01 sak lecture on islamic architecture at kfupm on 19th november 2013

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  • 01 sak lecture on islamic architecture at kfupm on 19th november 2013

    1. 1. CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE 1
    2. 2. CONTENTS HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE 1) Time line. 2) Exemplary Monuments. ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE 1) Design Principles Introduction . A. Unity . B. Functionality. C. Pursuit of Knowledge. D. Creativity. E. Professionalism. F. Identity and Diversity. G. Sustainability. CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE 1) Classification Universal Architecture . Developed Islamic Architecture . 2) Directions of Application . FUTURE DIRECTIONS CONCLUSION 2
    3. 3. (1) HISTORICAL TIMELINE
    4. 4.  I waited for things to happen. I found out it is best to move forward for things to happen. 4
    5. 5. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE TIMELINE  PROPHET MOSQUE Medina-KSA (1AH/621AD) DOME OF THE ROCK Jerusalem- Palestine (79AH/684AD) GREAT MOSQUE OF DAMASCUS Damascus- Syria (92AH/706AD) CITY OF SAMURRA Samarra- Iraq (232AH/847AD) 5 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    6. 6. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE TIMELINE  MOSQUE OF UQBA Kairowan- Tunisia (261AH/875AD) AL AZHAR UNIVERSITY Cairo-Egypt (361AH/971AD) QUTB COMPLEX AND MOSQUE Delhi-India (523AH/1129AD) JANNATULUREIF GARDENS Granada-Spain (688AH/1290AD) 6 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    7. 7. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE TIMELINE  AL-HAMBRA PALACE Granada-Spain (738AH/1338AD) SULTAN HASSAN MOSQUE Cairo-Egypt (756AH/1356AD) HERAT FRIDAY MOSQUE Herat- Afghanistan (849AH/1446AD) SELIMIYE COMPLEX Edirne-Turkey (976AH/1569AD) 7 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    8. 8. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE TIMELINE  SHAH MOSQUE Isfahan- Iran (1038AH/1629AD) TAJ MAHAL Agra-India (1057AH/1648AD) BADSHAHI MOSQUE Lahore- Pakistan (1083AH/1673AD) AHMADIYYA MADRASSA Aleppo- Syria (1165AH/1752AD) 8 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    9. 9. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE TIMELINE  MUHAMMAD ALI CITADEL Cairo- Egypt (1264AH/1848AD) LAHORE MUSEUM Lahore-Pakistan (1311AH/1894AD) AL-GOURNA VILLAGE Gourna- Egypt (1367AH/1948AD) PROPHET MOSQUEReconstruction Medina- KSA (1410AH/1990AD) 9 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    10. 10. Example Prophet’s Mosque, Madinah, Saudi Arabia  Prophet’s Mosque, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. In 621 A.D., the mosque was simple and small adjacent to Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) house. 10 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    11. 11. Example  Madinah, during the late 19th century, 11 was enclosed by a wall HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    12. 12. Example  Madinah, in the late 19th century Madinah, in the mid 20th century 12 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    13. 13. Example  Madinah is expanding and developing in radial direction but the central district still lies around the old city. Today, Prophet’s mosque is built over an area equaling to area of the Madinah in 621 A.D. 13 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - Chapter1: TIMELINE
    14. 14. Example  The Prophet’s Mosque is planned to expand further in future in the west and the north directions. The green highlighted area shows the existing mosque, whereas, the white highlighted area shows the planned expansion of the mosque. The model of Prophet’s Mosque showing the complete mosque after the planned expansion. 14
    15. 15. (2) EXEMPLARY MONUMENTS
    16. 16. Exemplary Monuments (1-a) Dome of the Rock   Jerusalem, 79AH/684AD  Founded by Umayyad Caliph ―AbdulMalik bin Marwan‖.  Part of Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, to shade the worshippers close to the ―Rock‖ in the centre of the mosque.  Project Manager was ―Raja’ bin Hayawa‖  Octagonal plan, composed of three galleries around the rock, surrounded by a wall with four gates. The central space is constructed over 4 piers and four arcades, covered by a gilded dome.  Construction: the walls were built of local stone, with cedar wood trusses for the roof and the dome.  Highly decorated from outside and inside, originally with mosaics. Decorations included calligraphy and flowering context. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Reserved several times, external decorations were replaced with ceramics in the 19th century reservation works. Dome of the Rock; a plan. It shows the unique octagonal shape of the layout, which is connected 16 to Islamic references by some researchers. Exemplary Monuments
    17. 17. Exemplary Monuments (1-b) Dome of the Rock  Dome of the Rock, Exterior view. Mosaic and marble geometric decorations applied by the Ottomans in the 19th century. That included several calligraphic banners in the Thuluth style. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Dome of the Rock, Interior view. Rich Umayyad decorations in marble and mosaics, that included calligraphy and floral patterns. Exemplary Monuments 17
    18. 18. Exemplary Monuments (2-a) Al-Hambra   Granada- Andalus, 1333 AD  A palace complex that was originally constructed as a fortress in 889, and was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I; a local Sultan of Granada.  Post-Islamic modifications include Royal Palace of Charle’s V & St. Marry Church  Architect: Nasrid Rulers, Calligraphers & artisans  Plan: Court of lions, Court of Myrtle Trees, Royal Baths, Hall of Ambassadors, Hall of two sisters.  Construction: Stone, marble & wood  Decoration: Highly detailed calligraphy work in stucco, wood, ceramic, marble and metal, which gives an illusion of geometrical patterns from a distance. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments Al Hambra Palace, Plan. Different areas of Nasrid periods demonstrate the space flow, with a unique sequence between the open and closed spaces. 18
    19. 19. Exemplary Monuments (2-b) Al-Hambra  Al Hambra Palace, Details. This palace was designed with beautifully integrated landscape, light effects, ventilated spaces, with highly detailed interior decorations. It represents the zealous Islamic Architecture in the Iberian Peninsula. 19 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments
    20. 20. Exemplary Monuments (2-c) Al-Hambra  Poetry about Al-Hambra: It's materialized, to visit Al-Hamra Palace. Tracing, I was zealous:Who built ? Who wrote the version?? Oh, what a splendid poem and sensation ! Published and nay. What was buried with its narrators ! What is identified throughout ages ! if birds and roses lament, if trees and rocks utter amazement, Victory is destined by Allah the Creator. Though days and ages alter. Be sage and sedate. Be tolerant, never haste. Al Hambra Palace, Spain. Court of Lions was the main area of the palace where Sultans lived. The court was designed with central 20 water fountain, which also served the purpose of a clock. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments
    21. 21. Exemplary Monuments (3-a) Selimiye Complex   Edirne- Turkey, 1569-1575 AD  Constructed by Ottoman Caliph Selim II.  The complex (kulliye) includes a school, a student accommodation, a hospital, a bazar, and other annexed services besides the central mosque.  Project Architect was ―Mimar Sinan‖  The mosque included an octagonal system for the piers to hold the dome, which was surrounded by four minarets. Both of the dome and the minarets were of the world highest when constructed.  Highly decorated with mosaics and calligraphy from inside, with the multiple dome feature that characterizes the Ottoman style. Selimiye Complex, Plan. This royal complex included several services for the public; such as a mosque, a school, a hospital, a bazar and a cemetery. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments 21
    22. 22. Exemplary Monuments (3-b) Selimiye Complex  Selimiye Complex, the prayer hall. The interior details show high central dome with ventilators for light and ventilation. The interior is decorated with calligraphy and other patterns. Externally; the four tall minarets define a cubic space that incubates the central dome. 22 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments
    23. 23. Exemplary Monuments (4-a) Taj Mahal   Agra- India, built 1632-1653AD  Constructed by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as a memorial complex. The story says that it was in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.  The mausoleum, where the emperor and his wife are buried, is the central part of the complex. It is elevated on a central terrace, where two other identical buildings where flanking it from either sides. The western building is a sandstone mosque, while the eastern one is a guesthouse that is called ―jawab‖. The complex and its gardens were enclosed from three sides with a sandstone wall provided with a monumental gate (darwaza), while a river penetrated the site from the fourth side. External components included additional gardens and an external cemetery. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Taj Mahal, Agra, India. The overall master plan shows the following components: (1) Mehtab Garden, (2) Taj Mahal Flanked by Mosque and Meeting House/Library. (3) Main Garden of the Taj Mahal Complex. (4) Entrance Garden with four gates 23 Exemplary Monuments
    24. 24. Exemplary Monuments (4-b) Taj Mahal   The mausoleum is constructed of white marble, surrounded by four 40m–high minarets. Its form is composed of a chamfered cube topped by an ―onion‖ dome of almost the same height of the base surrounded by smaller domes on the corners.  Constructed Its exterior is highly decorated with flower decorations and calligraphy, with the domes topped by lotus flower. Taj Mahal, Agra, India. Plan view showing the Taj Mahal with the landscape designed on the concept of Char Bagh 24 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments
    25. 25. Exemplary Monuments (4-c) Taj Mahal  Taj Mahal, Agra, India. The intimate details in Taj Mahal complex are not limited to buildings, the gardens also provided one of the most beautiful landscape examples of India. The controlled form design is well integrated within colorful and various decorations and materials. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments 25
    26. 26. Exemplary Monuments (4-d) Taj Mahal  Taj Mahal, Agra, India. The frames, the calligraphic banners, the colorful marble and the engraved marble screens. All of these are parts of the unique architectural design of this complex. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments 26
    27. 27. Exemplary Monuments (5-a) Suheymi House   Cairo-Egypt, 1211AH/1796AD  Named after its last Sheikh Suheymi, who died in 1928.  Originally built in 1648 by A. Tablawi along the Darb al-Asfar, a prestigious and expensive part of Medieval Cairo.  It was extended to the north and improved by the then new owner (Ismail Shelebi- from 1211AH/1796AD), incorporating neighbouring houses into its layout.  Currently, it is a three-storied large mansion built of stone, rather considered as a small palace with a total floor area of around 2,000 m2.  Characteristic of the architecture of its period, it was generally divided into two major zones: a semi-public guest zone (Salamlik ) and a private family zone Suheymi House, Cairo. The spacious house (Haramlik ) around a courtyard (sahn) in the entrance towards the crowded street area. centre. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments opens its 27
    28. 28. Exemplary Monuments (5-b) Suheymi House   The simple street elevation hides several interesting features in the interior. Starting from the majaz in the entrance lobby, the visitor finds a water fountain, delicate wooden latticework (mashrabiyya) on all windows, a Tahtabsh/Maq’ad feature, various halls (Qa’a), and a steam bath (hammam), besides a small garden with plants and palm trees in the courtyard.  Plant and geometric decorations in addition to calligraphic lines could be found in several locations of the house. Suheymi House, Cairo, Egypt. View of central courtyard showing Mashrabiyas, which provides visual privacy and cools warm air before entering the interior space. 28 HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments
    29. 29. Exemplary Monuments (5-c) Suheymi House  Suheymi House, Cairo, Egypt. Various Spaces of the house 29 are shown, expressing the vernacular HISTORY OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 2: Exemplary Monuments architecture.
    30. 30. (1) DESIGN PRINCIPLES
    31. 31. Design Principles INTRODUCTION   Design Principles to be discussed in this chapter are the following: 1) Unity 2) Functionality 3) Pursuit of Knowledge 4) Creativity 5) Professionalism 6) Identity and Diversity 31 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    32. 32. Design Principles (A) Unity   Unity in Islam starts from the unified belief of the entire nation in one God, one Book and one Prophet.  The Islamic nation developed a set of literature very early in its history; Quran and Hedith. They characterized the creed and the lifestyle of the Muslim in much of its details.  Other significant unifying elements of the Muslim Culture were Arabic language (as being the sole language to recite Quran) and the common history of Islam. ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter  Thus, the philosophies of the Muslims (or those accepted by the Muslims) were continuously refined to adhere with the mentioned resources. 1 1: Design Principles 32
    33. 33. Design Principles (A) Unity  Quran Hedith Islamic Philosophies Language History Unifying Resources Cultural Interaction Islamic Architecture 33 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    34. 34. Design Principles (B) Functionality   Example (1)- The Mosque:  The simple plan of the mosque is distinguished by its circulation flow: 1) Clear gateways that lead from the public context into the mosque. 2) A semi public space, where a courtyard or an arcade are common solutions. 3) The main worshipping hall; which is sometimes covered by a dome.  Other common components of the mosque plan are the minaret, the mihrab and the minber. 4) The Minaret: provided to call for prayers and to guide worshippers to the mosque. 5) The Mihrab (~niche): provided to indicate the orientation of the prayer (qibla) from the mosque inside. 6) The Minber (~pulpit): provided in the grand mosques where the Friday speech is delivered. 34 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    35. 35. Design Principles (B) Functionality  4 3 5 2 1 6 Sulaimaniyya Mosque, Istanbul built on 1558 AD. The flow of spaces and the characterizing components are identical in the common architecture of the mosque . 35 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    36. 36. Design Principles (B) Functionality  Example (2)- Security and Defense (fortress):   The squared plan of the fortress is distinguished by its main components: 1) A clear gate with defensive details 2) Security towers on the corners and along the external walls. 3) Garrison quarters at the front. 4) An annexed prayer hall, separate or within the frontal sectors. 5) A buffering court for circulation organization. 6) beyond the court: Leader’s reception and offices. 7) Leader and employees quarters flanking the court. 8) Upper Floor: Leader’s quarters + Defensive services 36 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    37. 37. Design Principles (B) Functionality   Example (3)- The Bimarstan (hospital):  The squared plan of the palace is distinguished by its main components: 1) A clear gate with defensive details 2) Security towers on the corners and along the external walls. 3) Garrison quarters at the front. 4) An annexed prayer hall, separate or within the frontal sectors. 5) A buffering court for circulation organization. 6) Leader’s seat and employees sector beyond the court. 7) Leader and employees quarters flanking the court. 37 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    38. 38. Design Principles (B) Functionality   Example (3)- The Caravansaray (Inn):  It provided accommodation for commercial, pilgrim, postal, and especially official travelers.  The term kārvān-sarā was commonly used in Iran and is preserved in several place names.  The normal caravansary consisted of: 1) a square or rectangular plan 2) centered around a courtyard 3) with only one entrance 4) arrangements for defense if necessary. 5) at least provided security against beasts of prey and attacks by brigands. 38 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    39. 39. Design Principles (C) Pursuit of Knowledge   A constant research process was initiated by Muslims to respond to the needs of the Muslim community.  This process took place in two directions, either by adapting the previous techniques or by employing their expertise and workmanship.  The earliest example of a construction feature adapted from other cultures was in the days of the Prophet SAAS (year 5AH/624AD), which was a defensive trench in Medina. The idea was introduced by a Persian companion (Salman) according to a public consultancy process upheld by the prophet himself.  As abovementioned in section 2 (Functionality); the Muslims were aware of the purposes of their buildings, thus they were not passivecopiers to the works of others.  Early Islamic Architecture in Syria and Iraq also show the influence of previous styles and techniques. ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter  A constant effort of modification took place to approach high quality and to settle efficient professionalism. Additionally, reviewing the contributions of other nations was uninterruptedly held without sensitivity. 39 1: Design Principles
    40. 40. Design Principles (C) Pursuit of Knowledge  Salman Farsi, a Persian companion of Prophet (PBUH) gave the idea of creating trench as a defense strategy. Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunis, built on 670 AD was designed and built with the influence of Roman Architecture. 40 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    41. 41. Design Principles (D) Creativity     Islamic state spread over a vast geographical area in the range of 100 years after the Prophet. Its extension from today’s France to China enriched its cultural resources, and widened its architectural views. The Muslim builders started to assign their well-defined design programs to the experienced architects of the time. The latters couldn’t have transferred these programs into designs without an enormous input of creativity.  The spark of creativity was delivered to the later generations of architects, so that no ―Order‖ for design was ruling the profession anymore.  Unlike most of the previous civilizations, the Muslim architect was free from any pre-imposed models to judge his performance.  Late Islamic states attempted to establish some order for there architectural styles, such as the Ottoman Architect Sinan, which did not last and did not spread. These architects managed to create  As a constant review for their several monuments for the first time in products; they were closely watched by their employers and by the history in the early years of Islam, such scholars as well. as the Dome of the Rock and the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus, Lahore Fort, in addition to the Ruling Palaces of Kufa, Damascus and Medina. ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles 41
    42. 42. Design Principles (D) Creativity  Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, Palestine, an innovative design with well proportions and intricate decoration. Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan, shows creating in designing of the main gate to Fort Lahore Fort, Lahore, Pakistan, The Naulakha Pavilion is a prominent white marble personal chamber with a curvilinear roof, located beside the Sheesh Mahal Courtyard, in the northern section of the Lahore Fort. 42 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    43. 43. Design Principles (E) Professionalism   Experience: The great Muslim builders used to employ experienced architects for their major buildings, such as the Dome of the Rock which was designed and managed by Yezid b. Sallam and Raja b. Haywa. Sinan is another famous example who provided the Islamic Architecture with great master peices over the 16th century including Taj Mahal. Even non-Muslim architects were employed for their expertise (e.g. Umayyad Prophet Mosque in Medina, Kufa Complex, Qusair Amra).  Procedures: The design in the Muslim practice followed a well-defined procedure. A great example is the design of kufa city in the 638AD, which followed the steps of: ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter - Design Strategy (by Omer I, the caliph) - Design program (by Saad, the ruler) - Design Concept (by Abul-Hayyaj, the principal designer) - Detailed design (by local architects)  Regulations: Strict regulations ruled the practice of architecture in the traditional Muslim practice. Some of these regulations were imposed by the state (such as the width of roads and the neighbor rights. Other regulations were following non-written norms, such as privacy and environmental issues. 43 1: Design Principles
    44. 44. Design Principles (E) Professionalism  Respect: It is obvious how the traditions of each state were established early in these states and respected by younger generations of architects. Examples of the Persian and Ottoman styles are not unique in that sense. In India, Morocco, Andalusia, the Mamlouks any almost all other examples the steadiness of the style outlines appear.  Prophets’ mosque, Madinah, Saudi Arabia, was design and constructed by employing non Muslim architect Taj Mahal, Agra, India, an example of perfection and professionalism. ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles 44
    45. 45. Design Principles (F) Identity and Diversity   Muslims lived within an active interaction with external cultures, which also influenced their Architectural products into diversity, supported by the freedom of creativity practiced by Muslim architects.  Consequently, the architectural manifestations of those Muslim communities shared certain directions, which affected the design lines throughout the Muslim history.  A significant identity for the Islamic Architecture was developed by the uninterrupted practice for centuries. which created unique Architectural procedures, technologies and archive for the Muslim nations. ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter Palace of Seville, Spain, which shows the influence of Gothic Architecture, yet maintains the identity of Islamic Architecture 45 1: Design Principles
    46. 46. Design Principles (G) Sustainability  Sustainability is another design factor which is reflected in Islamic Architecture. Sustainability of a building refers to its ability to comfort the building by using passive design techniques without using fossil fuel energy and to reduce negative impacts on the environment by using locally harvested materials. In addition to this, it also refers to provide improved indoor environment quality by using daylight and natural ventilation, and to provide water for the end users from endless sources. Lastly, it also refers to sustain its structure over hundreds of years. Sustainable buildings are economical to built, operate and maintain. Al Hambra Palace, Spain, a master piece of early Islamic Architecture, which was designed on the concepts of sustainability 46 ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles
    47. 47. Design Principles (G) Sustainability  The buildings of Islamic Architecture were designed as climate responsive by using passive design techniques such as: - Ventilative cooling - Radiative cooling, - Evaporative cooling, - Mass effect cooling, - Minimizing temperature variations by massive walls and cladding façade cladding material. - Solar heating. Bin Yousef Madrassa, Morocco. An example of climate responsive building, using radiative, ventilative and evaporative cooling Al Hambra Palace, Granada, Spain. Passive Solar Heating, evaporative and ventilative cooling was used by using wide and low height courtyards with high arches ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 47 1: Design Principles
    48. 48. Design Principles (G) Sustainability  These buildings were also environment friendly as they used: - Locally harvested materials - Building interior spaces were responsive to out door environment. - Sustainable water sources were used for landscape and bathing. These buildings were constructed with massive walls to: Generalife, Spain, an example of integrated indoor and outdoor spaces. - Give structural stability - Provide insulation for the buildings to keep the interiors cool in summer & warm in winter. Madrassa Tilla Kori, Samarkand. Built with massive walls to give structural stability and provide insulation ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE – Chapter 1: Design Principles Shalimar Bagh, Pakistan. Sustainable water source (Canal 48 originating from River Ravi) was used for fountains and irrigation
    49. 49. INTRODUCTION
    50. 50. Introduction   The professional mediums has not yet established a set of standards to be called ―Contemporary Islamic Architecture‖.  However, ―Contemporary Islamic Architecture‖ refers to the current practice with Islamic references or serving Muslim functions or communities.  Such a scheme is expected to work as an endeavor to re-establish the links between heritage and recent practices (Agha Khan Award for Architecture 1995)  It should also respond to the current problems of the practice; such as architectural expression, quality of design, humanitarian concepts and place identification (Agha Khan Award for Architecture 1995). 50 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– INTRODUCTION
    51. 51. (1) CLASSIFICATION
    52. 52. Classification Criteria   As a criteria to indicate the current practices of Islamic architecture, it is supposed that the Contemporary Islamic Practice of Architecture has the following characteristics:  It shows reference to some style(s) of the Islamic Architecture.  Might show a mixed Islamic style (not necessarily local) in the components selection.  Influenced by of the modern styles in architecture.  Accommodates modern technologies of construction.  Follows the contemporary design philosophies and procedures. 52 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    53. 53. Classification Lines of Practice   Architectural practice in the Muslim World is divided into three lines:  Universal Architecture: This line represents the practice that follows the recent universal styles of architecture, with no interest in incorporating any regional or traditional elements or lines.  Developed Islamic Architecture Includes a certain amount of references to the Islamic Architecture or to the local/regional heritage.  Traditional Architecture: The architectural output has traditional/regional components. an overwhelming reference to the 53 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    54. 54. Classification Universal Style   This line of practice is meant to be an extension to the common universal practice, following the lines of the day; such as Modernism, PostModernism, International or the current Formic styles.  In this direction this line has no intended reference to the Islamic Architecture, where it follows the principles and the factors of practicing Architecture of the Modern world.  This style was strongly introduced in the post-colonial period. That was encouraged by the new construction technology of the modern world, and by the western education and professionals of the time. CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1:  Muslim professionals responded to both the decision makers and the business men of, who were convinced of the style as a symbol of success and development.  Even supposing that a Muslim Architect practiced it, this line would still be culturally disconnected from the basics of the Islamic Architecture.  Therefore, this line of practice could be considered as a ―Universal‖ practice implemented locally, rather than a part of the current practice of an Islamic style. 54 Classification
    55. 55. Classification Universal Style   The contribution of such architects/designers is appreciated internationally. However, there products cannot be considered as Islamic Architecture rather than an important part of the profession in its universal position. Saudi Economic Association, Saudi Arabia 55 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    56. 56. Classification Universal Style - Examples  Zaha Hadid  Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Centre 2007- UAE  King Abdullah II House of Culture and Art 2008- Jordan  Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Centre, UAE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: King Abdullah II House of Culture and Art, Jordan Classification 56
    57. 57. Classification Universal Style - Examples   Fazlur - Rahman Khan (The Einstein of Structural Engineering)  Sears Tower 1973 - Chicago - USA  Hajj Terminal 1982 - Jeddah- KSA 57 Sears Tower, Chicago, USA Hajj Terminal, Jeddah, KSA
    58. 58. Classification Universal Style - Examples   SOM Khalifa Tower 2004- Dubai- UAE Burj Khaleefa (Burj Dubai), musical fountains, Dubai, UAE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification Burj Khaleefa (Burj Dubai), tallest building of the world, Dubai, UAE 58
    59. 59. Classification Universal Style - Examples  National Bank HQ Skidmore, Owings and Merrill Jeddah- KSA 1983   The building is an attempt from the architect to create a monumental building that holds both the characters of modernity and rationality according to its sensitive location in the heart of the traditional city of Jeddah. NCB HQ – Jeddah Showing the traditional context of the city in the foreground CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification 59
    60. 60. Classification Universal Style - Examples NCB HQ – Jeddah / continued   "...In the center, three columns allowed openings and offices to be rotated to any side. The dramatic 100-foot-wide facade openings were designed to provide daylight without direct sunshine. Light filters into the three courtyards through these openings, reaching the inhabited spaces only indirectly. The shaded cavity of the building reduces air temperatures slightly before cooling is completed by air-conditioning machinery. Above the level of the first office floor, warm air is drawn up the building's small triangular core and vented in the center of the roof. 60 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification Site Plan and floor plans, NCB HQ-Jeddah
    61. 61. Classification Universal Style - Examples NCB HQ – Jeddah / continued  The office areas are protected from the sun's glare by gray glazing, and the glass-walled executive offices on the top floor are shielded by a pierced wall covering a 10-foot recess behind the building's outer surface; these recessed windows are akin to the shuttered of screened balconies of traditional Saudi architecture. A computerized building management system adjusts the climatecontrol machinery as external thermal conditions change." — from Carol Herselle Krinsky. Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. p268-271, 273. 61 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification Section view, NCB HQ-Jeddah
    62. 62. Classification Universal Style - Examples  Franco Audrito and SAK  Yanbu Cement Co. Staff HousingKSA  Yanbu Cement Co. Staff Housing- KSA 62 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    63. 63. Classification Universal Style - Examples   Franco Audrito and SAK SAK Consultant Yanbu Cement Co. Administration Building - KSA Yanbu Cement Co. Administration Building- KSA CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification 63
    64. 64. Classification Developed Islamic Style   This style tries to incorporate the traditional lines and elements within the recent practice of architecture.  As per Rifaa Chderji, the product shows a hybrid architecture.  This architecture represents the creativity of the architect within a background of keeping his cultural distinctiveness.  The architect in this line accepts the modern construction technology and regulations as effective factors, rather than the recent artistic and architectural trends.  Rifaa Chderji- Iraq and Rasem Bedran-Jordan are of the representatives of this line, via some of their works. 64 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    65. 65. Classification Developed Islamic Style- Examples Atlantis Hotel, Dubai, UAE  65 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    66. 66. Classification Developed Islamic Style- Examples Four Seasons Hotel, Qatar  66 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    67. 67. Classification Developed Islamic Style- Examples  Jabal Omar Project, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. T.R Hamzah & Yeang 67 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    68. 68. Classification Developed Islamic Style- Examples ElKhereiji Head Office– Jeddah SAK Consultant  68 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    69. 69. Classification Developed Islamic Style- Examples Al Andalus School – Jeddah SAK Consultant  69 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    70. 70. Classification Developed Islamic Style- Examples Al Andalus School – Jeddah SAK Consultant  70 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 1: Classification
    71. 71. Classification Developed Islamic Style- Examples Mosque– Jeddah . SAK Consultant  71
    72. 72. Classification Developed Islamic Style- Examples Remal Media House  72
    73. 73. (2) DEFINITION
    74. 74. Definition Contents   Meaning of the Term  Variations of the Term  Origins of the Term  Criteria 74 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 2: DEFINITION
    75. 75. Definition The Meaning of the Term- 1   The definition of Islamic Architecture has been a controversial topic amongst researchers.  Cultural background influences the understanding of the term. Arabs/Muslims see it as their heritage, while others imagine it as exotic, mysterious, and aesthetically curious, carrying the whiff of fardistant lands. (Rabbat 2012: 1)  Traditional Muslim literature did not introduce the term, mainly because their architectural styles were globally leading. The term ―Islamic‖ by then did not provide an accurate definition among other styles in the Muslim regions. 75 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 2: DEFINITION
    76. 76. Definition The Meaning of the Term- 2   The Architecture produced for and by Muslims to serve Islam as a religion, referring, consequently, only to the architecture which did serve a religious function (e.g. mosque, madrasa), or it may mean all the Architecture produced in the Muslim Lands (Michell 1978: 10)  Mostly, the term means that architecture which is recognized as being related to Islam, Islamic civilization or to the Islamic communities.  Practice of the ―Islamic Architecture‖ in its traditional forms faced a major setback by the weakening of the Muslim world since the early 19th century. 76 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 2: DEFINITION
    77. 77. Definition Variations of the Term   Islamic Architecture (Grabar 1974, Hillenbrand 1994)  Muslim Architecture (Richmond 1926, Creswell 1932)  Architecture of the Muslim Communities (Agha Khan Award for Architecture - AKAA)  Architecture of Islam (Fletcher 1896)  Muhammadan Architecture (Briggs 1924) 77 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 2: DEFINITION
    78. 78. Definition Origins of the Term- 1   The term cannot be traced in the traditional Muslim literature. Muslims simply referred to their architecture as Umran, Imarah or any close term.  Because of the western interest in introducing the historic styles of Architecture in the early 19th century, ―Architecture of Islam‖ was introduced as part of the timeline of the history of Architecture (Fletcher 1896, Rabbat 2012).  In the early 19th century, Eurocentric terms appeared in the western literature such as Saracenic, Mohammedan, Moorish and Oriental. 78 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 2: DEFINITION
    79. 79. Definition Origins of the Term- 2   By the end of the 19th century; literature about the field (e.g. Fletcher 1896, Reviora 1914, Briggs 1924, Richmond 1926, Creswell 1932, 1952) settled to the term in various expressions related to Islam.  For recognition between historic styles of Architecture; the term ―Islamic‖ was established amongst Art historians, and continued to be widely employed till date (Grabar 1973, Hillenbrand 1994, Hoag 1975, Jairazbhoy 1972). 79 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 2: DEFINITION
    80. 80. (3) DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    81. 81. Contents       Master Plan Plan Layout Façade Design Construction Technology Decorative Elements 82 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    82. 82. Master Plan  83 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    83. 83. Master Plan   Following their involvement in major projects in the Middle East, several architects (Local & International) characterized submitted by their master-plans some local traditions, habits, culture and other factors that affected the master- plan.  According the classification mentioned in Chapter (04-01) above, such projects’ styles could be classified as ―Developed‖ or ―Traditional‖. 84 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    84. 84. Manifestations Master Plan- Examples  Qasr Al-Hokm- Riyadh Rasem Badran   Gourna – Egypt Hassan Fathi Qasr Al Hokm, Riyadh, Sauid Arabia New Gourna Village, Gourna, Egypt 85 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    85. 85. Manifestations Master Plan- Examples   Al Hasa Urban Planning Project /Hofuf SAK Consultants 86 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    86. 86. Plan Layout  87 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    87. 87. Plan Layout   The current plans incorporated several components and their articulation referring to the traditional plan designs.  Common plan components currently employed include the gallery, the courtyard and the mall.  Common plan articulation include axiality, solid-void sequences, bending entrances, etc.  Local culture and tradition affected the life style and use of the space affected the plan layout. 88 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    88. 88. Plan Layout OKAZ Press Complex in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    89. 89. Plan Layout Use of Entrance Lobby -To provide a transition space. -To create spaciousness and to welcome the guests. Concept of atrium in OKAZ building has been derived from entrance lobby of Islamic Architecture buildings. CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    90. 90. Plan Layout Planning on Axis - Circulation is directional and based on axis. Use of Atrium -To create a central gathering space with daylight, ventilation and water element . Floor Patterns - Integrated geometrical floor patterns were used to create visual interest . CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter OKAZ Press Complex in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    91. 91. Plan Layout CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS King Fahd Library Building, Madinah, Saudi Arabia
    92. 92. Plan Layout Use of Lobby -To provide a transition space for users before entering into the main building. Use of Atrium -To provide daylight and natural ventilation in the surrounding corridors . King Fahd Library Building, Madinah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    93. 93. Plan Layout Dar Al Zikr Al Hakeem School CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    94. 94. Plan Layout Planning on Axis - Circulation is directional and based on axis. Use of Corridors - Shaded corridors helps air to circulate through them. Courtyard Planning - Naturally ventilated courtyards with daylight provides a healthy space for the students. Dar Al Zikr Al Hakeem School, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    95. 95. Plan Layout  Tahfeez Al Quran School, Madinah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    96. 96. Plan Layout  Natural Ventilation - Use of natural ventilation in the covered playing areas and corridors. Tahfeez Al Quran School, Madinah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    97. 97. Plan Layout  Ministry of Justice Court Buildings, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    98. 98. Plan Layout  Use of Lobby -To provide a transition space for users before entering into the main building. Use of Atrium -To provide a daylight and natural ventilation in the surrounding corridors. Ministry of Justice Court Buildings, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    99. 99. Plan Layout Development of Souk Al Shabi (Traditional Markets) in Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    100. 100. Plan Layout Central Sitting Space -To facilitate people to take rest and enjoy the environment during shopping. Floor Patterns -Integrated geometrical floor patterns were used to create visual interest. Development of Souk Al Shabi (Traditional Markets) in Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    101. 101. Façade Design  102 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    102. 102. Façade Design   Talking about Sultan Hassan Complex in Cairo: ―The proportions of this building are amongst the greatest I have seen.‖ Frank Lloyd Wright.  The current practice referred to the traditional sources either in elevation components or in the forms of the building.  Components and their articulation:  The arch is one of the commonly employed components to resemble the Islamic style. It is widely found in the current practice.  Wooden and steel screens are widely employed to add Islamic reference to the style.  Gates, riwaqs (porticoes), buttresses, engraves and stone laying was employed as well. CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter Sultan Hassan Complex, Cairo, Egypt. 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS 103
    103. 103. Façade Design   Other components take place regionally, such as the vault, several shapes of arches, the material and the color of the façade.  opening/mass rhythms, façade patterns, and proportions of elevations and openings where a rich source for current practice.  Form:  Regarding form, the traditional Islamic compact urban fabric, did not encourage much to give priority to form design. However, the symbolic form of the Mosque is frozen by its traditional components, such as the dome and the minaret.  On the other side, traditional isolated buildings such as pavilions, mausoleums, palaces and tall buildings where reference to the current practice. 104 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    104. 104. Façade Design Ministry of Petroleum, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    105. 105. Façade Design Use of Atriums -To provide daylight -To provide ventilation -To create spaciousness Ministry of Petroleum, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    106. 106. Façade Design  G. Group Office Tower, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    107. 107. Façade Design  Emphasis on Entrance - Entrances are emphasized to welcome guests - To add an element of unity in the facade Use of Arches - To provide shade for the pedestrians and to facilitate natural ventilation -To add aesthetic value to the building form G. Group Office Tower, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Inspiration from Tilya Kori Madrassa, Samarkand, Great Mosque Damascus CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    108. 108. Façade Design Use of Geometric Screens - To provide shade to the fenestration. - To add aesthetic value to the façade. King Fahd Library Building, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    109. 109. Façade Design Aramco H.Q. Building, Dammam, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    110. 110. Façade Design Elaf Taiba Hotel in Madinah Munawarah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    111. 111. Façade Design Marshrabiya - To provide a transition space between indoor and outdoor. This helps to reduce the temperature of the air entering into the building. Use of Arches in the Corridors - To provide shade for the pedestrians and to facilitate natural ventilation. Elaf Taiba Hotel in Madinah Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. Inspiration from Cordoba Mosque and vernacular mashrabiyas of Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    112. 112. Façade Design Elkhereiji Villa, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    113. 113. Façade Design Water as an Essential Landscape Element -To create micro climate in dry seasons by increasing humidity level and reducing dry bulb temperature. Elkhereiji Villa, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    114. 114. Façade Design Private Villa, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    115. 115. Façade Design International Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Part III: CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    116. 116. Façade Design Recessed Panels in Elevation - To create shadows to improve insulation of the walls and keep interiors cool. - To break monotony of flat walls. Use of Arches -To create shadows, depth and rhythm in elevation. International Medical Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Part III: CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    117. 117. Façade Design CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS Community Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
    118. 118. Façade Design Water as an Essential Landscape Element - To create micro climate in dry seasons by increasing humidity level and reducing dry bulb temperature. Mashrabiya - To provide a transition space between indoor and outdoor. This helps to reduce the temperature of the air entering into the building. Community Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    119. 119. Decorative Elements  120 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    120. 120. Manifestations Decorative Elements   Internally and externally, decorations is a part of architecture universally.  Contemporary Islamic architecture has emphasis on such elements, with special focus on traditional sources.  Dense walls, decorative domes, and elements minarets appear mainly especially as on the mosques’ calligraphic scripts. Nevertheless, geometric and flowered lines are also provided (e.g. King Saud Mosque, Sheikh Zayed Mosque).  Islamic decoration motifs can be found also on residential buildings (e.g. El-Kheriji House), commercial buildings (e.g. G. Group Office Tower), Hotels (Elaf Taiba Hotel), hospitals (e.g. International Medical Center), in addition to other building types. 121 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    121. 121. Manifestations Decorative Elements- Examples   Calligraphic decorations emphasize mainly on the ―Thuluth‖ calligraphy style.  Moroccan and Egyptian geometric decorations are common in the architecture of Saudi Arabia, while Indian decorations appear on the eastern side of the Arabian peninsula, in countries such as UAE and Oman. 122 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    122. 122. Manifestations Decorative Elements- Examples  King Saud Mosque - Jeddah  123 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    123. 123. Manifestations Decorative Elements- Examples   Sheikh Zayed Mosque - Abu Dhabi 124 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    124. 124. Manifestations Decorative Elements- Examples   International Medical Center - Jeddah 125 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE– Chapter 3: DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATIONS
    125. 125. Contents   Adopting Architectural Elements  Adopting Concepts of Sustainability 127 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    126. 126. Adopting Architectural Elements Contents  The following are some of the architectural elements that could be adopted in the future Islamic Architecture buildings.       Mashrabiyat & Screens Mucarnasat Calligraphy Geometrical Patterns Arches Domes 128 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    127. 127. Adopting Architectural Elements  Globalization is effecting people, culture, art and architecture. We believe architecture is effected and will be effected continuously in future due to the different forms of media, communication, traveling, technology and other factors. Future Islamic Architecture can still use architectural elements such as mashrabiat, mucarnasat, calligraphy, geometrical patterns, but in a global and creative way. Globalization is effecting people, culture, art and architecture. 129 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    128. 128. Adopting Architectural Elements   Mashrabiyat & Screens Mashrabiyat can be used in the future Islamic Architecture to continue: - Providing a transition space for the building to allow hot air to cool down before entering into it. - Providing shade for the window. - Providing visual privacy. Top: Elaf Taiba Hotel, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Left: King Fahad Library, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Right: Community Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 130 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    129. 129. Adopting Architectural Elements   Mucarnasat Mucarnasat can be used in the future Islamic Architecture to continue: - Adding aesthetic value to the interior space - Enhancing acoustics of interior space Alhambra Palace, Garnada, Spain 131 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    130. 130. Adopting Architectural Elements   Calligraphy Calligraphy can be used in the future Islamic Architecture to continue: - Delivering messages to the end users and educating them - Creating interior designs on walls and breaking the monotony of walls Right: Tahfeez Al Quran School, Madinah, Saudi Arabia 132 Left: Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    131. 131. Adopting Architectural Elements   Geometrical Patterns Geometrical patterns can be used in the future Islamic Architecture to continue: - Creating floor patterns and guiding the people to find their way. - Creating interior designs on walls and breaking the monotony of walls Examples of geometrical patterns used for flooring and for wall decoration FUTURE DIRECTIONS 133
    132. 132. Adopting Architectural Elements   Arches Arches can be used in the future Islamic Architecture to continue: - Creating interest and enhance aesthetics of the building facade. - Adding depth to the building façade - Casting shadows and increasing façade insulation - Facilitating natural ventilation to take place G. Group Office Tower, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 134 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    133. 133. Adopting Architectural Elements  135 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    134. 134. Adopting Architectural Elements  136 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    135. 135. Adopting Architectural Elements  137 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    136. 136. Adopting Architectural Elements  138 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    137. 137. Adopting Architectural Elements  139 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    138. 138. Adopting Architectural Elements  140 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    139. 139. Adopting Architectural Elements  141
    140. 140. Adopting Architectural Elements   Domes Domes can be used in the future Islamic Architecture to continue: - Increasing volume of interior space and facilitating natural ventilation to take place. - Enhancing acoustics of the interior spaces. - Enhancing visual appearance of the building. FUTURE DIRECTIONS A private House, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 142
    141. 141. Adapting Architectural Element of Domes  143
    142. 142. Adapting Architectural Element of Domes  144
    143. 143. Adapting Architectural Element of Domes  145
    144. 144. Adapting Architectural Element of Domes  146
    145. 145. Adapting Architectural Element of Domes  147
    146. 146. Adapting Concepts of Sustainability Contents  The below mentioned concepts of sustainability could be adopted in the future Islamic Architecture buildings.    Passive Design Strategies Environment Friendly Buildings Strategies Indoor Environment Quality Strategies 148
    147. 147. Adapting Concepts of Sustainability Passive Design Strategies  Future Islamic Architecture can incorporate passive design strategies such as: Ventilative cooling, Radiative cooling, Evaporative cooling and Earth Mass Effect Cooling Minimizing Temperature Variations by using Insulation Solar Heating To reduce: Energy Consumption Global warming Ozone Depletion Community Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 149 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    148. 148. Adapting Concepts of Sustainability  Environment Friendly Building Strategies In addition to this, future Islamic Architecture can also follow the principles of environment friendly buildings such as: - Using locally harvested and manufactured materials -Reusing building instead of demolishing and constructing new buildings To reduce: -Pollution and carbon emissions associated with transportation of materials from foreign countries -Pollution and carbon emissions associated with harvesting and manufacturing new materials - Demolition waste storage in landfill areas - Reduce time and money - Global warming - Ozone Depletion FUTURE DIRECTIONS G. Group Office Tower, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 150
    149. 149. Adapting Concepts of Sustainability  Indoor Environment Quality Strategies Furthermore, future Islamic Architecture can also use Indoor Environment Quality strategies such as: - Daylight penetration in the interior of the buildings - Fresh air supply in the interior spaces To reduce: - Electricity consumption - Carbon emissions - Ozone Depletion - Global Warming - Suffocation (Carbon dioxide level) in the interior spaces 151 FUTURE DIRECTIONS Ministry of Petroleum Building, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    150. 150. CONCLUSION
    151. 151. Conclusion  A successful Architect in any place and time is the Architect who can apply the following equation successfully Function + Beauty + Economy = Successful Project 153
    152. 152. Conclusion  The architecture that consider the human scale and environment gives satisfaction and enjoyment to the users and viewers, this could be seen in many of the works of Sinan, Frank Lloyd Wright, Hasan Fathi, Le Corbusier. 154
    153. 153. Conclusion  The Relation Between Art & Architecture Here are some architects that were successful in applying this relation: Miss Van Der Rohe Walter Gropius Abdul Wahed Al Wakil Abdul Aziz Kamel 155
    154. 154. Conclusion  Think Study Design Review Creative Production 156
    155. 155. Conclusion  A New World of architecture is possible We need to set an Architecture and Art Compass in our societies to show the direction we are moving to. We need to have the knowledge and vision that help us rebuild our environment. We are part of the World but we should not be a copy of any other World or city or society. Cultural Museum in China reflects Islamic Architecture in North Western China. 5 Story, 25,302 m2, a massive atrium in the middle, green design elements, automatic shading to help keep the building cool. It is a landmark designed by Sure Architecture 157
    156. 156. Conclusion  Architectural Styles can be developed using our Knowledge and Creativity. A knowledge based society is an important step for change of the individual and society. A new era of Islamic Architecture and Art can be establish that could have a positive and rewarding effect on people’s life. Green environment and sustainable architecture and products, Water and Energy Saving technologies could be part of the new era of Architecture. Arab Cultural Center in USA. Design by Monalab for the Mosaic Foundation Islamic Web 158
    157. 157.  Symbolic Architecture 159
    158. 158.  It was a dream, then an idea then a possibility Then it became a reality 160

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