World Wetlands Day Presentation 02-05-2013

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World Wetlands Day 2013

World Wetlands Day 2013

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  • The Ramsar Convention uses a broad definition of wetlands, including swamps and marshes, lakes and rivers, wet grasslands and peatlands, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, near-shore marine areas, mangroves and coral reefs, as well as human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs, and salt pans. Wetlands exist in every country in the world and in every climatic zone, from the polar regions to the tropics, and on every continent. Even wetlands that are dry for some period of time during the year are important to wildlife, especially for breeding purposes.
  • Marches (болотные ветланды)Marshes are defined as wetlands frequently or continually inundated with water and they contain vegetation adapted to saturated soil conditions. Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Marshesreceive most of their water from surface water, and many marshes are also fed by groundwater. Nutrients are plentiful and the pH is usually neutral leading to an abundance of plant and animal life. Marshes recharge groundwater supplies and moderate streamflow by providing water to streams. This is an especially important function during periods of drought. The presence of marshes in a watershed helps to reduce damage caused by floods by slowing and storing flood water. As water moves slowly through a marsh, sediment and other pollutants settle to the substrate, or floor of the marsh. Marsh vegetation and microorganisms also use excess nutrients for growth that can otherwise pollute surface water such as nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer. This wetland type is very important to preserving the quality of surface waters. In fact, marshes are so good at cleaning polluted waters that people are now building replicas of this wetland type to treat wastewater from farms, parking lots, and small sewage plants.Peatlands and swamp forests(заболоченные леса с преобладанием торфа; Торф – образование скоплением остатков растений, подвергшихся неполному разложению в условиях болот)Peat (turf) is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation. Peat swamp forests are often inundated with floodwater from nearby rivers and streams. Sometimes, they are covered by many feet of very slowly moving or standing water. In very dry years they may represent the only source of water in a given area and their presence is critical to the survival of wetland-dependent species.FloodplainsA floodplain is an area of land adjacent to river and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. Floodplains can support very rich ecosystems, both in quantity and diversity, and they particularly valuable for agriculture. A floodplain can contain much more species than a river. MangrovesMangroves are various types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropical and subtropical regions. Approximately 35% of mangrove area was lost during the last several decades of the 20th century (in countries for which sufficient data exist), which encompass about half of the area of mangroves. The United Nations Environment Program also estimated shrimp farming causes a quarter of the destruction of mangrove forests. Likewise, the 2010 update of the World Mangrove Atlas indicated a fifth of the world's mangrove ecosystems have been lost since 1980. Mangroves have been reported to be able to help buffer against tsunami, cyclones, and other storms. One village in Tamil Nadu was protected from tsunami destruction - the villagers in Naluvedapathy planted 80,244 saplings to get into the Guinness Book of World Records. This created a kilometre-wide belt of trees of various varieties. When the tsunami struck, much of the land around the village was flooded, but the village itself suffered minimal damage.LakesA lake is a body of relatively still water that is surrounded by land apart from a river, stream, or other form of moving water that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes are inland body of water and not part of the sea or ocean. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, and there are many lakes that are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for recreational purposes. Over time the lake may be infilled with deposited sediment and gradually become a swampland or marshland.OasesOasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source. Oases provide critical habitat for animals and humans. The location of oases has been of critical importance for trade and transportation routes in desert areas. Caravans must travel via oases so that supplies of water and water can be replenished. Oases are formed from underground waters where water can reach the surface naturally by pressure or by man made wells. Rivers and river deltasA river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground and vanishes from the surface. River deltas are found on the lower reaches of rivers, where the flow of water spreads out and slows down, depositing sediments into expanses of wetlands and shallow water. Rivers give life-sustaining services to people. Throughout human history, rivers have served as important sources of drinking water, food and irrigation for crops. Rivers have played an essential role in the growth of civilizations as highways for transportation, commerce and sources of energy. Rivers and deltas provide critical habitat for fish and other freshwater animals. Thousands of species rely on healthy river flows for their survival. River waters also recharge lakes and transport fertile sediments that enrich all types of other wetlands. Growing human populations and increased demand for water by industry and agriculture is reducing both the quantity and quality of available water in rivers. The rising use of irrigated crops for food production and the reduced flows caused by dams means that little or no water reaches the sea from rivers.
  • Wetlands are cradles of biological diversity, providing water, habitat, and food upon which countless species of plants and animals depend for survival.Wetlands perform vital ecological functions, including water purification and storage, storm protection and flood mitigation, shoreline stabilization and erosion control, groundwater recharge and discharge, and retention of nutrients and sediments.Wetlands provide tremendous economic benefits, including water supply, fisheries, agricultural support through the maintenance of water tables and nutrient retention in floodplains, fuel sources, wildlife resources, transportation, and recreation and tourism.Wetlands have special religious and spiritual value, serving as a source of aesthetic and artistic inspiration, and supporting local social, economic, and cultural traditions.
  • Filling, ditching, or draining of wetlands for commercial development, houses, ports, highways, air-ports, waste disposal sites, or agriculture.Pollution from sediment, fertilizer, human sewage, animal waste, road salts, pesticides, and heavy metals can contaminate or degrade wetlands and the ecosystems they support.Invasive species displace local aquatic flora and fauna, alter water flow, quantity, and quality, and disrupt overall wetland ecosystem functionality.Climate change is causing some wetlands to disappear under rising sea levels, while others are severely impacted by changing climatic conditions, including drought.Excessive withdrawals of water from wetlands for agriculture, residential or commercial use.Construction of dams impedes water flow and replenishment of wetlands.
  • The rapid worldwide loss and degradation of wetlands has been the basis for the development of wetland conservation initiatives. Wetland loss is the loss of wetland area, due to the conversion of wetland to non-wetland habitats, as a result of human activity; and wetland degradation is the destruction of wetland functions as a result of human activity. The loss and degradation of wetlands reduces their ability to provide goods and services to humankind and to support biodiversity, and are therefore associated with high economic costs, and in general wetland restoration is very expensive.
  • The Aydar-Arnasay Lakes System is located at the crossroads of the Afro-Eurasian and Central Asian flyways and a centre for migrating and wintering waterbirds, with more than 100 species noted. It provides habitat to threatened species and an important source of food and a spawning ground for various species of fish.Many species of water birds migrating from the other regions that make their homes around the lake. The Lakes are is located away from inhabited localities, therefore there is perfect silence around the lake, and the lake region is an area of great potential for fishing, bird-watching,yurting and other type of environmental, recreational and tourist activities.In our recent trip to the lake (on January 30) we have actually seen several wintering bird species such as the Dalmatian Pelicans and Eurasian Coot, as well local birds of prey such as this eagle (next slide)…
  • (Next slide…)
  • This huge bird is the largest of the pelicans and one of the largest living bird species. It measures on average 170 cm in length, 12kg in weight and up to 3.5 meters in wingspan and its measures makes this bird the world's one of heaviest flying bird species. Dalmatianpelicans have declined greatly throughout its range. There were once millions and it is possible that today up to only 20,000 pelicans remaining today. The most likely reason for dramatic decline is habitat loss due to human activities such as the drainage of wetlands and land development. Colonies are regularly disturbed by human activity, and, like all pelicans, the parents may temporarily leave their nest if threatened, which then exposes the chicks to the risk of predation. Another probable reason for the decline in the species' population is poaching, mostly by fishermen who believe that these pelicans are depleting the fish populations in the wetlands.
  • This is another picture we have taken during our trip to the lakes, and these are the Eurasian Coots. This bird is not threatened as the pelicans but they are still need protection. It is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies.

Transcript

  • 1. World Wetlands Day February 2 Rayna Farnsworth Bakhtiyor Mukhammadiev U.S. Embassy Tashkent
  • 2. February 2: World Wetlands Day World Wetlands Day is an important occasion to raise public awareness about the value of wetlands to society and the role of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in their wise use and conservation.
  • 3. What is a Wetland? The Ramsar Convention uses a broad definition of wetlands, including swamps and marshes, lakes and rivers, wet grasslands and peatlands, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, near-shore marine areas, mangroves and coral reefs, as well as human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs, and salt pans. Wetlands exist in every country in the world and in every climatic zone, from the polar regions to the tropics, and on every continent. Even wetlands that are dry for some period of time during the year are important to wildlife, especially for breeding purposes.
  • 4. Marshes Peat swamp forests Floodplains Mangroves Lakes Rivers Oases River deltas
  • 5. Why are Wetlands Important? Wetlands are cradles of biological diversity, providing water, habitat, and food upon which countless species of plants and animals depend for survival. Wetlands provide tremendous economic benefits, including water supply, fisheries, agricultural support through the maintenance of water tables and nutrient retention in floodplains, fuel sources, wildlife resources, transportation, and recreation and tourism. Wetlands perform vital ecological functions, including water purification and storage, storm protection and flood mitigation, shoreline stabilization and erosion control, groundwater recharge and discharge, and retention of nutrients and sediments. Wetlands have special religious and spiritual value, serving as a source of aesthetic and artistic inspiration, and supporting local social, economic, and cultural traditions.
  • 6. How are Wetlands Used? Sweetwater Wetlands, Tucson, Arizona
  • 7. Wetlands: A Natural Filter Sweetwater Wetlands is designed to filter wastewater from Tucson’s Water Treatment Plant Water is first pumped into the wetland’s settling basins, where solids drop out of the water and settle on the basin floor, to be trapped by the soil and wetland plants The water then moves slowly through the wetlands, where more solids settle out and microbial processes help to clean the waters of pathogens and heavy metals This filtered water can then be chlorinated and sent to water golf courses, parks and school yards
  • 8. What Threats Do Wetlands Face? Filling, ditching, or draining of wetlands for commercial development, houses, ports, highway s, air-ports, waste disposal sites, or agriculture. Pollution from sediment, fertilizer, human sewage, animal waste, road salts, pesticides, and heavy metals can contaminate or degrade wetlands and the ecosystems they support. Invasive species displace local aquatic flora and fauna, alter water flow, quantity, and quality, and disrupt overall wetland ecosystem functionality. Climate change is causing some wetlands to disappear under rising sea levels, while others are severely impacted by changing climatic conditions, including drought. Excessive withdrawals of water from wetlands for agriculture, residential or commercial use. Construction of dams impedes water flow and replenishment of wetlands.
  • 9. Wetlands Loss and Degradation
  • 10. Aydar-Arnasay Lakes System - Ramsar Site of International Importance Dzhizak, Navoi; 527,100 ha; 40°47’N 067°46’E Ornithological protected area Lake Aydarkul Lake Arnasay Navoi Oblast Lake Tuzkon Dzhizak Oblast UZBEKISTAN KAZAKHSTAN
  • 11. Aydar-Arnasay Lakes System - Ramsar Site of International Importance Dzhizak, Navoi; 527,100 ha; 40°47’N 067°46’E Ornithological protected area White-headed Duck Savka Sociable Lapwing Dalmatian Pelican Red-breasted Goose Lesser White-fronted Goose Pallas Sea-Eagle The Aydar-Arnasay Lakes System is located at the crossroads of the Afro-Eurasian and Central Asian flyways and a centre for migrating and wintering waterbirds, with more than 100 species noted. It provides habitat to threatened species and an important source of food and a spawning ground for various
  • 12. Aydar-Arnasay Lakes System - Ramsar Site of International Importance Dzhizak, Navoi; 527,100 ha; 40°47’N 067°46’E Ornithological protected area
  • 13. Aydar-Arnasay Lakes System - Ramsar Site of International Importance Dzhizak, Navoi; 527,100 ha; 40°47’N 067°46’E Ornithological protected area
  • 14. Aydar-Arnasay Lakes System - Ramsar Site of International Importance Dzhizak, Navoi; 527,100 ha; 40°47’N 067°46’E Ornithological protected area
  • 15. Lake Dengizkul - Ramsar Site of International Importance Bukhara; 31,300 ha; 39°07'N 064°10'E UZBEKISTAN Bukhara Oblast TURKMENISTAN
  • 16. Lake Dengizkul - Ramsar Site of International Importance Bukhara; 31,300 ha; 39°07'N 064°10'E Mallard Dalmatian Pelican Marbled Teal Ferruginous Duck Lake Dengizkul is very important for maintaining a biodiversity of wetland-dependent species in a largely arid region. It is of crucial importance for migrating and wintering waterfowl, as it is situated on the route of bird migrations from Western Siberia and Kazakhstan to Indo-Pakistani wintering grounds. Lake Dengizkul is also the habitat of many vulnerable and endangered species.
  • 17. Lake Dengizkul - Ramsar Site of International Importance Bukhara; 31,300 ha; 39°07'N 064°10'E
  • 18. Lake Dengizkul - Ramsar Site of International Importance Bukhara; 31,300 ha; 39°07'N 064°10'E
  • 19. Lake Dengizkul - Ramsar Site of International Importance Bukhara; 31,300 ha; 39°07'N 064°10'E
  • 20. What Can YOU Do? Be careful when using chemicals for cleaning, gardening, and other outdoor activities. Remember that any chemicals you wash down the street may end up in a wetland! Learn more about the wetlands around you! Take a trip to see the wetlands and observe wildlife there! Reduce, reuse, and recycle. Less trash in the environment means that less trash will end up in wildlife habitats, like wetlands. Conserve water! Excessive water use is one of the major threats that wetlands face. Turn off the tap when you brush your teeth, fix water leaks at home, take shorter showers.