Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
  • Save
Usability Engineering For OSM - SOTM 2007
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Usability Engineering For OSM - SOTM 2007

  • 1,630 views
Published

Presentation from State of the Map 2007.

Presentation from State of the Map 2007.

Published in Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,630
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. OSM and the public - what barriers need to be crossed? Muki Haklay
  • 2. Content
    • Fundamental challenges with digital maps
    • Usability Engineering – few concepts
    • A user-centred design for OSM
    • Getting to the masses
  • 3. Why digital mapping hard to use?
    • As Identified by Traynor and Williams (1995) ‘Why GIS are hard to use?’:
      • GIS is complex: it is based on knowledge from Geography, Cartography, Databases, Statistics, Computer algorithms and data structures…
      • Requires users to have or acquire considerable technical knowledge in order to operate the computer system
      • Data structures and information also rely on multiple concepts .
  • 4. There are many ‘accidental geographers’…
    • There are around 2m users of GIS in a client server environment, over a million who use it on their desktop computer, and perhaps a further million in other sectors, including software developers. About 4m GIS users, spread over around 2m sites (Longley et al., 2005, Ch.17)
    • ESRI (2000) estimated about 500,000 users of its products world-wide
    • And add to this the users of sat-nav, GPS mobile phones, users of consumer grade GPSs…
    Source: Unwin (2005) ‘ Masters of what? Educating the GI labour force’
  • 5. What do we know about their skills?
    • Guesswork follows:
      • Very heterogeneous, from PhDs in other sciences to what Mike Goodchild calls ‘Google hackers’
      • Motivations for working with digital maps are many
      • Most have no previous contact, formal or otherwise, with academic Geography/Geomatic Engineering
      • Most of the don’t care about this skills and learn about them slowly, or not at all
    Source: Unwin (2005) ‘ Masters of what? Educating the GI labour force’
  • 6. The core challenge of usable GIS and digital maps
    • On one side: relatively complex technology, bringing in concepts from many areas
    • On the other side – lots of people with interest in everyday Geography, but without the knowledge of ‘technical geography’
    • Many of them with very limited technical knowledge
  • 7. OSM users now
    • About 8000 users, contribution to the map in various of ways from few segments to a whole city
    • About 400 users with higher commitment (OSM Talk, other mailing lists)
    • Smaller number of developers (50-100?) dealing with a range of issues (cartography, software, database, ontology)
  • 8. Potential OSM users
    • Because OSM is about communitysourced geodata and not about programming:
      • The 2m GIS users mentioned above but also …
      • Tens of thousands of Geographers worldwide (around 12,000 graduate of Geography in the UK and US every year) but also …
      • Millions of School children worldwide (only in the UK there are over 7,000 Geography teachers)
    • So how we get them engaged?
  • 9. Rogers model of diffusion of innovations Crossing the chasm – move from early adopters to early majority is more tricky and requires adaptation of the product Image source: Wikipedia
  • 10. Challenges
    • Over time:
      • More users join with less technical skills
      • The sophistication of the database and the tools (JOSM, Potlatch) Increases
      • Jargon also plays a role (How do you pronounce OSMarender)
    • Need to avoid alienating the majority…
    • Majority is silent: on wikipedia 99.8% lurk, 0.2% contribute very little and 0.003% are the most active
    Technical skills Time Users Sophistication
  • 11. Challenges (2)
    • Also over time:
      • The scope of technical flexibility diminishes (decisions about tags, data structures)
      • Learning curve lengthen
    Technical skills Time Technical scope Length of learning
  • 12. Is Usability Engineering useful for this challenge?
    • HCI aims at enhancing the quality of interaction between humans and computer systems within the physical, organisational and social aspects of the users’ environment
    • Usability Engineering aims at meeting software users’ requirements so that they can carry out their tasks ‘safely, effectively and enjoyably’
  • 13. Usability Engineering
    • Usability engineering is one of the more practical elements of HCI research. It attempts to measure a system’s usability in terms of its:
      • Learnability
      • Efficiency
      • Memorability
      • Error rate
      • User satisfaction
  • 14. User-centred Design/ Development/ Deployment
    • A concept that emerged in Usability Engineering/HCI research in the 1980s.
    • Creating systems and tools that take into account the user’s needs, skills, abilities, limitations and wishes.
  • 15. Types of usability and users
    • Programmer usability : Google Maps API vs. ArcObjects API
    • Administrator usability : Linux GUI Control Center vs. cd /etc, vi cron.tab
    • Power user usability : Linux GUI Control Center vs. phone a sys admin
    • End user usability : Google Maps vs. Streetmap
  • 16. OSM Task 1 – Getting the data in
  • 17. OSM Task 1 – Getting the data in
    • Main task: creating the map
    • Users: highly computer literate, highly motivated (current cohort)
    • Technology is a challenge, not an obstacle
    Image source: Microsoft and OSM
  • 18. OSM Task 1a – Getting the data in
    • With the introduction of Yahoo! Imagery, there is the potential to engage new users.
    • Potential users: map enthusiasts, got Internet connection (and time)
    • However, there are obstacles:
      • Sophistication of Potlatch
      • Help and introduction
      • Undo/Redo function
      • Moderations (future spam)
    Image source: Microsoft and OSM
  • 19. OSM Task 1b – Getting the data in
    • N95, iPhone – and the new generation of GPS-enabled phone
    • Needs:
      • Very easy data entry
      • Basic data collection (not more then 2 minutes per item)
      • Easy upload and update
      • Applications exist – but can you give it to a school teacher?
    Image source: Microsoft , OSM, Nokia
  • 20. OSM Task 2 – Getting data out
  • 21. OSM Task 2 – Getting data out
    • Over the web: mashups, API
    • End user: GIS
    • End user: Geogadgets
    Image source: Microsoft and OSM
  • 22. OSM Task 2 – Getting data out: GIS
    • Users profile:
      • Can’t afford/don’t want to use commercial data.
      • Likely to be in a small organisation (private, charity, commercial).
      • Likely to have basic GIS (ArcView, Mapinfo, Manifold GIS)
      • Likely power users to end users, very limited technical support.
    • Needs: easy to use download area
    • Potential source of revenue?
  • 23. Image source: OSM
  • 24. Paper maps vs. computer maps Image source: A-Z
  • 25.  
  • 26. OSM Task 2 – Getting data out: Geogadgets
    • Users profile: end users. No technical knowledge.
    • Needs: easy to use automatic download, in formats that are suitable for their Geogadget
    • Require: high coverage, licensing
    • Implementation: likely by Geogadgets vendors
    • Source of revenue?
  • 27. OSM Task 3 – updating data and adding additional information
  • 28. OSM Task 3 – updating data and adding additional information
    • 3-5 years from now (well, right now for NL)
    • Users profile: end users, discovering errors while using a derived product
    • Needs: very easy way to record and inform the change, moderation required.
    • Maybe a scope for change intelligence sub activity?
  • 29. Solutions
    • As OSM gets more sophisticated, ensure that newbies are included in testing of tools – they are the future of the community
    • Develop applications specifically to newbies so they can develop their understanding and skills
      • Example: an application that picks streets information with street name for a start, providing more functionality as the user graduates
    • Who will develop these applications? (they are not necessarily cool and cutting edge)
  • 30. Summary
    • OSM got an amazing potential for outreach
    • Usability principles and user centred design can help in ensuring the long time success of the project