At work, we are constantly bombarded with sensory stimuli—the phone ringing, people talking in the background, the sounds of our computers dinging as new e-mail arrives, people calling our names, etc. As limited processors of information, we cannot possibly notice, receive, and interpret all of this information. As a result, we attend to and accept some stimuli but screen out and reject others. However, this isn't a random process. Selective perception is the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations, while ignoring or screening out or not accepting inconsistent information. Once we have initial information about a person, event, or process, closure is the tendency to fill in the gaps where information is missing, that is, to assume that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know. If employees are told that budgets must be cut by 10 percent, they may automatically assume that 10 percent of employees will lose their jobs, too, even if that isn't the case. Not surprisingly, when closure occurs, people sometimes "fill in the gaps" with inaccurate information, and this can create problems for organizations.
Individual Differences:Mental Functioning, Emotional Intelligence,Personality Perception, Attitudes, andValues B = f (P,E) (Behavior is a function of the person and the environment.)
Why is the study ofIndividual Differences ofinterest to managers? Selection Placement Training Motivation Leadership
Mental Ability General Intelligence (g factor) Correlates with most tests of specific ability Correlates with performance in most jobs Specific Intelligences (s factors) e.g., memory verbal comprehension, numerical ability, word comprehension, perceptual speed Correlate with Job Satisfaction in work utilizing the specific ability in question
Cognitive Styles How do we gather information? Sensing - Look at the facts, details. Intuiting - Brainstorm, get a general overview. How do we choose between alternatives? Thinking - Analyze objectively, reason. Feeling - Consider the impact on people.
Myers-Briggs TestHas 4 dimensions: Sensing vs. Intuiting Thinking vs. Feeling Extraversion vs. Introversion Judger vs. Perceiver (decisive vs. flexible)Higher and lower positions in each of the dimensionsare used to classify people into one of 16 differentpersonality categories.
Emotional IntelligenceDimensions1) Knowing one’s own emotions2) Controlling one’s emotions3) Recognizing others’ emotions (Empathy)4) Influencing others’ emotions Author Daniel Goleman says incompetence in management occurs more often from lack of EQ than lack of IQ
Personality Nature of Personality Internal State Uniqueness Consistency Stability Managers should be aware of subordinates’ characteristics. Managers should also be aware of their own characteristics.
Personality Theories Developmental Stage (Psychodynamic) (Freud, etc.) Trait-Based (“Big Five”, etc.) e.g., Neurotic, Extraversion, Authoritarian (Eysenck) Motive-Based e.g., Achievement, Affiliation, Power (McClelland) Belief-Based e.g., Internal vs. External Locus of Control (Rotter)
Personality Theory: The BigFive Traits: Extraversion (vs. Introversion) Sociable, friendly. Emotional Stability (vs. Neuroticism): Neurotics are often critical and feel angry with others and themselves. Agreeableness Likable, care about others. Conscientiousness Careful, persevering. Openness to Experience: Flexible, with broad interests.
Other Characteristics Self-Monitoring: Tendency to manage impressions others have of you Risk taking and thrill seeking Self-Esteem: Degree to which people feel good about themselves and abilities.
Locus of Control People who believe that they are in control of their own lives are said to have an Internal locus of control. People who think that forces beyond their control dictate what happens to them are said to have an External locus of control.
Testing Intelligence andPersonality When using in selection and placement: Back up with validity studies. In General: Intelligence Tests- Moderate Validity Personality Tests- Low Validity
Perception “The link between the person and the environment” Broadly defined, includes Social Perception (impressions of people)
The Perception Process Organizing the Screening theObserving “data” selected “data” into “data” and via the senses patterns for selecting what to interpretation and process response
Perception Why are perceptions often distorted? Why do people not always perceive things as they are? Why do people perceive things differently? Different people Same person at different times
Sources of Perceptual Distortions Selectivity (perceiving only part of envir. or some parts more than others) External Factors (i.e., currently in physical environment) Similarity, Size, Nearness, Motion Internal Factors Experience, Motivation Closure (adding to your perception) Stereotyping Halo Effects Projection
General Perception Problems Selectivity Only notice stimuli which are consistent with our values and beliefs Closure Assume that what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know
VALUES AND ATTITUDESValues (Basic Convictions – What is right, good, desirable) » General - Contain many attitudes » e.g., Conservative, Liberal, etc.Attitudes (Beliefs, Assumptions) » Evaluative judgments focused on specific objects, concepts » e.g., Attitude toward welfare payments
Types of Values Terminal Values Desired Goals e.g., World Peace, Happiness, Freedom, True Friendship, Equality, Family Security Instrumental Values Means of Achieving Terminal Values e.g., Ambition, Politeness, Self-Reliance, Honesty, Cheerfulness, Open-Mindedness
Work Values Across GenerationsGroup Entered Workforce ValuesVeterans 1945-1964 Loyal to Organization ConformingBoomers 1965-1984 Loyal to Careers Dislike AuthorityXers 1985-1999 Loyal to Relationships Seek Work-Life BalanceNexters 2000-Present Loyal to Self & Relationships Self-Reliant but Team-oriented
ATTITUDES: THE ABC MODELAffect » Feelings for an objectBehavioral Intentions » Observed Behavior toward itCognition » Beliefs about it
ATTITUDE CHANGE TECHNIQUESPersuasion » Cognition -> BehaviorConditioning » Affective -> Cognition -> BehaviorCognitive Dissonance Production » Behavior -> Cognition -> Affective(Based on the assumption that people are motivated to protect their self-concepts. This requires a perceived consistency among the three components.)