CAGAYAN VALLEY(FILIPINO:LAMBAK NG
Cagayan Valley is the large mass of land in the northeastern region of Luzon, comprising
today the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcayaand Quirino. It is bounded to the
west by the Cordillera Mountain Range, to the east by the Sierra Madre Mountain Range,
and bounded by theBabuyan Island, where the waters of the Pacific Ocean in the east
and the South China Sea in the west meet.
Cagayan Valley, contains two landlocked provinces, Quirino and Nueva Vizcaya. Both
are relatively small in size (3057 km2 for Quirino, 4081 km2for Nueva Vizcaya) and
population (147,000 and 365,000, respectively, by the 2000 census). They are ruggedly
mountainous and heavily forested. Nueva Vizcaya is the remnant of the southern
province created when Cagayan Province was divided in two in 1839. They are
ethnically and linguistically diverse, with a substrate of Agtas, Negritos who are food-
gatherers with no fixed abodes, overlaid by Ilongots and others in a number of tribes,
some of whom were fierce head-hunters (they have given up the practice), with the
latest but largest element of the population being Ilokano.
Nueva Vizcaya comprises 15 towns; Bayombong is the capital. Agriculture in both has
until recently consisted of slash-and-burn cultivation of corn and maize, though more
stable cultivation of vegetables and fruits are becoming established. They produce logs
and are trying to manage their forest resources so that production can be sustained
indefinitely. They have deposits of gold, silver, copper, iron. Nueva Vizcaya has sand
Archaeology indicates that the Cagayan Valley has been inhabited for half a million
years, though no human remains of any such antiquity have yet appeared. The earliest
inhabitants are the Agta, or Atta, food-gatherers who roam the forests without fixed
abodes. A large tract of land has lately been returned to them. The bulk of the population
is of Malay origin. For centuries before the coming of the Spanish, the inhabitants traded
with Indians, Malays, Chinese, and Japanese. In the nineteenth century the prosperity
found in tobacco cultivation caused many Ilokano to settle here. Tobacco is still a major
factor in the economy of Cagayan, though a special economic zone and free port has
been created to strengthen and diversify the provincial economy.
During Spanish times Cagayan Valley had a larger territory than what it has today. It
included the territories of the above-mentioned provinces and the eastern parts of
the Cordillera provinces ofApayao, Kalinga, Ifugao and Benguet. As the historian and
missionary Jose Burgues, said, "The old Cagayan Valley comprises the province
of Cagayan, Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya as well as the military Districts of Apayao,
Itaves, Quiangan, Cayapa and Bintangan, plus the area of the Sierra Madre to
the Pacific Ocean in the said trajectory."
At Balete Pass in Nueva Vizcaya the retreating Japanese under General Tomoyuki
Yamashita dug in and held on for three months against the American and Filipino forces
who eventually drove them out; the pass is now called Dalton Pass in honor of General
Dalton, USA, who was killed in the fighting.
The province of Isabela is the richest in Cagayan Valley. It was the Top 10
Richest Province in the Philippines in 2011, being the only province of Northern
Luzon to be included in the list.
Cagayan has much to offer visitors: beaches, swimming, snorkeling, skin-
diving, fishing in the river and the sea, hiking in primeval forest, mountain-
climbing, archaeological sites, the remarkable collection of the provincial
museum, the Callao Caves, and many fine churches. Even here there are
fortifications built to protect the inhabitants from raids by the Mara.
The Cagayan Economic Zone Authority (CEZA) is in Santa Ana, Cagayan.
Tilapia capital of the Philippines
On January 11, 2008, the Cagayan Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
(BFAR) stated that tilapia (species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe)
production grew and Cagayan Valley is now the Philippines’ tilapia capital (Saint
Peter’s fish). Production supply grew 37.25% since 2003, with 14,000 metric
tons (MT) in 2007. The recent aquaculture congress found that the growth of
tilapia production was due to government interventions: provision of fast-
growing species, accreditation of private hatcheries to ensure supply of quality
fingerlings, establishment of demonstration farms, providing free fingerlings to
newly constructed fishponds, and the dissemination of tilapia to Nueva
Vizcaya (in Diadi town).
Batanes Basco 16,604 209.3 79.3
1,124,773 9,002.0 124.9
Isabela Ilagan City 1,489,645 10,409.6 143.1
Bayombong 421,355 3,903.9 107.9
Quirino Cabarroguis 176,786 3,057.2 57.8
— 132,804 275.00 480
Region II is composed of five provinces, one
independent city, three component cities,
89 municipalities, and 2,311 barangays.
The Province of Batanes (Ivatan: Probinsya nu Batanes, Filipino:
Lalawigan ng Batanes) is an island province in the region of
Cagayan Valley. Its comprising ten islands that are located in the
Luzon Strait between the islands of Luzon and Taiwan. It is the
northernmost province of the Philippines and is also the smallest
province, both in terms of population and land area.island group is
located about 162 km north of Luzon and about 190 kilometers
south of Taiwan, separated from the Babuyan Islands of Cagayan
Province, Luzon, by the Balintang Channel and from Taiwan by
the Bashi Channel.
The provincial capital is Basco on Batan Island and the only other
inhabited islands are Itbayat and Sabtang. The northernmost
island of the province, making it the northernmost island in the
Philippines, is Mavudis (Y'ami) Island. Other islands in the chain
are Misanga, Siayan, Ivuhos, and Dequey. The islands are part
of the Luzon Volcanic Arc.
The ancestors of today's Ivatans are descended from Austronesians who migrated to the islands
4000 years ago during the Neolithic period. They lived in fortified mountain areas called idjangs and
drank sugar-cane wine, or palek. They also used gold as currency and produced a thriving
agriculture-based industry. They were also seafarers and boat-builders.
In 1687, a crew of English freebooters headed by William Dampier came with a Dutch crew and
named the islands in honour of their country's nobility. Itbayat was named "Orange Isle" after William
of Orange, and Batan was named "Grafton Isle" after Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton. Sabtang
Isle was named "Monmouth Isle" after James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. Capt. Dampier stayed for
less than three months, and did not claim the islands for the British crown.
Toward the end of the Spanish regime, Batanes was made a part of Cagayan. In 1909, however, the
American authorities organized it into an independent province. Because of its strategic location, the
islands was one of the first points occupied by the invading Japanese imperial forces at the outbreak
of the Pacific War.
During the American colonial period, public schools suddenly boomed, and more Ivatan became more
aware of their place in the Philippines. One of the first School Superintendents was Victor de Padua,
an Ilocano, who in 1942-45 during the Japanese occupation was made Provincial Governor.
In 1920, the first wireless telegraph was installed, followed by an airfield in 1930. Roads were
constructed and the Batanes High School was instituted.
In the morning of December 8, 1941, the Batan Task Force from Taiwan landed on the Batan Islands,
the first American territory occupied by the Japanese. Japanese fighters from these islands took part
in the raid on Clark Air Base later that same day.
During the Second World War, the Japanese army committed atrocities against the Ivatan. When the
United States regained the country, Batanes regained its provincehood.
The people of Batanes are called Ivatan and share prehistoric cultural and linguistic
commonalities with the Babuyan on Babuyan Island and the Tao people of Orchid Island.
This divided homeland is a result of the Dutch invasion of Taiwan in 1624 (Dutch Formosa)
and Spanish invasion in 1626 (Spanish Formosa). The northern half of the Ivatan
homeland, Formosa and Orchid Island which were formally part of the Viceroyalty of New
Spain, fell to the Dutch who were in turn expelled in 1662 by forces of the Chinese Ming
Dynasty, led by the Chinese pirate Koxinga who then set himself up as The King of
The southern half of the Ivatan homeland, the islands of the Batanes, was reinforced and
fortified by Spanish refugees from Formosa before being formally joined in the 18th
century with the Spanish government in Manila.
The main languages spoken in Batanes are Ivatan, which is spoken on the islands of
Batan and Sabtang, and Itbayaten, which is spoken primarily on the island of Itbayat. The
Ivatan which is dominant in the province is considered to be one of the Austronesian
languages. From college level down to elementary level, the language is widely spoken.
Batanes on a map of the Luzon Strait
The islands are the northernmost islands of the Philippines. They are located between the Babuyan
Islands (belonging to Cagayan Province) and Taiwan. The islands are sparsely populated and
subject to frequent typhoons.
The three largest islands are Itbayat, Batan, and Sabtang. The northernmost is Mavudis Island.
Almost one-half of Batanes are hills and mountains. Batan Island, with a land area of 35 km², is
generally mountainous on the north and southeast. It has a basin in the interior. Itbayat Island,
which has a total area of 95 km², slopes gradually to the west, being mountainous and hilly along its
northern, eastern coast. As for Sabtang, mountains cover the central part of its 41 km² area, making
the island slope outward to the coast.
The islands are situated between the vast expanse of the waters of Bashi Channel and Balintang
Channel, where the Pacific Ocean, merges with the China Sea. The area is a sealane between the
Philippines and Japan, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. It is rich with marine resources, including the
rarest sea corals in the world[which?].
The province is hilly and mountainous, with only 1,631.50 hectares or 7.10% of its area level to
undulating and 78.20% or 17,994.40 hectares varying in terms from rolling to steep and very steep.
Forty two percent (42%) or 9,734.40 hectares are steep to very steep land.
Because of the terrain of the province, drainage is good and prolonged flooding is non-existent. The
main island of Batan has the largest share of level and nearly level lands, followed by Itbayat and
Sabtang, respectively. Itbayat has gently rolling hills and nearly level areas on semi-plateaus
surrounded by continuous massive cliffs rising from 20–70 meters above sea level, with no
shorelines. Sabtang on the other hand, has its small flat areas spread sporadically on its coasts,
while its interior is dominated by steep mountains and deep canyons. Batan Island and Sabtang
have intermittent stretches of sandy beaches and rocky shorelines.
The terrain of the province while picturesque at almost every turn, has limited the potential for
expansion of agriculture in an already very small province.
An extensive survey of the ecology
of Batanes provided the scientific
basis for confirming the need for a
national park in Batanes protecting
the Batanes protected landscapes
and seascapes, proposed as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site,
submitted on 15 August 1993.
About 75% of the Ivatans are farmers and fishermen. The rest are
employed in the government and services sector. Garlic and cattle
are major cash crops. Ivatans also plant camote (sweet potato),
cassava, gabi or tuber and a unique variety of white uvi. Sugarcane
is raised to produce palek, a kind of native wine, and vinegar.
In recent years, fish catch has declined due to the absence of
technical know-how. Employment opportunities are scarce. Most of
the educated Ivatans have migrated to urban centers or have gone
A wind diesel generating plant was commissioned in 2004.
Distance and bad weather work against its economic growth.
Certain commodities like rice, soft drinks, and gasoline carry a 75%
to 100% mark-up over Manila retail prices.
Cagayan (Ilokano: Probinsya ti Cagayan;
Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Cagayan), is a province
of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley Region in
the northeast of Luzon Island, and includes the
Babuyan Islands to the north. The province
borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao to the west, and
Kalinga and Isabela to the south. The capital of
Cagayan is Tuguegarao City.
Cagayan Province is distinct from the city of
Cagayan de Oro in Mindanao, Cagayancillo in
Palawan, and the island of Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi
in the Sulu Sea.
In 1581, Captain Juan Pablo Carreon arrived in Cagayan with a
hundred fully equipped soldiers and their families by order of
Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñaloza, the fourth Spanish Governor-
General of the Philippines. the expeditionary force was sent to
explore the Cagayan Valley, to forcibly convert the natives to
Catholicism, and to establish ecclesiastical missions and towns
throughout the valley.
On 29 June 1583, Juan de Salcedo traced the northern coastline of
Luzon and set foot on the Massi (Pamplona), Tular, and Aparri
areas. The Spanish friars soon established mission posts in
Camalaniugan and Lal-lo (Nueva Segovia), which became the seat
of the Diocese established by Pope Clement VIII on August 14,
1595. The Spanish influence can still be seen in the massive
churches and other buildings that the Spaniards built for the
spiritual and social welfare of the people.
The province is bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the east; on the
south by Isabela province; on the west by the Cordillera Mountains;
and on the north by the Balintang Channel and the Babuyan Group
of Islands. About two kilometers from the northeastern tip of the
province is the island of Palaui; a few kilometers to the west is Fuga
Island. The Babuyan Group of Islands, which includes Calayan,
Dalupiri, Camiguin, and Babuyan Claro, is about 60 nautical miles
(110 km) north of Luzon mainland.
The province comprises an aggregate land area of 9,002.70 square
kilometers, which constitutes three percent of the total land area of
the country, making it the second largest province in the region.
Cagayan has 28 municipalities and one city divided into three
congressional districts. It has 820 barangays. Tuguegarao City (as
of December 18, 1999) is the provincial capital, regional seat, and
center of business, trade, and education. It has a land area of
144.80 square kilometers and a population of 120,645 as of 2000.
The majority of people living in Cagayan are
of Ilocano descent, mostly from migrants
coming from the Ilocos Region. Originally,
the more numerous group were the Ibanags,
who were first sighted by the Spanish
explorers and converted to Christianity by
missionaries. This is why the Ibanag
language spread throughout the area prior to
the arrival of Ilocanos.
Agricultural products are rice, corn, peanut, beans, and fruits.
Livestock products include cattle, hogs, carabaos, and poultry.
Fishing various species of fish from the coastal towns is also
undertaken. Woodcraft furniture made of hardwood, rattan,
bamboo, and other indigenous materials are also available in the
province. The Northern Cagayan International Airport is a planned
airport in Lal-lo, Cagayan. The airport will be built to support the
Cagayan Special Economic Zone in northern Cagayan, which also
serves seaborne traffic through Port Irene. The airport project will
involve the construction of a 2,200-meter runway, with a width of 45
meters, following the standards of the International Civil Aviation
Organization. Once completed, the planned international airport
can accommodate large aircraft such as the Airbus A319-100 and
Boeing regional jets of comparable size. SM City Aparri will soon
be built once the towns of Aparri, Santa Ana and Lal-lo attained its
The Province of Isabela (Ilokano: Probinsya ti Isabela, Filipino:
Lalawigan ng Isabela)), is province of the Philippines and the
second largest province in the country next to Palawan. It is
located in the Cagayan Valley Region in Luzon. Its capital is
Ilagan and borders, clockwise from the south, Aurora, Quirino,
Nueva Vizcaya, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Kalinga, and
Cagayan. This primarily agricultural province is the rice and corn
granary of Luzon due to its plain and rolling terrain. In 2012, the
province was declared as country's top producer in corn with
It is the Top 10 richest province in the Philippines last 2011, being
the only province of Northern Luzon to be included in the list. The
province has four trade centers in the cities of Ilagan, Cauayan,
Santiago and the municipality of Roxas.
Prior to 1856, there were only two provinces in the Cagayan Valley:
Cagayan and Nueva Vizcaya. The Province of Cagayan at that time
consisted of all towns from Tumauini to the north in Aparri and all
other towns from Ilagan City, Roxas southward to Aritao comprised
the Province of old Nueva Vizcaya. In order to facilitate the work of
the Catholic missionaries in the evangelization in the Cagayan
Valley, a royal decree was issued on May 1, 1856 that created the
Province of Isabela consisting of the towns of Gamu, Old
Angadanan (now Alicia), Bindang (now Roxas) and Camarag (now
Echague), Carig (now Santiago City) and Palanan, all detached
from Nueva Vizcaya; while Cabagan and Tumauini were taken from
the Cagayan province. The province was put under the jurisdiction
of a governor with the capital seat at Ilagan City, where it remains
at the present. It was initially called Isabela de Luzon to differentiate
from other places in the Philippines bearing the name of Isabela.
The new province was named in honor of Queen Isabella II of
People and culture
According to the latest Philippine Census, Isabela is the most populated province
among the five provinces in Cagayan Valley (Region II). It has a population of
1,401,495 people and comprising 45.93 percent of the 3 million people in the
region. At the national level, the province contributed 1.58 percent to the total
population of 88.57 million. There are 254,928 households in the province.
For all ages, the sex ratio in Isabela was about 105 with 660,627 males and
626,948 females in the 2000 Census of Population and Housing (Census 2000).
There are more males than females below 50 years old.
Ilokano are the most prominent group in Isabela. Of the total household
population, 68.71 percent classified themselves as Ilokanos. The next two
prominent groups(ethnic) are Ibanag (14.05 percent) and Tagalog (10.02
percent). The remaining 7.22 percent are either Gaddang, Paranan, Yogad, or
are from other ethnic groups.
Major languages in Isabela are Ilokano followed by Ibanag, Yogad, Gaddang.
People especially in the capital and commercial centers speak and understand
English and Tagalog/Pilipino.
Isabela comprises an aggregate land area of
10,665 square kilometers, representing
almost 40 percent of the regional territory. It
is the largest province in the island of Luzon
and the second largest province in the
Philippines in terms of land area. It is located
on the right-most part of the Northern Luzon
facing the Pacific Ocean and comprising
parts of the Sierra Madre. Isabela is one of
the provinces which is often hit by typhoons
due to its location.
The province is divided into three physiographic areas. The eastern
area, straddled by the Sierra Madre mountain range, is rugged and
thickly forested. A substantial portion is uncharted. These
unexplored hinterlands are home to a rich variety of flora and
fauna, while others are government reservations. The western area
is a sprawling fertile valley hemmed by the Central Cordillera. It is
criss-crossed by the mighty Cagayan River, Siffu river, and Magat
River. Its mountains rise to a peak of about 8,000 feet, and are
home to one of the world’s largest remaining low-altitude
rainforests, with numerous unknown endemic species of flora and
fauna and exceptional biological diversity. The area is popularly
known as the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park. Isabela has
600,000 hectares of Cagayan Valley’s 900,000 hectares of forest
Isabela is subdivided into 34 municipalities and
three (3) cities.
Political map of Isabela, Philippines
City Income Class District
Area (km²) Barangays
3rd 122,335 336.40 65
1st 135,174 1,166.26 91
4th 132,804 275.00 37
Economy and tourism
Tourism is relatively a new industry being developed in
the province. Support services and accommodation
facilities are likewise being developed. Tourism focuses
mainly in the three cities of Santiago, Cauayan and Ilagan
and its surrounding area with the Presence of Magat Dam
tourism complex and places of interest. Tourism is also
being developed in the coastal areas of Palanan where
white sand beaches can be found.
The province of Isabela is the richest in Cagayan Valley. It
is also the Top 10 Richest Province in the Philippines last
2011, being the only province of Northern Luzon to be
included in the list.
Agriculture is the major industry of the people of Isabela.
Farming is highly mechanized as most of the agricultural
lands are irrigated. With the presence of the Isabela State
University, joint ventures and other foreign assisted
projects and the Magat Dam contribute to the high
productivity in agriculture. It is also the hub of trade and
commerce and other economic activities due to its central
location in the region. The wood industry used to be a top
earner for the province but due to the logging ban
imposed in the Cagayan Valley Region, activities in this
industry considerably declined. However, furniture making
using narra[disambiguation needed ] and other
indigenous forest materials continue to exist.
Forestland covers 54.37% or 579,819
hectares of Isabela's total land area of which
62% is protection forest and 38% is
production forest. The best quality of timber
resources in the Philippines is found in
Isabela's forest. Isabela's vast forest
resources are now being ecologically
manage to effect sustainable forest- based
resource not only for the wood working
industry but to secure a balanced
Potential investments are in fisheries
and tourism. Isabela has a fertile fishing
ground on the Pacific Coast. The
reservoir of the Magat Dam is utilized
for fish cage operations for tilapia
production for domestic markets.
Tourism is relatively a new industry
being developed in the province.
Support services and accommodation
facilities are likewise being developed.
Mineral and Energy
Also found in the province are large deposits
of copper, gold, zinc & chromite, manganese
and nickel. It has extensive deposits of non-
metallic minerals such as limestone, clay,
marbles, guano, sand & gravel, and
boulders. Indigenous energy sources such
as natural gas and hydroelectric capabilities
have been found to be abundant in the
valley. Many of its mineral reserves have yet
to be fully tapped.
The name Nueva Vizcaya derives
from the name given at the time
to the western Basque territories
of Spain, or less likely from the
province of Biscay (called
Vizcaya in Spanish) itself.
History, People and Culture
The province of Nueva Vizcaya used to be a territory of the vast
Cagayan Valley which was once an integral political unit with one
governor. In 1839, then-Governor Luis Lardizabal issued an order
transforming Nueva Vizcaya into a politico-military province upon
the advice of the alcalde mayor of Cagayan. The order was
approved by a Royal Decree on April 10, 1841. The province had
its first taste of civil governance in 1902 when it was organized by
the Philippine Commission.
The present territory of Nueva Vizcaya was the result of changes
emanating from the formal creation of the province of Isabela in
May 1865, wherein a great portion of its northern territory was
ceded to the newly-born province. In 1908, the organization of the
province of Ifugao further reduced the area of Nueva Vizcaya which
was forced to give up its northwest territory. The survey executed
by the Bureau of Lands in 1914 further caused the diminution of its
area and reduced again upon the enactment of the Administrative
Code of 1917.
The province has a total land area of 4,378.80 square kilometers, which accounts
for 16.30% of the total land area of Region II. It is composed of 15 municipalities,
with Bayombong as the provincial capital and major educational center,
Bambang and Solano as the major commercial centers, and Kayapa as the
summer capital and "vegetable bowl" of the province. Nueva Vizcaya lies
approximately 268 kilometers north of Metro Manila and can be reached by land
via the Cagayan Valley Road (Maharlika Highway).
With forest land, agricultural areas and grasslands occupying a wide swath of the
province, it does not come as a surprise that Nueva Vizcaya is an ideal site for
extensive agricultural activity. Its main crops are rice, corn, vegetables,
pineapple, banana, coffee, coconut, oranges and other fruit trees. The first time
that an actual live photo of the worcester buttonquail was taken occurred in
Nueva Vizcaya in early 2009. In mining, the province faces bright prospects.
According to the Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences, deposits of metallic
minerals which can be exploited are copper, gold, molybdenum and pyrite. Non-
metallic deposits include red clay, white clay and limestone. Sand and gravel are
the most abundant deposits in the province.
Tilapia, St Peter's Fish
On January 11, 2008, the Cagayan Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
(BFAR) stated that tilapia (species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid
tribe) production grew and Cagayan Valley is now the Philippines’ tilapia capital
(Saint Peter’s fish). Production supply grew 37.25% since 2003, with 14,000
metric tons (MT) in 2007.
Long before its formal creation as an independent province, Quirino
was the forest region of the province of Nueva Vizcaya, inhabited
by tribal groups known as the Negritos. They roamed the
hinterlands and built their huts at the heart of the jungle.
Quirino lies in the southeastern portion of Cagayan Valley. It is
situated within the upper portion of the Cagayan River basin and
bounded by Isabela on the north, Aurora on the east and southeast,
and Nueva Vizcaya on the west and southwest.
The Ilocano dialect is used widely in the lowlands of the province’s
various municipalities while Ifugao is predominant in the uplands.
Quirino province acquired its juridical personality as a result of the
division of the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Isabela on June 18,
1966 under RA 4734. Quirino, named after the late president
Elpidio Quirino, was created as a sub-province of Nueva Vizcaya in
1966. It became a full province in 1971.
The population of the province as of the
year 2010 census of population was
176,786 with a density of roughly 51
persons per square kilometer of land.
The major language is Ilocano, which is
widely spoken in the lowlands by 71.46
percent of the total populace. Ifugao is
predominant in the uplands. Other
languages are Bungkalot, Pangasinan,
Kankana-ey, Tagalog, and English.
Agriculture is the main industry in
Cagayan Valley, together with rice and
corn as major crops. These supply the
demand of neighboring provinces and
the metropolis. Banana as well as
banana chips are major products sold in
Metro Manila and Pampanga. Small
scale industries like furniture making,
basketry, rattan craft, and dried flower
production are prevalent.
Quirino is subdivided into 6
Quirino Province covers the upstream
portion of the Cayagan River catchment
area. It is bounded by mountains on the
East (The sierra Madre) and South. The
area is heavily forested. and Quirino State
College is a center for forestry education
and agribusiness research. It used to be
part of Nueva Vizcaya, and currently is
disputing which province “owns” Dipidia, a
barangay with a newly-productive gold
One of the beautiful flowing rivers in Camp Vizcarra