By way of an icebreaker, if we can go round the room, introduce yourself, say what you do and tell us 2 interesting things about yourself ( not work related! ), maybe 2 things your colleagues don’t know.
Video – may or may not work -
Ok, first, before we start, what ages are we considering children and young people to be??? - There is no single law that defines the age of a child across the UK. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified by the UK government in 1991, states that a child “means every human being below the age of eighteen years, when we talk about young people we could be talking about anyone from 16 to 24..I think its 24 when your young persons rail pass expires!. Have a pen and piece of paper at the ready to jot down your answers, then I will reveal the answers one by one. 10. Clincally recognised? – Relating to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for mental health this is (ICD-10), this classification covers a whole range of diagnosable mental and behavioural problems. That one in ten ( 9.6% ) accounts for 850,000 people. 2. Boys - Among 5-10 year olds, 10 per cent of boys and 5 per cent of girls had a mental disorder. Among 11-16 year olds, the proportions were 13 per cent for boys and 10 per cent for girls. Why???? – the figures might include stats on autism which show more girls suffer from girls?, older boys are more likely to attempt suicide than girls of the same age, more boys statistically are involved in substance misuse than girls, although conversly studies show that teenage girls drink more alcohol than boys, binge drinking etc. this is true of anxiety and depression, generally more girls are prone to these problems, but it would seem the office for national statistics has included behavioural diffculties and these more commonly happen for boys than for girls. Interesting article in The Guardian that suggests a bug increase in mental health problems with teenage girls, anxiety and depression rising rapidly in today’s society, the study suggests this increase is not the same with boys. Reasons??? – alcohol abuse ( leading to propensity to crime, violence, experimentation with sex and ultimately pregnancy ), drugs, diet, lifestyle, pressures – educational pressures bigger than they were in the 90’s, girls showing more risky behaviour, celebrity culture – girls sexulaised in the media more so than ever before, girls sexualised much younger. ARTICLE HANDOUT . 3. The answer is 20 , 4 -phobias, 3 – Anxiety 1 – major depression, 12 will have some behavioural problem/s. The reality is that is many more than 20, its just that a lot of children and young people do not feel confident, supported or simply brave enough to come forward, this means that a lot of mental health problems go unnoticed. According to the Samaritans, 12 young people commit suicide every week, three times more than 20 years ago
4. Family characteristics – generally, how many per cent of children are suffering from a mental health difficulty in these catergories- a) 16% b) 8% c) 20% d) 17% e) 8% f) 4% - We will be considering factors next, but what kind of things do these statistics tell us? 5. The answer is 1 in 15 – self harm of course is not a mental health problem itself but is a reaction to distressing life events and experiences 6. 631,000 It was 146,000 in the 1990’s!!!! , why so high???? – possibles: lack of access to alternative therapy?, increase in depressive illness in young people due to society’s demands, acceptability to disclose?, childhood blues and black moods quickly being diagnosed as depression??? - Research by the NSPCC revealed that a third of children are worried about something , and that almost half of them find it stressful that they have nobody to talk to – but that might not necessary mean they are depressed!!.
7. 73% Many of them are struggling with more than one type. 8. True - But less than half received appropriate treatment at the time, could this then account for this figure, no treatment and no support just means a continuation? 9. Sadly this is true, infact that report goes on to say that 5% of children reported being bullied most days.
We are talking quite generically, but what would be some of the signs we would probably become aware of?....split into groups, list on flipchart paper and discuss. Decline in school performance – ask to expand. Regular worry – Could be whole host of issues and situations, could be unexplained fear?, child finds it hard to pinpoint or explain the feeling etc. Difficulty making friends – It might be that the person stops hanging around with friends altogether or stops embarking on specific activities with specific friends. Refusing to take part – Esp when it is an activity the individual has engaged with previously and has enjoyed. Hyperactivity – may incude excitabilty, high emotion, exubernance, impulsiveness. Irritability –could be a response to a number of things, may feel annoyed and frustrated. Mood swings – a rapid change in mood,incredibly optimisitic one minute, pessimistic the next, calm one minute, irate the next etc. Lack of energy – decreased desire, enthusiasm wanes, apathy, general lack of interest, loss of driving force – whats the point etc. Nightmares – feel experience terror, fear, danger and other strong emotions. Disobedience – refusal to follow an instruction, rebelling, unwillingness, stubborness. Loss of temper – Temper might snap easily or out of the blue, maybe anger or overreaction that doesn’t seem in line with situation etc. Sadness – May not appear like there is an apparent reason, may cry often, feels hopeless, worthless and these feelings are persistent. All of the above could be NORMAL , the natural way in which we develop and grow as people, our hormonal changes, puberty, and ways of percieving the world, dealing with changes, and how many people would put their hand up to at least 5 or 6 of those things during their childhood, teens, young adulthood???, but we tend to work through most problems, its growing up, its part of the order of things and we all struggle with a variety of things from time to time, the problem occurs when these occurences become more problematic, consistent, persistent and more apparent than what might be considered normal……..
Split into small groups, on flip chart paper discuss in your group which factors affect the mental health of chidren and young people There are 3 broad areas we are going to focus on, what I would like you to do is to write down as many relevant risk factors ( or causes ) as you can under each heading, we are exploring the issues here, so if you unsure don’t worry just write it down and we will discuss later.
These examples are not the full picture, obviously there are many more, but we only have a certain amount of time etc, this is very much just an overview. Chemical Imbalance : Certain mental health problems are linked to an imbalance of the chemicals in the brain known as neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters serve as a communications system between nerve cells in the brain. If these chemicals do not function in the brain as they should then there will be an interruption in the brain as it attempts to process incoming messages. The result is a display of the symptoms of mental health problems, this is true of studies of individuals who have a diagnosis of ?????..... Schizophrenia. Infection: A link has been found between certain infections to brain damage and the subsequent development of mental illness or the worsening of symptoms in mental illness. One such condition is pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder, or PANDA. PANDA is linked to the streptococcus bacteria and has been found to cause obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as other mental ailments in children. Brain injury - Injury to or defects in specific areas of the brain have been found to cause certain mental conditions, for example Psychosis, though not necessarily an onset of Schizophrenia – Psychosis?, anyone want to have a go at explaining? – Some traumatic brain injuries can affect the person’s sleep, behaviour, mood, concentration, thoughts and attention, this could lead to possible affective problems, affective? ( anxiety / depression ). Early damage - Trauma or a loss of oxygen to the brain at the time of birth or the disruption of early fetal brain development can lead to certain conditions such as ‘autism’. Poor nutrition – Several nutritional factors can influence mental health. Where do we get our energy from?? – ( calories ), derived from? – ( carbohydrates, protein, fat ) - Chronic hunger and energy deprivation profoundly affects mood and responsiveness. People with a consistently low energy intake often feel apathetic, sad, or hopeless. Developing fetuses and young infants are particularly susceptible to brain damage from malnutrition. Malnutrition early in life has been associated with below-normal intelligence, and functional and cognitive defects. This is one example – here is description of other nutritional factors. Exposure to toxins : What toxins? – Lead ( exposure, paint, paint chips, house dust, also, lead contaminated water and soil, some herbal remedies, some ceramics and even sweets ) – has been proved to cause inattentiveness, irritability, and hyperactivity in children. There are others…can you name one which was well documented and discussed late last year?... Mercury – Swine Flu Vaccinations – however, some mercury has been found in oily fish, fuels, dental treatments,vapour spillages etc, the effects can cause a number of difficulties – anyone know? – well, anything from paranoia to insomnia, the list is quite exhaustive. There are others, tin, magnesium, etc. Smoking - It has been found that mothers who smoke during pregancy put their children at a greater risk of developing psychotic symptoms when they become teenagers, without looking at technical information it is because smoking can affect the brain development in children and this raises the chances of psychosis later in life. Drugs – Cocaine - If these drugs are taken late in pregnancy, the baby may be born drug dependent and suffer withdrawal symptoms, such as tremors, sleeplessness, muscle spasms, and sucking difficulties. Some experts believe learning difficulties may later develop. Heroin - The babies of narcotics-dependent mothers are often born dependent themselves and suffer withdrawal symptoms, such as irritability, vomiting and diarrhea, and joint stiffness. Alcohol - In the mother’s body, alcohol breaks down chemically to a cell-damaging compound that is readily absorbed by the fetus, generally can lead to more physical problems but there is a link to mental retardation. Genetic Predispostion - Controversial,but it has now been seen that many mental illnesses do run in families. That means that if you have a family member with a mental illness, you have a greater risk of developing a mental condition. It is believed that the susceptibility to contract mental illness is passed on through the genes. If a child or young person is susceptibility to mental illness, a trigger, such as stress or a life trauma etc could lead to a diagnosis of a more serious condition, e,g, Schizophrenia.
Learning problems – When we are talking about learning problems we are in essence discussing learning disabilties or the word I am much more fond of ,learning differences. Problems with Learning disorders affect how a person understands, remembers and responds to new information. People with learning disorders may have problems with listening, paying attention, speaking, reading, writing and mathematical processes. 4% of children ages 6 to 11 have learning disorders.There are a number of common learning problems which most children, with support can overcome successfully and the issues never become a major problem, can you suggest? – Dsylexia (Difficulty processing language Problems reading, writing, spelling, speaking ), Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder) Difficulty with fine motor skills, Problems with hand–eye coordination, balance, manual dexterity, these are the most common, though there are others. Some learning problems, however, can present a bigger problem, Sometimes children have trouble expressing their feelings, calming themselves down, reading nonverbal cues, which can lead to difficulties at school and with friends. Many children with social and emotional difficulties have low self–esteem, withdrawal and behaviour problems, can we think of any such problems?? - ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – It is not considered a learning disability, but can disrupt learning. Children with ADHD often have problems with sitting still, staying focused, following instructions, staying organized, and completing homework. We will revisit ADHD again shortly. Autism – Autism is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder such as autism as is Asperger’s syndrome. Children within the an autistic spectrum disorder may have trouble making friends, reading body language, communicating, and making eye contact. We are not going to look any further at Autism, only that if a child has such a developmental problem it is a risk factor that specific mental health problems may also co-exist, e.g. depression and anxiety. Sexual, physical, emotional abuse – Ok, lets look at this, * ( FLIPCHART EXERCISE – SEXUAL,PHYSICAL,EMOTIONAL AND NEGLECT – Characteristics of each and effects on the child / young person’s mental health .HANDOUT. Internal / External – Internal temprements may include anxious thoughts, pessismism, excessive worry, withdrawal, difficulty making friends ( suspectability to bullying ), these are risk factors for a child’s continuing mental health. External temperament is difficult temparent, and may include features of ADHD, poor problem solving skills, opposotional behaviour – problems with authority and rules, aggression. Maladaptive personality traits – What is this, anyone? – Traits identified by a pervasive pattern of experience and behaviour that is abnormal with respect to any two of the following: thinking, mood, personal relations, control of impulses. The character of a person is shown through his or her personality -- by the way an individual thinks, feels, and behaves. When the behavior is inflexible, maladaptive, and antisocial, then that individual is diagnosed with a personality disorder. Most personality disorders begin as problems in personal development and character which peak during adolescence and then are defined as personality disorders.
Family – Death of a family member – Unresolved grief could well lead to problems such as depression. Divorce or separation –A child may go through a process like mourning following their parents' divorce or separation. A child's world and security may be severely affected, leading to anxiety, anger and insecurity. A child may also experience denial and strong emotions such as guilt, shame, abandonment and rejection. Domestic Violence – This can lead to fear and anxiety for the safety of a parent, or themselves. The child may express anger and aggression or 'internalise' feelings ( girls ). Children may become withdrawn and isolated and feel a loss of control. Children in care - Often they have experienced trauma in their lives, greater possibility of developing mental health problems than those in stable family environments. Living with a parent with a mental health problem – Especially serious mental illness, depression, personality disorder or schizophrenia, a child may feel isolated and unsupported, which can lead to distress. Living with a parent with a significant mental illness increases the chances of a young person developing mental health problems themselves. School – Bullying , although bullying can happen anywhere, not just at school or college etc, severe or persistent bullying can have long-lasting and devastating effects on a young person's mental health, problems such as insomnia, self harm, suicidal ideation, helplessness and fear are all consequences. Children come to school with a whole host of differing experiences and problems,a report in the Independent stated that children with mental health problems do not get enough help in schools. Teachers believe they cannot meet the child's needs, provide them with equal opportunity, help them achieve their potential, or help them before their problems become so serious that they will impact on the rest of their lives ( conversely teachernet provide some excellent examples of how schools are working towards better mental health for pupils ). Just a word to say that poor acheivement and academic failure in education can lead to lack of opportunity, social problems, poverty etc. Community – Poverty – The link between poverty and mental health problems is well known. People with low incomes are more likely to experience poor mental health, and those with mental health problems are more likely to be living in poverty. Low income often means poor housing, poor living conditions and educational opportunities. Children and young people's relationships often suffer too. Disability - Children and young people who have a physical disability often face isolation from other children, and may experience low self-esteem. They may also become depressed or feel anxious about the future and their relationships. Ethnicity - Racism or discrimination on account of their race, colour or religion can worsen mental health. This can happen in housing, education or employment. Stereotyping can lead to racist comments or even violence. This leads to isolation and lack a sense of belonging. Asylum seekers and refugees - Expereince of war, instability or human rights abuse. Children and young people who arrive in this country under such circumstances face an uncertain future. Society – We talked about earlier about how how our present society, the pressures in modern life, there is a growing consensus that the pressures today are greater than 20 – 30 years ago, pressure to do better educationally, to compete, pressure to look right, fashion, lifestyle, weight, looks etc, relationship pressures, children growing up too older, modern technology, we communicate differently than we once did…do children write letters now?, we text more than we talk, social networks etc..
Ok, we’ve probably touched on, or at least we’ve mentioned some mh problems already, what I would like you to do is work out from these cards which are the 7 most common mental health problems experienced by children and young people. There are some ambiguous ones out there and maybe some conditions you may not have heard of…..( 4 groups if possible or pairs ) Conduct Disorder – Behavioural disorder characterised by aggression, defiance and anti social behaviour. Delirium – An acute , reversible organic mental disorder characterised by reduced ability to maintain attention to external stimuli and disorganised thinking as manifested by rambling, irrelevant or incoherent speech. Somatoform Disorder – Somatoform disorders where physical symptoms can cause great distress, often long-term. People are convinced that the cause of their symptoms is a physical problem. It’s a collective name which can include what ( examples: hypochrondria, body dsymorphic disorder ) - somatic – relating and affecting the body Adjustment Disorder – An adjustment disorder is a debilitating reaction, usually lasting less than six months, to a stressful event or situation Dissociative Identity - Defined as the occurrence of two or more personalities within the same individual, each of which during sometime in the person's life is able to take control. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder -A condition occurring in 3 to 4 year olds which is characterized by a deterioration, over several months of intellectual, social, and language functioning. Pathological Gambling - is persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits Brief Psychosis – An acute psychotic episode lasting longer than one day but less than one month and that may or may not immediately follow an important life stress. Theres one word missing amongst these…. STRESS In all honesty Stress is probably the most common problem we are vulnerable to at some point of our lives, as children, young people, adults and when we are old, but we are looking for more specifics here. Now, I havent included Autism in here, the reason why is that organisations such as MIND and the Mental Health Foundation do not perceive Autism as a mental health problem, it is a lifelong developmental disability. However, other conditions, ADHD are included in mental health information provided by the likes of MIND and other mental health organisations aswell as psychiatric organisations etc.
Anxiety - Anxiety is a sense of worry, apprehension, fear and distress. Symptoms of anxiety typically fall into two groups: physical symptoms (headache, feeling sick) and the emotional symptoms of nervousness and fear.It can affect a child's thinking, decision-making ability, perception of the environment, learning and concentration aswell as physical complications. Causes - Genetic predisposition, psychological factors and environmental factors. Anxiety is a collective term, which conditions or problems may fall into this category?? – GAD - recurring fears and worries that they find difficult to control, restless, irritable tense or easily tired, and they may have trouble concentrating or sleeping, perfectionists. Separation Anxiety Disorder - intense anxiety about being away from home or about their caregivers that affects their ability to function socially and in school. Social Phobia - Usually in mid-teens. Constant fear of social situations or when they have to perform such as speaking in class or eating in public, often accompanied by physical symptomsms, sweating, blushing, palpitations, shortness of breath, muscle tenseness . OCD - typically begins in early childhood or adolescence. It is estimated that at any given time, 1 to over 3% of adolescents are experiencing symptoms of OCD. Children as young as 5 or 6 can show symptoms. Compulsions - include counting, repeating,checking, obsessions – thoughts, ideas, concepts. PTSD - witnessing traumatic event, surviving physical, emotional or sexual abuse, accident, may develop this. Panic -often begins during adolescence, although it may start during childhood,characterised by expected and repeated periods of intense fear or discomfort with physical symptoms. Depression - All children "feel blue", from time to time, have a bad day, or are sad, true?? - depression affects as many as one in every 33 children and one in eight adolescents. Depression can lead to academic underachievement, social isolation, and create difficult relationships with family and friends. Estimated that more than 90% of children and adolescents who take their lives havedepression. Can co-exist with other problems, e.g. anxiety, alcohol and drug misuse . Causes – all that we considered in risk factors, geneticism, social, community, family, psychological etc. ADHD - People with ADHD have difficulty focusing their attention on completing a specific task. Additionally, they can be hyperactive and impulsive and can suffer from mood swings and “social clumsiness”. ADHD develops in childhood, most commonly at age of 5. Research suggests that 80% of children diagnosed with ADHD continue to experience symptoms during adolescence and 67% continue to have symptoms into adulthood. Again the causes are the same as above, there are more physiological causes, brain size, research premature delivery with associated minor brain bleeding or accidental head injury after birth. Conduct Disorder - Aggressive behaviours toward others or animals, destructive behaviours towards the property of others including harming or destroying items (including cars and homes), lying to others, stealing from others and playing truant from school. Older children have problems with alcohol and substance misuse. Can be mild to severe, early onset is before 10 years, adolescent onset is diagnosed if there are no occurences before the age of 10. Office of National Statistics found 5 per cent of children aged 5 to 15 years had conduct disorder. Children with ADHD are two and a half times more likely to have early onset of conduct disorder than those without ADHD. Problems, relationships, legal implications, school attendance. Causes are varied, genetic basis, temperant of individual child, physical problems ( brain damage ), social and environmental problems, family dysfunction etc. Eating Disorders – Unfortunately, eating disorders are on the increase among older children and teens and most develop these disorders between 11 and 13 years of age. The most common eating disorders are????...Anorexia and Bulimia. Both of these eating disorders are more common in girls, but do occur in boys. Causes can be, stress, dieting, loss of control in certain aspects of life, traumatic events ( family, personal ), bullying at school, abuse, perfectionism and low self esteem are also risk factors. Other eating disorders?, can anyone detail any? – Compulsive eating - Compulsive overeating involves ‘picking’ at food all day, eating until uncomfortably full, continue eating even when not hungry. There may be different reasons why people do this, the ones we have already discussed are relevant here too, stress, low self esteem, bullying, trauma etc. Body Dsymorphic Disorder – People concerned with appearance to an obsessional degree, despite evidence to the contrary, can lead to problems with stress, anxiety and depression, here is a stat: 68% of of adolescents with BDD spend 3 or more hours every day thinking about the body part or facial feature of concern. Bi Polar - Many children and especially adolescents experience mood swings as a normal part of growing up, Bi Polar is different. Causes - Genetic in origin, but environmental factors do influence it. Bipolar can skip generations and take different forms in different individuals. When one parent has bipolar disorder, the risk to each child is? 15-30%. When both parents have bipolar disorder, the risk increases to 50-75%. Symptoms? – Mania – high self esteem, high energy levels, insomnia, getting involved in multiple projects,spending money, risk taking behaviour. Depression – sadness, withdrawal, decrease in activity, worthlessness,over sleeping,suicidal ideation. Many teens with bipolar disorder abuse alcohol and drugs as a way to feel better and escape Schizophrenia – Rare in children, 1 in ?? ( 40,000 ) but onset is from 16 – 24, with a figure of 1 in 100 quoted in some research. Schizophrenia interferes with the way a person thinks and acts. In the long term it may change a person's personality, characterised by delusions, hallucinations and thought disorder. Causes are genetic predispostion, If a parent has schizophrenia, the children have a risk of about 10% of getting it, this increases if both parents have it, 30 – 40%, an identical twin of a person with schizophrenia has the highest risk - 40 to 50 percent. Biochemical - It is thought that either the levels of dopamine in the brain become too high, or that their brain is particularly sensitive to the effects of dopamine, this is said to cause problems such as voice hearing and delusional thinking. What is dopamine?? – neurotransmitter in the brain, many functions, memory, learning, mood, social behaviour and self awareness. Other risk factors include, social and environmental factors, stress, trauma, substance misuse.
2 case studies each What mental health problem might be occurring and why? What would be your approach as a friend, family member etc? What would be your approach as a professional ( e.g. school teacher, social worker, nurse, community worker )
Possible suggestions for working with the 4
Just a little video, which I think you will enjoy, published by Young Minds, quite entertaining. There is also a 3 and hald min video on Young Minds featuring an interview on the Paul O Grady show and it is pretty good.
We talked quite specifically in our case studies, but what generically is actually available in terms of help and support for children and young people experiecing mental health difficulties? Split into groups, discuss what you know is out there, also what good support systems, groups, organisations etc do you know of in your area that are actively engaged in helping children and young people with MH problems, share some good practice! Helpful organisations - Young Minds - parents' information service providing confidential advice for any adult concerned about the mental health or emotional well-being of a child or young person, MIND, Rethink ,Barnados, The Children’s Society, Mental Health Foundation, National Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health more specific, Childhood Bereavement Network, Family Welfare Association , National Attention Deficit Disorder Information and Support Service (ADDISS), Anxiety Matters. Helplines such as Parentline, Childline, Samaritans, SANE, NSPCC , more specfic, BEAT ( eating disorders ), OCD UK, No More Panic etc. GP - The family doctor will passport someone into services, can refer to clinics, hospitals and specialists when needed. They may also support applications for benefits or other types of help. CAMH’s Stands for??? - Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. They specialise in providing help and treatment for children and young people with emotional, behavioural and mental health difficulties. Referrals normally through GP, but could be through a teacher or another health or educational professional. Team normally consists of: Consultant, Psychologist, Medical Doctor, possible Psychotherpist or other specialist, nurses and mental health care workers, some teams have substance misuse workers. Counselling – What do you think is generally considered the most favourable form of counselling for younger people?? - Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) - CBT focuses on the inter-relationship between cognitions (mental processes) and behaviour. Practitioners who use the approach believe that behaviour is learned and can therefore be 'unlearned'. Useful for: depression,anxiety,OCD etc. Person-centred counselling – 3 main premises: unconditional positive regard (acceptance of the client and avoiding judgement), congruence (where the counsellor is in touch with his or her own feelings and is able to be authentic with the client) and empathy (which involves seeing the world through the client's eyes). Psychodynamic therapy - Psychodynamic approaches usually focus on unconscious thoughts, deep feelings and inner conflicts. Creative therapies: art, music, drama and play - Some specialist therapies involve creative approaches to help children and young people to express their feelings and problems, using a variety of media, good for those who find more traditional talking therapies not as useful. Psychiatric Medicine – For ADHD there are three types of medication, we don’t need to focus on these, example, dexedrine – acts ondopamine in areas of the brain that play a part in controlling attention and behaviour. Antidepressants – Usually SSRI’s??? (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors ) – e.g. sertaline, paroxetine etc, although anti depressants can work for children, there are certain medications which can create feelings of suicide for young people, and for some panic, anxiety and aggression can be triggered. Antipsychotics – The usual medications are clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, Antipsychotics work by reducing or increasing the effect of chemicals in the brain and correcting the imbalances , usually prescribed to people with schizophrenia, some usuage for people with bi polar and sometimes depression ( psychotic ). Side effects can range from weight gain to sleepiness, muscle spasms and even a increase risk of diabetes. Mood stabilisers – Popularly used for people with Bi Polar, good at treating manic phase but not effective with depression, lithium carbonate is an example. Anti-anxiety drugs – Benzodiazepines are classic, but some anti-depressants work to ease anxiety also. Benzos have many different names, lorazapam , and the most common that we have all heard of? – Diazapam . Side effects – depression, memory impairment, fatigue, aggression. Parental and carer support – Each locality will have some support networks set up for carers of young people with mental health problems, most will offer advice, support, financial advice and support ( claiming benefits and allowances etc ), self help groups and other support services, short breaks and activities for the carers themselves maybe available, some better funded services provide drop in, day facilities, family rooms, etc. Mental Health promotion in schools - Health promotion in schools is not just about encouraging children and young people to eat well and to exercise; it encompasses a much broader holistic approach. This approach is called the 'whole school approach', National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) 2008, recommends promoting the social and emotional wellbeing of primary-school-aged children. The DCSF ( Department for Children, Schools and Families ) 2007, working on a programme with schools to support children and young people at risk of developing or who already have a mental health problem. SEAL ( Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning ) scheme in schools - which includes promoting the physical, social, spiritual, mental and emotional wellbeing of all pupils and staff ( A lot of schools have this focus in mind. Also, some organisations such as Young Minds and Tine to Change and See Me ( Scotland ) have a good presence in awareness raising in schools.
Aim To look at the mental health of children and young people, including signs of distress, risk factors, problems and support
Aims and Objectives Identify the prevalence of mental health problems for children and young people List and identify common signs which may indicate a child or young person maybe experiencing mental distress List and describe the factors which affect children and young people’s mental health Identify the differing types of mental health problems affecting children and young people Examine in more detail the main types of mental health problems affecting children and young people Examine some case studies – identify approaches of support Describe services of support and help for children and young people with mental health difficulties Consider the legal context ( including good practice ) Suggested useful organisations
Prevalence1. One in ? children in Great Britain aged 5-16 had a clinically recognisable mental disorder in 2004.102. Who are more likely to develop mental health problems in their formative years?, boys or girls?Boys3. In a typical 250 pupil primary school how many children have a mental health problem? – a) 5 b) 10 c) 2020
Prevalence cont….4. Family Characteristics: a) Children in one parent families? b) Children living with both parents? c) Families with no parents working? d) Families with both parents working? e) Parents with no educational qualifications f) Families with a parent with a degree qualification?5. Self-harm affects as many as 1 in ? young people aged 11-25 at any one timea) 10 b) 15 c) 256. In 2007 GPs in England wrote more than ? prescriptions ( for depression ) for children in the 2006 - 2007 financial year?a) 146,000 b) 345,000 c) 631,000
Prevalence cont…7. ?% of imprisoned young offenders have a mental health disorder.a) 50% b) 73% c) 95%8. Over half of all adults with mental health problems were first diagnosed in childhoodTrue or False?9. According to OFsted in 2008, almost a third of all children had been bullied twice in the past monthTrue or False?
How would you know a childor young person was suffering from mental distress ? The Signs Decline in school performance Regular worry or anxiety Refusing to go to school Difficulty making friends, keeping friendships Refusing to take part in activities Hyperactivity or fidgeting Irritability Mood swings Lack of energy, motivation Nightmares Disobedience Loss of temper and aggression Sadness, tearfulness WHAT IS IMPORTANT HERE???????????????????????
Factors that affect the mentalhealth of children and young people Genetic and Biological Psychological Social
Risk Factors Genetic / Biological Chemical Imbalance Infection Brain Injury Early damage to the brain Poor nutrition Exposure to toxins Genetic Predisposition
Risk Factors Psychological Learning problems Sexual, physical and emotional abuse and neglect * Internal and External temperaments Maladaptive personality traits
Risk Factors Social Family School Community and Society
Help and Support Helpful organisations and support groups GP CAMH’s Counselling and other therapies Psychiatric medicine Parental and carer support Mental health promotion in schools
The Legal Context The Protection of Children Act( 1999 ) Every Child Matters ( 2003 ) The Children Act ( 2004 ) The NSF for Children ( 2004 ) Mental Capacity Act ( 2005 ) Working Together to Safeguard Children( 2006 ) The Children’s Plan ( 2007 ) The Mental Health Act ( 2007 )
Useful Organisations MIND Rethink Royal College of Psychiatrists Young Minds Mental Health Foundation The Site Newspaper websites ( Telegraph, Guardian ) Every Child Matters