Training design


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Traning design

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Training design

  1. 1. Training Design <ul><li>Training design refers to factors built into the training program to increase the chances that transfer of training will occur. </li></ul>
  2. 2. DESIGNING A TRAINING PROG. <ul><li>Identification of training needs </li></ul><ul><li>training objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of training </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of training outcomes or results </li></ul>
  3. 3. Training Objective <ul><li>It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Setting training objectives <ul><li>Specific objectives of training </li></ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Improved performance </li></ul><ul><li>Better human resource planning </li></ul><ul><li>Higher morale </li></ul><ul><li>Better health & safety </li></ul>Overall purpose of training Increased organizational effectiveness
  5. 5. Beneficiaries of training objectives
  6. 6. Trainer <ul><li>Internal Trainer </li></ul><ul><li>External Trainer </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trainees <ul><li>a) Unskilled workers : Unskilled workers require training in improved methods of handling machines and materials to reduce the cost of production and waste and to do the job in the most economical way. Such employees are given training on the job only and their immediate supervisor, officers or foremen impart the training. The training period ranges from 3 to 6 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Skilled workers: They are given training through the system of apprenticeship, which varies in duration from a year to three or five years. Such training is also known as tradesmen or craftsmen training, and is particularly useful for such trades in industry which require highly sophisticated skills. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Other employees: Besides the above types of employees, others also need training in particular fields; but such training is usually provided outside an industry. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Supervisory Training <ul><li>Planning, allocation and control of work and personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of methods of study, time study, job evaluation and the supervisors’ responsibilities and functions in connection therewith </li></ul><ul><li>Company policies and practices for the purchase of stores, the preparation of requisitions, inventories, cost analysis, cost control and shop rules and the preparation of reports and other standard operating procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel procedures, policies and programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Training of subordinates and grievance handling, and techniques of disciplinary procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Communication, effective instruction, report writing </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal of employees and their rating, and the maintenance of personnel records </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with the problem of absenteeism, tardiness, indiscipline and insubordination </li></ul><ul><li>The handling of human problems i.e. maintaining good interpersonal relations and morale of the employees </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial laws, standing orders and trade union organization </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of administration, safety, health and welfare regulations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Other elements of training design <ul><li>Training Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Trainees’ learning style </li></ul><ul><li>Training strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Training topics </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• From simple to complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• From known to unknown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• From specific to general </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Dependent relationship </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Training tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Support facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Training period </li></ul>
  11. 12. Training facilities Flashy presentation could distract from training, rely heavily on technology Can be very flashy, use of colour and sound provide different stimuli for obtaining interest Computer generated animated presentations 3. High material cost, very high development cost, might not be tailor-made Can demonstrate appropriate behaviour, good for receiving personal feedback, can present and integrate conceptual information Film and video 2. Single sensory input, no interaction Can be used any where and any time, reusable Audio tapes 1. D Y N A M I C Flashy presentation could distract from training, rely heavily on technology Able to develop flashy visual images, use of colour and control of points, can be easily modified Computer-generated overheads 3. Can be distracting, projector can block view Able to overlay systems, flowcharts etc; easy to use, can be seen from a distance Overheads 2. Difficult to view from a distance, bulky to transport Add colour and interest in lecture, economic, can be referred to again and again Charts / posters 1 Disadvantages Advantages Audio-visual aids S.No. S T A T I C
  12. 13. Evaluation of training programme <ul><li>A comprehensive appraisal of training would provide useful information about the effectiveness of training as well as about the design of future training programme. It will enable the org. to monitor the training programme and take appropriate measures in the future. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Characteristics of effective training programme <ul><li>It should be designed after identifying the training needs or goals </li></ul><ul><li>It should be flexible. It should take care of the difference in the ability, aptitude, learning capacity, emotional make-up etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A good training prog. should prepare the trainees mentally before they are imparted any job knowledge or skills </li></ul><ul><li>An effective training prog. Should have top management’s support. </li></ul><ul><li>An effective training prog. Should be supported by a system of critical appraisal of the outcome of the training efforts. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Principles of training <ul><li>Training prog. must be based on the principles of individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>The need for and the depth and nature of training to be provided should be worked out from the job analysis </li></ul><ul><li>For effective motivation of trainees, suitable incentives must be provided </li></ul><ul><li>Both the executive and supervisors as well as the trainees must take active part in the training activities, so that all concerned take genuine interest in the training. </li></ul><ul><li>The trainer selected for imparting training should undergo special training for the purpose. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: <ul><li>Work Conditions (Trainee has difficulty using new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few opportunities to use skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate budget </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of Peer Support (Peers do not support use of new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourage use of new knowledge and skills on the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwilling to provide feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See training as a waste of time </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of Management Support (Managers do not reinforce training or provide opportunities to use new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not accept ideas or suggestions that are learned in training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not discuss training opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose use of skills learned in training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate that training is a waste of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwilling to provide feedback and reinforcement for trainees to use training content </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Work Environment Characteristics Influencing Transfer of Training: Climate for Transfer Manager Support Peer Support Opportunity to Perform Technological Support
  19. 20. Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: <ul><li>Supervisors and co-workers encourage and set goals for trainees to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul><ul><li>Task cues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a trainee’s job prompt or remind him to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors support the application of new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees are not openly discouraged from using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic reinforcement consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees receive extrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic reinforcement consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees receive intrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer of Training: <ul><li>The Learning Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management </li></ul>
  22. 23. Key Features of a Learning Organization Continuous Learning Knowledge Generation and Sharing Critical Systematic Thinking Learning Culture Encouragement of Flexibility and Experimentation Valuing of Employees
  23. 24. Beginning of training programme <ul><li>Ice-breaking session generally conducted at the beginning of the training programme. It is conducted for the following reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>To weaken the hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the openness </li></ul><ul><li>To help participants know each other </li></ul><ul><li>To serve as a warm-up session </li></ul><ul><li>To help participants relax and ease </li></ul>