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- 1. SQL Simple Queries – Worksheet 3 SQL Queries - Basics Worksheet - 3 SUMMARY QUERIES1 What is a summary query? For certain queries we are not interested in finer details of each record in a table. Rather we want aggregate or summary information. For example, consider the following queries: a) How many salespeople have exceeded their yearly quota? b) What is the sixe of the average order for an office? c) How many salespeople are assigned to each office? d) What is the average mark of students in an exam? SQL supports these requests for summary data through column functions and the GROUP BY and HAVING clauses of the SELECT statement.2 What are the COLUMN functions in SQL? SQL lets you summarize data from the database through a set of column functions. A SQL column function takes an entire column of data as its argument and produces a single data item that summarizes the column. For example, the AVG() column function takes a column of data and computes its average. Here is a query that uses the AVG() column function to compute the average value of two columns from the SALESREPS table: What are the average quota and average sales of our salespeople? SELECT AVG(QUOTA), AVG(SALES) FROM SALESREPS AVG(QUOTA) AVG(SALES) The first column function in the query takes values in the QUOTA column and computes their average; the second one averages the values in the SALES column. The query produces a single row of query results summarizing the data in the SALESREPS table. SQL offers 6 different column functions. These are: 1. SUM() – computes the total of a column 2. AVG() – computes the average value in a column 3. MIN() – finds the minimum value in a column 4. MAX() – finds the maximum value in a column 5. COUNT() – counts the number of values in a column 6. COUNT(*) – counts row of query results The argument to a column function can be a simple column name or an expression. Example 1:Prof. Mukesh N. Tekwani Page 1 of 4
- 2. SQL Simple Queries – Worksheet 3 What is the average quota performance of our salespeople? SELECT AVG (100 * (SALES/QUOTA)) FROM SALESREPS Computing a column total The SUM() column function computes the sum of a column of data values. The data in the column must have a numeric type (integer, decimal, floating point, or money). The result of the SUM() function has the same basic data type as the data in the column, but the result may have a higher precision. For example, if you apply the SUM() function to a column of 16-bit integers, it may produce a 32-bit integer as its result. Example 2: What are the total quotas and sales for all salespeople? SELECT SUM(QUOTA), SUM(SALES) FROM SALESREPS What is the total of the orders taken by Bill Adams? SELECT SUM(AMOUNT) FROM ORDERS, SALESREPS WHERE NAME = Bill Adams AND REP = EMPL_NUM Computing an Average The AVG() column function computes the average of a column of data values. The data in the column must have a numeric type. Because the AVG() function adds the values in the column and then divides by the number of values, its result may have a different data type than that of the values in the column. For example, if you apply the AVG() function to a column of integers, the result will be either a decimal or a floating point number. Calculate the average price of products from manufacturer ACI. SELECT AVG(PRICE) FROM PRODUCTS WHERE MFR_ID = ACI Calculate the average size of an order placed by Acme Mfg. (customer number 2103). SELECT AVG(AMOUNT) FROM ORDERS WHERE CUST = 2103Page 2 of 4 mukeshtekwani@hotmail.com
- 3. SQL Simple Queries – Worksheet 3 Finding maximum and minimum values The MIN() and MAX() column functions find the smallest and largest values in a column, respectively. The data in the column can contain numeric, string, or date/time information. The result of the MIN() or MAX() function has exactly the same data type as the data in the column. What are the smallest and largest assigned quotas? SELECT MIN(QUOTA), MAX(QUOTA) FROM SALESREPS What is the earliest order date in the database? SELECT MIN(ORDER_DATE) FROM ORDERS What is the best sales performance of any salesperson? SELECT MAX(100 * (SALES/QUOTA)) FROM SALESREPS MAX(100*(SALES/QUOTA)) Counting Data Values The COUNT() column function counts the number of data values in a column. The data in the column can be of any type. The COUNT() function always returns an integer, regardless of the data type of the column. How many customers are there? SELECT COUNT(CUST_NUM) FROM CUSTOMERS How many salespeople are over quota? SELECT COUNT(NAME) FROM SALESREPS WHERE SALES > QUOTA Find the average order amount, total order amount, average order amount as a percentage of the customers credit limit, and average order amount as a percentage of the salespersons quota. SELECT AVG(AMOUNT), SUM(AMOUNT), (100 * AVG(AMOUNT/CREDIT_LIMIT)), (100 * AVG(AMOUNT/QUOTA)) FROM ORDERS, CUSTOMERS, SALESREPS WHERE CUST = CUST_NUM AND REP = EMPL_NUMProf. Mukesh N. Tekwani Page 3 of 4
- 4. SQL Simple Queries – Worksheet 33 What are Subqueries? Subqueries are query statements inside of query statements. Like the order of operations in algebra, order of operations also come into play when you start to embed SQL commands inside of other SQL commands (subqueries). Example 1: Select only the most recent order(s) in the orders table. We use the MAX(). This function wraps around a table column and returns the current highest (max) value for the specified column. We use this function to return the current "highest", or most recent date value in the orders table. USE mydatabase; SELECT MAX(day_of_order) FROM orders Now we can throw this query into the WHERE clause of another SELECT query. USE mydatabase; SELECT * FROM orders WHERE day_of_order = ( SELECT MAX(day_of_order) FROM orders )4 SELECT Case statement SQL CASE is a very unique conditional statement providing if/then/else logic for any ordinary SQL command, such as SELECT or UPDATE. It then provides when-then-else functionality (WHEN this condition is met THEN do_this). USE northwind SELECT productid, Status = CASE WHEN quantity > 0 THEN in stock ELSE out of stock END FROM "order details";5 GROUP BY statement SQL GROUP BY aggregates (consolidates and calculates) column values into a single record value. GROUP BY requires a list of table columns on which to run the calculations. USE mydatabase SELECT customer FROM orders GROUP BY customerPage 4 of 4 mukeshtekwani@hotmail.com

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