple means of expressing . Number 3: Provide multiple means of engagement, what is motivating to one student will not be for another. Give students choices, help them feel safe taking risk and making mistakes. Remember the goal is to eliminate the barriers that are often present in curriculum.
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The what of learning To give diverse learners options for acquiring information and knowledge Present content in a variety of formats and modalities
[UDL Principle I: Provide Multiple Means of Representation (the “what” of learning).] Non-verbal representation is important for English language learners as, by definition, their English language skills are weak. M ake use of the five senses: sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste in representation. Model content and academic language so students can see and hear; bring in real objects (also referred to as concrete objects or realia) so students can see, touch, smell, and perhaps taste the object.; use math manipulatives so students can see and touch math concepts, etc. Representation that provides language support is critical. Word banks, work walls, labels provide vocabulary. Sentence starters and sentence frames which provide explicit language forms should be used to move students along the language continuum from the entering level to that of proficiency.
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(the “how” of learning). Learners differ in the ways that they can navigate a learning environment and express what they know. For example, individuals with significant movement impairments (e.g., cerebral palsy), those who struggle with strategic and organizational abilities (executive function disorders), those who have language barriers, and so forth approach learning tasks very differently. Some may be able to express themselves well in written text but not speech, and vice versa. It should also be recognized that action and expression require a great deal of strategy, practice, and organization, and this is another area in which learners can differ. In reality, there is not one means of action and expression that will be optimal for all learners; providing options for action and expression is essential.
Differentiate the ways that students can express what they know. You may switch these examples for content specific examples. Quick Draws- Students quickly illustrate their understanding of a complicated or abstract idea through a drawing. Chalkbord or Whiteboard Splash- Students are asked one question and each student puts their response on a portion of the chalkboard/whiteboard for everyone to see. Line-Ups- Students take a position on a topic by lining up on different sides of the room. Numbered Heads- Each is student is accountable for information they have learned in their group. Students count off and then form groups based on their numbers. During debrief call out the number of the student who will be presenting for the group. Physical Action – Vary the methods for response and navigation; optimize access to tools and assistive technologies (use of the computer rather than written form, use of speech to text devices, touch screens, customized functions of keys on the keyboard, etc) Expression and communication – Use multiple media for communication; Use multiple tools for construction and composition; Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance (use of drawing, film, music, dance/movement, social media, storyboards, spellcheckers, calculators, story webs, concept mapping, manipulatives, web applications like Wikis, Power Point, etc.) Executive Function – Provide models of process and product of goal setting, guides and checklists; post goals, objectives, and schedules in an obvious place, embed prompts to “show and explain your work”, provide graphic organizers, provide checklist and guides for note-taking, use assessment checklists, scoring rubrics, and multiple examples of annotated student work/performance examples)
[UDL Principle II: (the “how” of learning).] Learners differ in the ways they navigate a learning environment and express what they know. There is not one means of action and expression that will be optimal for all learners; providing options for action and expression is essential for ELLs. English language learners have limited knowledge of social and academic English. They may understand a concept, but not be able to express comprehension in English. Differentiating instruction to include role-play, illustrations, gestures and focused use of their first language allows greater access to academic content. First language (L1) development is important in the acquisition of the second language. The stronger a student is in his first language, the easier it is to learn a second language. The L1 can be used to clarify concepts and/or directions for classroom activities/procedures. ELLs may use their first language to help each other, tutor, ask and answer questions, use a bilingual dictionary, or clarify information. Teachers may use the student ’s first language to check comprehension, explain an activity, provide books in languages other than English, and build relationships with students and families.
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(the “why” of learning). Affect represents a crucial element to learning, and learners differ markedly in the ways in which they can be engaged or motivated to learn. There are a variety of sources that can influence individual variation in affect including neurology, culture, personal relevance, subjectivity, and background knowledge, along with a variety of other factors presented in these guidelines. Some learners are highly engaged by spontaneity and novelty while other are disengaged, even frightened, by those aspects, preferring strict routine. Some learners might like to work alone, while others prefer to work with their peers. In reality, there is not one means of engagement that will be optimal for all learners in all contexts; providing multiple options for engagement is essential.
Stimulate interest and motivation for learning Bounce Cards – Student takes what another student has said or shared and bounces an idea off of it. Recruiting interest – provide choice in how an objective can be reached and allow learners to participate in the design of classroom activities and academic tasks; ensure cultural and personal relevancy Sustaining effort and persistence – flexible grouping, implement a plan for positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS), construct communities of student learners (CSLs), peer tutors Self regulation – support activities that encourage self-reflection and identification of personal goals; a key factor in learners losing motivation is their inability to recognize their own progress so it ’s important they have multiple models and scaffolds of different self assessment techniques so that they can identify and choose ones that are optimal for their unique needs.
[UDL Principle III : How learners get engaged and stay motivated. How they are challenged, excited or interested. These are affective dimensions.] Interaction is extremely important for ELLs. They must use the English language to make it their own and to learn its nuances. Asking ELLs to perform an incomprehensible task is counter-productive. Providing structured collaborative activities is one way to facilitate meaningful practice of academic language in preparation for whole group presentations. Oral language development promotes proficiency in reading and writing in English. Collaborative activities increase opportunities for student interaction. ELLs may be able to accomplish a task that would be too difficult to carry out on their own under the guidance of another more proficient student. Activities should be structured to encourage less proficient ELLs to observe, listen, and gradually begin to collaborate in the activity, finally doing the task themselves. But ELLs should be grouped depending upon the particular activity and characteristics of the students. Because interaction with peers is a necessary step on the way to language acquisition, higher proficient ELLs may be expected to lend first language support to a lower proficient ELL in one activity but be allowed to interact with stronger students in another. Of course, English language proficiency is not the only criterion for grouping.
Tell participants to visit the expo for 15 minutes and lunch for 1 hour Return at 1:30
1. Rich and Worthy Key Criteria for Text Selection Participants will learn copyright laws and where to safely access texts. They will identify criteria for choosing rich and worthy texts.Source: Instructional Criteria for the CCSS in ELA and Literacy,Grades 3-5; and ELA, Grades 6-12
2. Why is text selection important?• In the CCSS, text is the focus of instruction.• From texts, students gain knowledge not only about the world but about how to write, express ideas, and support their ideas with evidence from valid sources.
3. Text Complexity Students should read increasingly complex text with growing independence as they progress toward college and career readiness.• Texts should align with the complexity requirements as outlined in Reading Standard 10.• All students (including those who are behind) should have extensive opportunities to encounter grade-level complex text.• Shorter challenging texts that elicit close reading and rereading should be a part of regular instruction.
4. Text Complexity cont.• Novels, plays, and other full-length texts play an equally important role.• Texts selected for instruction should include materials that appeal to students’ interests and encourage independent reading.
5. Range and Quality of Texts The CCSS require a greater focus on informational text in elementary school and literary nonfiction in ELA classes 6-12.• In elementary grades, the CCSS call for a balance of literary and informational texts.• In ELA classes 6-12, there should be a blend of literature (fiction, poetry, and drama) and literary nonfiction (essays, speeches, opinion pieces, essays about art or literature, biographies, memoirs, journalism, and historical scientific, technical or economic accounts including digital sources – especially that which is built on informational text structures).
6. Range and Quality cont.• Texts selected should be worthy of close reading and rereading. They should be model texts.• The CCSS require certain kinds of texts in 9-12 (see pg. 40 Reading Standards 8-9).• The selection and sequence of texts should provide a well-developed sense of bodies of literature.
7. • The English I course provides a foundational study of literary genres (novels, short stories, poetry, drama, literary nonfiction). It includes influential U.S. documents and one Shakespearean play.• English II introduces a literary global perspective focusing on literature from the Americas (Caribbean, Central, South, and North), Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East. It includes influential U.S. documents and one Shakespearean play.
8. • English III is an in-depth study of U.S. literature and U.S. literary nonfiction especially foundational works and documents from the 17th century through the early 20th century. It includes at least one Shakespearean play.• English IV completes the global perspective initiated in English II with a focus on European (Western, Southern, Northern) literature. It includes U.S. documents and literature (texts influenced by European philosophy or action) and at least one Shakespearean play.
9. K-2 includes:• well-written and richly illustrated texts.• reading in ELA, Science, Social Studies, and the Arts.• read-alouds that are well above the complexity students can read on their own.
10. Cultivating Students’ Ability to Read Complex Text IndependentlyScaffolds should enable all students toexperience rather than avoid the complexity of thetext.
11. Activity: Observing with a Critical Eye• How does the teacher scaffold the text for learners?• What makes this text rich and worthy?• What are the learning goals?• How could the teacher improve the quality of the lesson?
12. Observing with a Critical Eye
13. Activity: Observing with a Critical Eye• How does the teacher scaffold the text for learners?• What makes this text rich and worthy?• What are the learning goals?• How could the teacher improve the quality of the lesson?
14. Reminder…. Choose texts purposefully!What do we want ourstudents to learn?
15. How do you choose a text purposefully?What questions do you ask yourself?What resources do you use?
16. Universal Design
17. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) A set of principles for curriculum development that applies to the general education curriculum to promote learning environments that meet the needs of all learners.
20. Activity: What Can a Small Bird Be?• Use chart paper to provide examples of how to address each principle• Divide paper into three sections Copyright: Shutterstock
21. Principle I: RepresentMultiple Means of Act/ EngageRepresentation Express http://goo.gl/fvqJS
22. Principle 1:Representation
23. Multiple Means of RepresentRepresentation for ELLs Act/ Engage ExpressNon-verbal Language Support• Modeling • Word banks• Pictures • Word walls• Realia/Concrete objects • Labels• Gestures • Graphic organizers• Manipulatives • Sentence starters• Demonstrations • Sentence frames• Hands-on• Picture dictionaries
24. Activity: What Can a Small Bird Be?• Use chart paper to provide examples of how to address Multiple Means of Representation Copyright: Shutterstock
25. Principle II: RepresentMultiple Means of Action Act/ Engageand Expression Express http://goo.gl/Rvjod
26. Principle 2:Action andExpression
27. UDL requires Multiple Means Representof Action and Expression. Act/ Engage ExpressExamples: Thumbs Up/Thumbs Response Hold-Up Down Cards Gallery Walks Quick Draws Pair/Share Numbered Heads Together Chalkboard/Whiteboard Splash Line-Ups
28. Multiple Means of RepresentExpressing for ELLs Act/ Engage Express • Role-play • Illustrations/ Drawings / Visuals • Gestures • First language
29. Activity: What Can a Small Bird Be?• Use chart paper to provide examples of how to address Multiple Means of Action/Expression Copyright: Shutterstock
30. Principle III: RepresentMultiple Means Act/ Engageof Engagement Express
31. Principle 3:Engagement
32. UDL requires Multiple Means Representof Engagement. Act/ Engage Express Examples: Bounce Cards Concept Charades Case Studies Response Hold-Up Cards Role Plays Networking Sessions Simulations Flexible Grouping
33. Multiple Means of RepresentEngagement for ELLs Act/ Engage Express• Student Interaction – Oral comprehension supports reading and writing development – Differentiate Collaborative Activities
34. Activity: What Can a Small Bird Be?• Use chart paper to provide examples of how to address Multiple Means of Action/Expression Copyright: Shutterstock
35. Video Activity: UDL in Action1. Check the alignment to the Common Core Standards RL 11-12.2, SL 11-12.1a., RL 9-10.2.2. In what ways do the stations provide multiple means of …representation, action/ expression, engagement?
36. Interactive Stations
37. Video Activity: UDL in Action1. Check the alignment to the Common Core Standards RL 11-12.2, SL 11-12.1a., RL 9-10.2.2. In what ways do the stations provide multiple means of …representation, action/ expression, engagement?
38. Table Talk http://bit.ly/LS5e9s• What is another station that you could create that would speak to one or more of the three principles of UDL? – Representation – Action/Expression – Engagement
39. The Important Thing…• As we make content more accessible to students, our learning goals as defined by the standards must remain our focus. http://bit.ly/MGBTAN
40. Copyright and Online Resources Dan.firstname.lastname@example.org