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Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014
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Oxford Martin School talk - May 2014

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What happens when instead of asking the crowd for help, the question of what is explored is handed over to the participants? …

What happens when instead of asking the crowd for help, the question of what is explored is handed over to the participants?

The potential of bottom-up citizen science has increased dramatically in the past decade. To understand this, we can look at the societal and technological changes that led to this proliferation, and then explore the challenges, risks and opportunities that this approach presents.

This seminar will also be live webcast here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqY8Jv5r4bs

Published in: Science, Technology, Education
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  • 1. Beyond the screen: the power and beauty of ‘up-science’ projects Muki Haklay @mhaklay Extreme Citizen Science group @ucl_excites
  • 2. Extreme Citizen Science Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) is a situated, bottom-up practice that takes into account local needs, practices and culture and works with broad networks of people to design and build new devices and knowledge creation processes that can transform the world.
  • 3. ExCiteS Research Group ExCiteS is an interdisciplinary research group at UCL that develops … • Theories • Tools • Methodologies … to enable any community anywhere to engage and participate in Citizen Science.
  • 4. Outline • Citizen science in the 20th Century • Enabling trends: societal, technology • Citizen science today: biodiversity/conservation, volunteer computing, volunteer thinking • Typologies and levels of participation • Up-Science: examples • Challenges & open issues
  • 5. Volunteer rainfall observer Rick Grocke checks the rain gauge at Tanami Downs cattle station in the Northern Territory of Australia © WMO–No. 919 • Scientific activities in which non- professional scientists volunteer to participate in data collection, analysis and dissemination of a scientific project. © Audubon Cal. Citizen science Jennifer Jewett / USFWS Participating in Christmas Bird Count
  • 6. The era of professional science • Involvement continued: archaeology, astronomy, ornithology, biodoversity, conservation, meteorology … • No recognition, views of volunteers as ‘untrustworthy’ contributors Shoemaker-Levy 9 on 17 May 1994
  • 7. Trends • Technology and societal enablers • Within the last 10 years: – Web availability, with broadband access to resources and information – Collaborative, socially-based knowledge creation systems (Web 2.0) – Location-enabled mobile devices – DIY electronics, ‘makers’ & ‘hackers’ • Combined with: – Increased levels of education – Increased understanding of abstract concepts and science communication Haklay, M., Singleton, A., and Parker, C., 2008, Web mapping 2.0: the Neogeography of the Geoweb, Geography Compass
  • 8. (CC) Cliff 1066
  • 9. Web availability and interaction (CC) Ell Brown (Flickr)
  • 10. Collaborative, socially-based knowledge creation systems
  • 11. Collaborative, socially-based knowledge creation systems
  • 12. Location sensing mobile devices • 1st May, 2000 – President Clinton removes the selective availability of GPS signals • Mobile connectivity and smartphones ©kristian stokholm (sxc.hu) )
  • 13. DIY electronics
  • 14. Increased level of education 0 5 10 15 20 25 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 UK - educational attainment for total population, 1950- 2010, age 25+ tertiary education, %
  • 15. Years of school completed by population 25+ years 1940-2009
  • 16. Increased level of education 95 99 107 116 124 132 138 146 154 159 165 1 10 100 1000 10000 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 World population and students in tertiary education, World Bank data Tertiary Ed World Population
  • 17. Understanding scientific concepts © Cambridge University Press© Sanja Gjenero (sxc.hu)
  • 18. A new era of citizen science • As a result of the technical and societal changes, citizen science re-emerged • New forms, fostered by ‘citizen cyberscience’ (citizen science facilitated by the Internet) • Types: biodiversity/conservation observations recording; volunteer computing; volunteer thinking; Do It Yourself (DIY) science; community/civic science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  • 19. Biodiversity/conservation
  • 20. iSpot: mobile collaboration Find iSpot at http://www.ispotnature.org/
  • 21. Volunteer computing World Community Grid at http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/
  • 22. Volunteer thinking See Zooniverse projects at http://www.zooniverse.org/
  • 23. Zooniverse – Feb 2014
  • 24. IBM World Community Grid: Aug 2013 survey (15,000 responses)
  • 25. IBM World Community Grid: Aug 2013 survey (15,000 responses)
  • 26. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Citizen Science today
  • 27. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Basic School High School University/College Postgraduate PhD Literacy
  • 28. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Basic School High School University/College Postgraduate PhD Literacy
  • 29. Typology of Citizen Science • Contributory projects, designed by scientists and members of the public primarily contribute data • Collaborative projects, designed by scientists and members of the public contribute data but may help in project design, analysis, or dissemination • Co-created projects, designed by scientists and members of the public working together and at least some of the public participants are actively involved in most/all steps of the scientific process Bonney, Ballard, Jordan, McCallie, Phillips, Shirk, & Wilderman. 2009. Public Participation in Scientific Research
  • 30. Participation in citizen science • Collaborative science – problem definition, data collection and analysis Level 4 ‘Extreme/ Up-Science’ • Participation in problem definition and data collection Level 3 ‘Participatory science’ • Citizens as basic interpreters Level 2 ‘Distributed intelligence’ • Citizens as sensors Level 1 ‘Crowdsourcing’ Haklay. 2013. Citizen Science and volunteered geographic information: Overview and typology of participation, Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  • 31. Cooper, Dickinson, Phillips & Bonney, 2007, Citizen Science as tool for conservation in residential ecosystems. Ecology and Society 12(2) Question Study Design Data Collection Data Analysis and Interpretation Understanding results Management Action Geographic scope of project Nature of people taking action Research priority Education priority Traditional Science Scientific Consulting* Citizen Science* Collaborative Citizen Science Participatory Action Research Variable Narrow NarrowBroad Broad Managers Community Groups Managers Individuals Community Groups Highest Medium High High Medium Low Medium High High High *often called Science Shops Community Science Co-created Citizen Science Narrow High High All √ √√√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √Public Scientists √ √ √
  • 32. Up-science
  • 33. More information at http://publiclaboratory.org
  • 34. Scrap yard Community Centre School Noise mapping
  • 35. Mapping for Change LCY noise mapping study at http://bit.ly/LCYNoise
  • 36. Distribution of Survey Points
  • 37. 50m Squares - Averages Numbers indicate how Many readings in each 50m square
  • 38. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 dBA Sound Readings - No Flights 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00 dBA Sound Readings - Normal Flights Source: Wikimedia Eyjafjallajökull – April 2010
  • 39. Ozone Sampling
  • 40. Dust Sampling
  • 41. Diffusion tubes Source: West Wiltshire
  • 42. See http://www.silvertowntunnel.co.uk/tag/citizen-science/
  • 43. Forest monitoring Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  • 44. Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  • 45. Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  • 46. Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS See Jerome Lewis’ TEDxUCL talk at http://bit.ly/JeromeLewisTEDxUCL
  • 47. Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  • 48. Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  • 49. Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
  • 50. ExCiteS Methods 60 1) A detailed process of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) 2) Iterative, participatory software development to ensure the ExCiteS tools are relevant and usable 3) Building Community Protocols for engagement with: a) The project itself b) Other stakeholders in the data to be collected
  • 51. 67
  • 52. Challenges • Data Quality Assurance • Calibration & interpretation • Naïve (GIGO) citizen science • Malicious citizen science (?) • Ethical & professional practices • NIMBY/NIABY/BANANA & Activism
  • 53. Data Quality Assurance • Crowdsourcing - the number of people that edited the information • Social - gatekeepers and moderators • Geographic - broader geographic knowledge • Domain knowledge - the knowledge domain of the information • Instrumental observation – technology based calibration • Process oriented – following a procedure
  • 54. Naïve Citizen Science?
  • 55. (cc) Nathan Chantrell
  • 56. Malicious Citizen Science
  • 57. Ethical & professional practices [Scientist] stood up and said that the data was not statistically significant—and it could be harmful if patients built their own regimens based on the results. … many of the attendees considered [the] experiment to be "soft" science. (WSJ 2011)
  • 58. Activist Citizen Science • NIMBY – Not in My Back Yard • NIABY – Not in Anyone’s Back Yard • BANANA – Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anyone Vs • Environmental Justice • Environmental Inequalities In addition, the role of science in the discussion
  • 59. Summary • Technological and societal changes enabled a new era in citizen science • In particular, DIY electronics, knowledge sharing systems and smartphone open up the possibility of ‘up-science’ • Despite the challenges, there is a potential of making citizen science available across the globe – to any community, regardless of literacy
  • 60. • Follow us: – http://www.ucl.ac.uk/excites – Twitter: @UCL_ExCiteS – Blog: http://uclexcites.wordpress.com
  • 61. Credits Support for the research kindly provided by: UCL Graduate School Research Fund ESRC ‘Conserving Biodiversity That Matters: The Value of Brownfield Sites’ project RGS/IBG Small Research Grant UrbanBuzz: Building Sustainable Communities (HEFCE) London Sustainability Exchange (LSx) London 21 Sustainability Network EPSRC Challenging Engineering Award ‘Extreme Citizen Science’ EPSRC Adaptable Suburbs project EU FP7 EveryAware project Google Research Awards Amazon Web Services Education Grants Our special thanks to the participants and the communities that work with us And to our partners: Royal Geographical Society, ESRI, Helveta and U-Blox

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