India’s Population = 1027 MillionAs per 2001 CensusUrban Population = 285 MillionUrban Areas = 5161(Cities / Towns)
TREND OF URBANIZATION Year Year Year Year 1951 1991 2001 20211. Number of Urban 2795 3768 5161 -- Agglomerations / Towns2. Urban Population 62.0 217.0 285.0 550.0 (in million)3. As percentage of total 17.3% 25.72% 27.8% 41% Population
MAGNITUDE OF PROBLEM- Per capita waste generation increasing by1.3% per annum- With urban population increasing between3 – 3.5% per annum- Yearly increase in waste generation isaround 5% annually
- India produces 42.0 million tons ofmunicipal solid waste annually at present.- Per capita generation of waste varies from200 gm to 600 gm per capita / day. Averagegeneration rate at 0.4 kg per capita per dayin 0.1 million plus towns.- Collection efficiency ranges between 50% to 90% of the solid waste generated.
- Urban Local Bodies spend around Rs.500/- to Rs.1500/- per ton on solid wastemanagement of which, * 60-70% of the amount is on collection alone * 20% - 30% on transportation * Hardly any fund is spent on treatment and disposal of waste- Crude dumping of waste in most of the cities
QUANTITY OF WASTE GENERATIONTOTAL QUANTITY OF SOLID WASTE 1.15 LAKH TONNEGENERATED IN URBAN AREAS PER DAY (TPD)OF THE COUNTRY % OF TOTAL GARBAGEWASTE GENERATED IN 6 MEGA CITIES 21,100 TPD 18.35%WASTE GENERATED IN METRO CITIES 19,643 TPD 17.08%(1 MILLION PLUS TOWNS)WASTE GENERATED IN OTHER 42,635.28 TPD 37.07%CLASS-I TOWNS(0.1 MILLION PLUS TOWNS) ____________ _________ 83,378.28 TPD 72.50%IF WASTE PRODUCED IN ALL CLASS-I CITIES IS TACKLED, PERCENTAGEOF WASTE SCIENTIFICALLY MANAGED WOULD BE 72.5% OF TOTALWASTE.
Characteristics of Municipal Solid WasteCompostable / Bio-degradable = 30% - 55%matter (can be converted into manure)Inert material = 40% - 45% (to go to landfill)Recyclable materials = 5% - 10% (Recycling)These percentages vary from city to city dependingon food habits
PRESENT STATUS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT- STORAGE OF WASTE AT SOURCE IS LACKING - DOMESTIC WASTE THROWN ON STREETS - TRADE WASTE ON ROADS / STREETS - CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS LEFT UNATTENDED - BIO-MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSED IN MUNICIPAL WASTE STREAM - INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISPOSED OF IN OPEN AREAS- SEGREGATION OF RECYCLABLE WASTE AT SOURCENOT DONE- PRIMARY COLLECTION OF WASTE NOT DONE AT PLACE OF GENERATION
Contd../..- DESIGN & LOCATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE STORAGE DEPOTS INAPPROPRIATE, RESULTING IN LITTERING OFGARBAGE .- STREET SWEEPING NOT DONE EVERYDAY- WASTE TRANSPORTATION DONE IN OPEN VEHICLES- WASTE PROCESSING PARTIALLY PRACTISED IN 35ULBs ONLY- FINAL DISPOSAL DONE THROUGH CRUDE DUMPING- RAG PICKERS COLLECT RECYCLABLES FROMMUNICIPAL BINS / DUMPSITES AND LITTER THE WASTECAUSING INSANITARY CONDITIONS
REASONS FOR IMPROPER MANAGEMENT OF WASTE Lack of planning for waste management while planning townships Lack of proper institutional set up for wastemanagement, planning and designing in urban local bodies Lack of technically trained manpower Lack of community involvement Lack of expertise and exposure to city waste management using modern techniques / best practices Lack of awareness creation mechanism Lack of Management Information Systems Lack of funds with ULBs Indifferent attitude of ULBs to levy user charges andsustainability
RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE MANAGEMENT1. Possible Waste Management Options : (a) Waste Minimisation (b) Material Recycling (c) Waste Processing (Resource Recovery) (d) Waste Transformation (e) Sanitary Landfilling – Limited land availability is a constraint in Metro cities.2. Processing / Treatment should be : (i) Technically sound (ii) Financially viable (iii) Eco-friendly / Environmental friendly (iv) Easy to operate & maintain by local community (v) Long term sustainability
RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSALI WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE) (A) WASTE TO COMPOST (i) AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMPOSTING (ii) VERMI-COMPOSTING (B) WASTE TO ENERGY (i) REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) / PELLETIZATION (ii) BIO-METHANATIONII RECYCLING OF WASTEIII SANITARY LANDFILLINGIV TREATMENT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE SEPARATELY
VARIOUS TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS RECOMMENDED FOR WASTE PROCESSINGTOWNS GENERATING GARBAGEUPTO 50 METRIC TONS / DAY(MT/DAY) = VERMI-COMPOSTINGBETWEEN 50 MT & 500 MT / DAY = VERMI-COMPOSTING + MECHANICAL COMPOSTINGMORE THAN 500 MT / DAY = MECHANICAL COMPOSTING + REFUSE DERIVED FUEL(RDF) FROM REJECTS KEEPING IN VIEW THE TYPE OF THE CITY (INDUSTRIAL OR NON- INDUSTRIAL) OR BIO-METHANATION
TENTH PLAN PROPOSALSRequirement of funds as per 10th Plan document for0.1 million plus towns as per 1991 Census are asunder:-Capital Investment = Rs.23226.00 millionEquipment replacement = Rs. 1355.00 millioncost ________________ Rs.24581.00 million ________________ Based on January, 2000 prices
INITIATIVES BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA Bio-medical Waste Handling Rules, 1998 - Notified Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules, 2000 – Notified. Reforms Agenda (Fiscal, Institutional, Legal) Technical Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management Technology Advisory Group on Municipal Solid Waste Management Inter-Ministerial Task Force on Integrated Plant Nutrient Management from citycompost.
Tax Free Bonds by ULBs permitted by Government of India Income Tax relief to Waste Management agencies Public-Private Partnership in SWM Capacity Building Urban Reforms Incentive Fund Guidelines for PSP and setting up of Regulatory Authority Introduction of Commercial Accounting System in ULBs & other Sector Reforms Model Municipal Bye-Laws framed / circulated for benefit of ULBs for adoption Financial Assistance by Government of India - 12th Finance Commission Grants
DEVOLUTION OF 12TH FINANCE COMMISSION GRANTS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT – RS.2500.00 CRORES ( RS. IN MILLION)(I) COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION - 3864.4 EQUIPMENT & MACHINERY(II) COMPOST PLANTS - 10012.3(III) SANITARY LANDFILL DEVELOPMENT - 10568.8 ------------------- TOTAL 24445.5 ------------------DEVOLUTION TO ULBs BY 12TH FINANCE - Rs.19439.4 MillionCOMMISSIONPRIVATE SECTOR INVESTMENT - Rs.5006.2 MillionENVISAGED THROUGH PPP INCOMPOSTING / SANITARY LANDFILLING
NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION CENTRAL / STATE GRANTS ARE PROPOSED TO BE PROVIDED FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Grant Centre State LoanCities with 4 million plus 35% 15% 50%populationCities with one million plus 50% 20% 30%population but less than 4millionOther cities 80% 10% 10%
MAIN ISSUES- ABSENCE OF SEGREGATION OF WASTE AT SOURCE- LACK OF TECHNICAL EXPERTISE ANDAPPROPRIATE INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT- UNWILLINGNESS OF ULBs TO INTRODUCE PROPERCOLLECTION, SEGREGATION, TRANSPORTATION ANDTREATMENT / DISPOSAL SYSTEMS- INDIFFERENT ATTITUDE OF CITIZENS TOWARDS WASTE MANAGEMENT DUE TO LACK OF AWARENESS- LACK OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION TOWARDS WASTE MANAGEMENT AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS- LACK OF FUNDS WITH ULBs
RECOMMENDATIONS- Outsourcing of all activities under Solid WasteManagement Services recommended by 12thFinance Commission for using grants- ULBs to concentrate on segregation of waste atsource- Waste processing like composting, bio-methanation should be done through public-privatepartnerships / private sector- Final disposal viz. sanitary landfilling to be doneunder public private partnerships / private sector- Bio-medical waste to be managed by Central Bio-Medical Waste Management Facilities.