Pemikiran strategik
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  • Selamat Malam tuan,Penerangan tuan tentang pemikiran strategik amat jelas dan mudah faham.Terima kasih.
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  • Capture your thought
  • framework
  • Rujuk Nota by Haines: Top 11 clues to Analytic Thinking: Analisiskendiri
  • BabPengenalan: Bawapesertaberfikirkepadakepentinganuntukberfikirsecarastrategikdalamkehidupandankerjamereka. Slides 17-22
  • Babpengenalan
  • Renungan Pemikiran
  • Definisi PS olehnolan
  • Or are you just assuming that the future will be more of the present?
  • So why don’t we think this way? Why don’t organisations take a long term view.Strategic thinking needs a particular mindset and capacity to move beyond the linear – it needs open minds, and you have to be comfortable working with ambiguity.
  • Strategic thinking is not.........
  • Summary slides: What does it mean to "think strategically"?
  • Apakahkesankepadaproseskerjadanprestasiorganisasi?
  • System – a set of connected items or devices which operate together.
  • Asaspembinaanhalatuju: outcomes yglebihjelas. Memudahkanuntukprosesmembinamisidanvisi yang baik, isustrategikdspatdibezakandgnisuoperasi. Ygpentingutkbina KRA. Teruskesildes no 81: pembinaahalatujuorganisasidanmisidanvisikendiri: ms 109 utkcontohmisdanvisiperibadi.
  • We have talked about the external quadrants today – but they don’t work unless you consider the internal quadrants.They are interdependent – if you ignore one, you will be less effective.
  • We have talked about the external quadrants today – but they don’t work unless you consider the internal quadrants.They are interdependent – if you ignore one, you will be less effective.
  • It’s not a leader’s job to be busy.
  • Aktivititambahan: jikaadamasa
  • Apakahkesankepadaproseskerjadanprestasiorganisasi?
  • Model asasperjalanankeseluruhansesilatihan:Gunasemasapengenalankursus.
  • Rujuk worksheet 4: Clarifying strategic outcomes. (Berfokus, berhubungansebabdanakibat, align danmudahdifahami)
  • Prinsip SMART- measure. Unit of measure dinyatakansebagai KPI.
  • Rujuk worksheet 5 dan 6. making trade off dan prioritizing your action untukaktivitibahagianPengoperasian.
  • Sumber: SuratArahan: SKT oleh JPA. 2011.
  • Jikaadamasa
  • Words are the vocabulary of language; Concepts are the vocabulary of thought
  • Ilmu yang berkatialahilmu yang benardandirestui guru. Mbustaman iab.kpm.2012

Pemikiran strategik Pemikiran strategik Presentation Transcript

  • Pemikiran Strategik:Satu Keperluan DalamMembina UpayaKompetensi KepimpinanUnggulolehMuhamad Bustaman Abdul ManafIAB,KPM0199890524/mbustaman@iab.edu.myPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Introducing YourWorkshop Facilitator2*Image via Bingmbustaman/IAB/KPM/12Specialist Trainer & Coach
  • BIODATA PENCERAMAHMUHAMAD BUSTAMAN BIN HAJI ABDUL MANAFJawatan Hakiki: Pensyarah Kanan DG 52Specialist Trainer & Specialist Coach1. Pengalaman memberi kursus Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan Kualiti di Institut Aminuddin Bakisemenjak 1995. (pensyarah paling lama di IAB dalam bidang tersebut)2. Menulis buku:1. Perancangan Strategik (terbitan IAB). 2. Pengurusan Kualiti dalam pendidikan (Utusan Pub)3. Pengurusan Strategik untuk sekolah – (terbitan PTS.)3. Latihan dalam bidang Pengurusan Strategik dan Pengurusan Kualiti luar negara• i. Strategic Management & Leadership: World Trade Institute, New York, USA (1996)• ii. TQM in Education: SEAMEO Innotech, Manila. Philippine (1998)• iii. Strategic planning in education: Uni of York, England (2000- 2004) (tesis Phd)• iv. Strategic Performance Measurement (BSC): Uni of Adelaide, Australia (2005)4. Mempunyai sijil profesional Juruaudit (Lead Auditor) MS ISO 9000 sejak 1998 (berdaftar dengan IRCA London.5. SUMBANGAN: Memberi khidmat konsultasi dalam Pengurusan Strategik dan KPI untuk semua peringkatBahagian dalam Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Ahli Panel Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti Star Rating (SSR)KPM, Pembentang pernyataan baru MISI, VISI dan Matlamat KPM6. Sumbangan Kepakaran peringkat antarabangsa:1. Vietnam. 2. Laos. 3. Indonesia. 4. Afghanistan3mbustaman/IAB/KPM/12
  • Buku ketigambustaman/IAB/KPM/12 4
  • 5ObjektifPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Di akhir sesi ini, peserta akan:1. Memahami tentang konsep dan amalanpemikiran strategik dan kepentingannya dalammeningkatkan kualiti kepimpinan strategik.2. Membudayakan pemikiran strategik dalampengurusan organisasi dan kehidupanseharian.
  • Tangkap Pemikiran Anda• Semasa kursusberlansung,tuliskanperubahan caraanda berfikirdan akan buatperubahan bilabalik ke tempatkerja nanti
  • Leadership Thinking SkillsSoft Skills• Thinking skills• Internal• PersonalHard SkillsTechnicalProcedures (SOP)analyticalPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 7
  • Proses 1• Pengenalan konsep Pemikiran Strategik (PS)• Definisi, Kepentingan, Ciri-Ciri PSProses 2• Aplikasi Corak PS & Cabarannya• Corak-corak minda strategik dan aplikasinya dalam penetapan HalaTuju, analisis persekitaran dan BKU (KRA)Proses 3•Aplikasi corak PS dan aplikasinya• Objektif, KPI, Sasaran Prestasi ,Inisiatif dan Pelan TindakanProses 4Proses 58 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Implementasi: Pengoperasian, pengukuran prestasi danpenambahbaikan prestasiPembudayaan Pemikiran Strategik
  • mbustaman/IAB/KPM/05 9
  • 10hak milik mbam IAB KPM
  • 11hak milik mbam IAB KPM
  • 12Penilaian Kendiri 1:Berdasarkan analisis soalselidik:Sejauhmanakah anda berfikirsecara strategik?hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • • 1. Memudahkan perkara yang sukar• 2. Memaksa anda bertanyakan soalanyang betul• 3. Lebih fokus• 4. Menyedia kita pada hari esok• 5. Mengurangkan margin kesilapan• 6. Memberi kita pengaruh atas orang lainMengapa Anda Patut BerfikirSecara Strategik?13 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • 1. balanced short and long term needs• 2. see problems as opportunities to improve• 3. keeps calm when the unexpected occurs• 4. is a skilled communicators• 5. is a team player(Bruce & Langdon, 2000)Kelebihan Apabila Anda BerfikirSecara Strategik14 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 15 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 16TRANSLATING A MISSION INTO DESIREDOUTCOMES USING BSC-KAPLAN& NORTON (2003). MISSIONWhy we existSTRATEGYOur game planPERSONAL OBJECTIVESWhat I need to doVISIONWhat we want to beCORE VALUESWhat we believe inSTRATEGIC INITIATIVESWhat we need to doBALANCED SCORECARDImplementation & focusMotivated & PreparedworkforceEffectiveProcessesSTRATEGIC OUTCOMESSatisfiedstakeholdersDelightedCustomersPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 1717hak milik mbustamanIAB.KPMPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Marff Resources Sdn Bhd@2009 18Source: Palladium Group
  • 19• Kata Imam Ghazali:―seorang guru yanghanya memikirkanmengajar sahajatanpa memikirkanmasa depanmuridnya, lebih baikjangan jadi guru‖hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • Strategic Thinking vs DailyAnalytic ThinkingRujuk ms 4Nota edaran:Becoming a strategic thinker on adaily basis- Haines, 2006Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 20PENILAIAN KENDIRI 2
  • Memartabatkan Profesion KeguruanMengukuhkan Struktur PersekolahanMemantapkan Infrastruktur InstitusiPendidikan KPMMemperkukuh Penghayatan Akidahdan Nilai MurniMentransformasi Kurikulum danKokurikulumMentransformasi PentaksiranMemartabatkan Bahasa MalaysiaMemperkukuh Bahasa InggerisPendidikan Awal Kanak-kanak (Permata)Mengarusperdanakan VocTechPembelajaran MayaPerkongsian Pintar Awam, Swasta,Komuniti dan Ibu Bapa1Murid 1SukanInovasi dan KreativitiPENDIDIKAN BERKUALITI UNTUK SEMUA
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Hubungan Kemahiran berfikirStrategik dengan kepemimpinanStrategik, PerancanganStrategik & Pemikiran Strategik
  • 1. Pemimpin Strategik24 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 26Strategic Leadership:Art & DisciplineArtCreativity to fashion a visionDisciplineDirect thought processes & turn visioninto reality through actionPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 27Art• Thinking that is open, out of the box• Big picture –helicopter view• Creating alternative strategic visions• Ability to see what if? Scenarios• Courage to analyse & see decision making criteriaPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 28Discipline• Courage to make decisions• Implement policy• Get others to share vision &work together to achieve itPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • •Your boss just told youto "think strategically―•—but what does thatmean?29 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 1. Apakah realiti baru dunia pendidikannegara & dunia?2. Adakah saya berpuashati dengankeputusan yang telah saya capai?3. Adakah saya komited untuk kesan yangpositif kepada masyarakat?4. Tidak saya mahu membina dunia esokyang lebih baik untuk generasi masadepan?5.Persoalan bersifat strategik30 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPMPENILAIAN KENDIRI 3
  • 5. Adakah saya mahu bertambah baik?Adakah saya tahu caranya?6. Adakah cara saya bekerja hari ini(Kejayaan) akan terus sama untukkejayaan masa depan?7. Adakah saya mahu kekal dihadapan daripesiang?8. Adakah saya mahu dijadikanpenandaarasan kepada semua orang?Persoalan strategik?31 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • 1. Know what difference youwant to make2. Choose your actionsaccordingly
  • What difference do you wantto make?• Your community• Your department/units• Your team/work group• Personally/professionally
  • 34Apakah ituStrategi?• Kamus Oxford mentakrifkan strategy has to dowith war and deception of an enemy. In nonprofitmanagement, strategy has to do with respondingto a dynamic and often hostile environment inpursuit of a public service mission (Allison &Kaye,2005)• Cara bagaimana untuk mencapat matlamat/objektif(ms 5)[Lf. Gk strategos, f. stratos army + -ag-, agein to lead] [Fr.strategie f Gk strategia... generalship..] Gk. Hist…The art of a commander-in-chiefOxford English Dictionaryhakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • 35Misi&VisiSTRATEGISITUASIHARI INICara bagaimana untuk mencapat matlamat/objektif (ms 5)
  • • A disciplined thinking with a focus first on desiredoutcomes of your entire business as a system. Then itfocuses on the relationship between yourorganizational components, along with constantfeedback about results, to find the leverage points thatbest achieve your desired outcomes. (Haines, 2006)36 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Rujuk nota edaran37 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • ―perihal berfikir –menggunakan akal (untukmenyelesaikan sesuatu dansebagainya),mempertimbangkan (dalamingatan).‖ (kamus Dewan,2000)Definisi Pemikiran38 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • Pemikiran strategik adalah keupayaanuntuk melepaskan isu-isu hari ini danmeletakkan diri sendiri didalam masadepan.• Keupayaan melukis rupa bentuk sasaranmasa depan yang inginkan melangkauipengalaman hari ini• Tempoh masa 5 tahun adalah minima(Nolan et.el, 2008)Definisi Pemikiran Strategik39 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • •Integrating the future intoyour decision makingprocesses today bythinking big, deep andlong.Strategic Thinking40 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • Big PictureThinking (verybroad) – do weunderstand how weconnect andinteract with otherorganisationsand the externalenvironment?41 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • Deep – how deeply arewe questioning ourways of operating?• Do we operate from ourinterpretation of thepast, or our anticipationof the future?• Are our assumptionstoday valid into thefuture?42 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • Long – how farinto the future arewe looking? Dowe understandthe shape ofalternative futuresfor ourorganisation?43 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • The long view• Target,not detailed steps• Principles,not techniques• Strengths,not weaknesses• Keep it simple
  • Long termUncertainDivergentIncompleteBeyond linearDisrupting alignment45 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Pemikiran strategik adalah bersifat…
  • Short termLogicalConvergentPragmaticDeductiveCreatingAlignment46 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Strategic Thinking is not……
  • • Lift your mind above your day-to-day work andconsider the larger environment in which youreoperating.• Ask questions and challenge assumptions abouthow things work in your organization.• Gather data and interpret it. And use the insightsgained to make smart choices and selectappropriate courses of action• Moreover, you do all of these things with an eye towardgenerating the best possible business results tomorrow,using the opportunities presented to you today.What does it mean to "think strategically"?(Haines, 2012)
  • • ―the process by which the guidingmembers of an organizationenvision its future and developthe necessary procedures andoperations to achieve that future‖(Nolan & et.al,2008)2. Perancangan Strategik (hardskills)48 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 49Mission&VisionPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Hubungan PerancanganStrategik & Pemikiran StrategikTindakanIni langkah akhir? …PerancanganStrategikMengambil TindakanBagaimanakah carauntukmelakukannya?50 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Hubungan PerancanganStrategik & pemikiran strategikKeputusanstrategikRamai pemimpin berhenti pada tahap membuat keputusanstrategikMembuatKeputusan StrategikMembuat PilihanWhat will we do?51 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • PilihanPemikiran StrategikPenjanaan pilihanApakah yangmungkin berlaku?Hubungan Perancangan Strategik &Pemikiran Strategik52 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Pemikiran StrategikPenjanaan pilihanApakah yang mungkin berlaku?Membuat Keputusan StrategikMembuat PilihanWhat will we do?Perancangan StrategikMengambil TindakanBagaimanakah cara untukmelakukannya?PilihanKeputusanStrategi &Tindakan53Sepatutnya….. Seorang pemimpinan yang strategik ….Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Pemikiran StrategikPenjanaan pilihanApakah yang mungkin berlaku?Membuat Keputusan StrategikMembuat PilihanWhat will we do?Perancangan StrategikMengambil TindakanBagaimanakah cara untukmelakukannya?PilihanKeputusanStrategi &Tindakan54Pendekatanmasa depandan kaedahPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Proses 1• Penjelasan konsep Asas Pemikiran Strategik (PS)• Konsep PS, Ciri ciri Minda Strategik,dan kepentingannyaProses 2• Pemahaman Corak & Cabaran Untuk Berfikir Strategik• Corak-corak minda strategik (9 corak) dan aplikasinya.• Ciri 1 PS : Bina/jelas „outcomes”/ Dasar & Hala TujuProses 3• Menterjemah pemikiran kepada Pelaksanaan•Tindakan yang berfokus & jelas , ‘Align’, boleh diukur dan ada inisiatif•Ciri 2: KRA, Objektif, KPI, Sasaran Prestasi dan InisiatifProses 4Proses 555 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Implementasi : Pengoperasian, pengukuran prestasi danpenambahbaikan prestasiPembudayaan Pemikiran Strategik
  • 10 corak pemikiranstrategik1. Pemikiran Sistem (W.sheet 2:Seeing the big picture)2. Minda Terbuka (Open Mind)vs Menghapuskan Bintik Buta3. Pemikiran positif dan proaktifPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • 4. Pengurusan masa yang cekap• 5. Peka dan sensitif kepada perubahanpersekitaran.• 6. Inovatif dan kreatif• 7. Optimistik• 8. Menerima kepelbagaian• 9. Pemurah – menolong orang lain untukmembangun diri mereka57 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Sambungan: Cabaran untuk bina CorakMinda Strategik dan kesannya
  • Apakah kesan 10corak/tingkahlaku pemikiranstrategik kepada prosespengurusan strategik?Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Corak MS 1:. Pemikiran Sistem…59 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • Sebuah sistem adalah satu entitiyang melestarikan kewujudannyadan fungsinya secara keseluruhanmelalui interaksi di antarabahagian-bahagian di dalamnya.(Joseph O‘Connor & Ian McDermott, The Art ofsystems Thinking)Pemikiran Sistemik60 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • The Strategic Thinking Skills: Systems Thinking (ST)•ST refers to leaders‘ ability to seesystems holistically by understanding theproperties, forces, patterns, andinterrelationships that shape thebehaviors of the systems which provideoptions for actions.•This definition requires that leaders think holistically, defining the entireproblem by extracting patterns in the information one collects before breakingthe problem into parts
  • mbam@IAB.MOE 07 63Organisasi sebagai satu sistem
  • Rujuk Nota edaran: Haines64 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • mbam@IAB.MOE 07 65The Organization as a SystemLeadership SystemMissionVisionGuiding PrinciplesStrategic GoalsOrganizational StructureUpstreamsystem InputsKey WorkProcessesOutputs CustomersOutcomes Stakeholders
  • Bintik buta ialah bahagian yang tidak dapat dilihatdengan jelas kerana terdapat sesuatu yangmenghalang penglihatan.Cara:Luaskan skop pandangan.Amal corak kepimpinan partisipatif (bermaklumat)TelusWujud suasana terbuka dikalangan staf (fear)Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Corak 2: Minda Terbuka (MT):2.1.Menghapuskan Bintik Buta
  • 2.2: Membuat AnjakanParadigma?A set of rules & regulations that:1. Defines boundaries2. Tells you what to do to be successfulwithin those boundaries3. Is used to ―filter reality.‖ We useparadigms to understand data andinformation…. to order, relate and controlour reality.(Kaufman, 2003)67 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 68
  • 69
  • 70
  • MT 2.3: Mencabar sempadanandaian pemikiran71 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • MT 2.4: Berfikir diluar kotak…72 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • We cant solveproblems byusing the samekind of thinkingwe used whenwe createdthem.73hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • MT 2.5:. Hapuskan Andaian: IaTidak Mungkin (It’s impossible)74• Bebaskan minda anda (Anjakan Paradigma)Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Early DEATH of SouthAmerican model• Death of 22-year-old SouthAmerican model Luisel Ramos,who suffered a heart attackafter stepping off a runway inAugust.• She had been on a three-monthdiet of green leaves and dietCoke after being told she couldbe an international sensation -if she lost weight.75 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • Perception of beauty has beendistorted..76 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • • 1. We get more of the same• 2. We boil slowly to death like frog in a graduallywarming pot of water.• 3. Miss out on new opportunities• 4. We fall well behind our competitors• 5. We lose control of the future & become itsvictims• 6. We manage by crisis & become reactive• 7. We become victims of short-term planningand mortgage the future.If we ignore paradigm shifts, then….77 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • • Sahabat kita yang terbaik dan jugamusuh kita yang terketat ialahpemikiran kita. Suatu buah fikiranboleh jadi lebih berfaedah daripadadoktor atau sahabat taat. Ia jugaboleh melukakan kita lebih terukdaripada dibaling batu.(Frank Crane,..)Renungan78 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • • Apakah kesan kepada seorangpemimpin apabila memiliki mindayang terbuka dan pemikiransistem dalam membinaperancangan strategik sertamembuat keputusan kepadamasalah seharian?Persoalan Perbincangan79 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • 1. Pengurusan masa yang cekap• 2. Pemikiran dan tindakan yang positif• 3. Peka dan sensitif kepada perubahanpersekitaran.• 4. Inovatif dan kreatif• 5. Optimistik• 6. menerima kepelbagaian• 7. pemurahBahagian 2: Corak Minda dan TindakanSeorang Pemimpin Strategik80 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.1: Pupuk Pemikiran Positifbukan Negatif• Negativity is the poison that kills dreams!81 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 82 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Negativitystarts withnegativethoughts.83 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Change to Positive Thought Because…..84 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Apakah kesan corakpemikiran strategik kepadaproses kerja dan prestasiorganisasi?Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Tabiat merujuk kepada tindakan yang diambil olehseseorang itu berulangkali tanpa berfikir.Cara atasi:1. Sedar tentang manafaat perubahan jika menjadiproaktifhakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPMMengikis Tabiat Tidak Produktif
  • The gap between reactive and proactivefutures is bridged by making time forstrategic thinking..87 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • IndividualForesightunconsciousimplicitsolitaryStrategicForesightconsciousexplicitcollectiveIndividuals recognise and build theirforesight capacityIndividuals begin to talk about and usefutures approaches in their workCollective individual capacitiesgenerate organisational capacity(structures & processes)88hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • LeadershipMake a change in your routinewhen you go back to work.Good AncestoryRecognise the impact ofdecisions today for futuregenerationsStrategic ThinkingWhenever you have to makea decision, ask: “Am Ithinking, big, deep and long?”Interior ExteriorIndividualCollectiveBased on the work of Ken WilberReflective PracticeCommit to building time todo this daily – stop doingsomething else if youhave toYOU
  • LeadershipBuild a scanning system toinform decision making – andpay attention to itGood AncestoryCreate a futures focuseddecision making cultureStrategic ThinkingHave thinking workshops aswell as planning workshopsInterior ExteriorIndividualCollectiveBased on the work of Ken WilberReflective PracticeEncourage and supportan outward looking staffYOURORGANISATION
  • Apakah kesan corakpemikiran strategik kepadaproses kerja dan prestasiorganisasi?Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Kelekaan ialah perasaan berpuas hati dengan pencapaiansendiri yang tidak produktif atau tiidak progresif. Ia tidakmengalakkan pencapaian (kepuasan galak pencapaian).Cara atasi:1. Elak andaian bahawa kecemerlangan sekarang bolehberterusan. (laut biru kekal selamanya)2. Sentiasa kumpul maklumat pesaing, kehendakpelanggan dan perubahan persekitaran3. Wujudkan keadaan ketidakpuasan kerana ia langkahpertama seorang insan atau organisasi menuju kepadakemajuan (Oscar Wilde)Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 20122.2: Pengurusan Masa Berkesan
  • A Challenge: Beyond Busy93 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM 94Hello Sir,I‘m Mr. Muhd. Bustamantefrom IAB to …………..
  • • I‘m too busy dealing with today tothink about the future…actually means…• I can only think short term, not longterm. I don‘t have time to thinkstrategically.95 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • • ―Managers who get caught in the trap ofoverwhelming demands become prisoners ofroutine. They do not have time to noticeopportunities. Their habituated work preventsthem from taking the first necessary step towardharnessing willpower: developing the capacity todream an idea into existence and transforming itinto a concrete existence.‖Heike Bruch & Sumantra Ghoshal, A Bias for Action: How Effective ManagersHarness Their Willpower, Achieve Results, and Stop Wasting Time, HBSP, 200496 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • The Result?Our organisationswill tend to bepurposelesswastelands,populated by theperpetually busyand the inherentlyunhappy.Stephen Johnson, What do you do for a living?, 200797 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • To think strategically, you have tomove beyond busy.98 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Time management?99 hakmilik@MBAM.IAB.KPM
  • 2. Putting Planning in its Place!(Stephen R. Covey)
  • Apakah kesan corakpemikiran strategik kepadaproses kerja dan prestasiorganisasi?Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.3. Hapuskan Tabiat Tidak Kisah( It’s irrelevant).102 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.3.1: Sikap Ingin Tahu......Explore, learn, reflect103 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.4: Inovatif and Kreatif104 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • KEHEBATANKREATIVITI DAN INOVASI―Sebatang besi buruk bernilai RM5.Jikaanda mengambil besi buruk tersebut danmenghasilkan ladam kuda,nilainya akanbertambah menjadi RM50.50.Jika iadigunakan untuk membuat jarum,nilainyameningkat kepada RM3,285.Jika andamenghasilkan spring jam,Ia bernilaiRM250,000. Perbezaan antara RM5 danRM250,000 adalah KREATIVITI danINOVASI!‖(Ripley‟s-Believe It or Not, TV Program)105hak milik mbam IAB KPM
  • 2.5: Optimistik ‗about creatingthe future‘…106 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.6: menerima kepelbagaian…107 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.7: Think outrageously attimes…108 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.8.1. ‗Are compassionate‘ &generous. (baik hati & pemurah)109 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.9: ‗Attitude Matters‘110 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Bila Anda mengubah fikiran AndaAnda mengubah keyakinan AndaBila Anda mengubah keyakinan diri AndaAnda mengubah harapan-harapan AndaBila Anda mengubah Harapan-harapan AndaAnda mengubah sikap andaBila Anda mengubah sikap AndaAnda mengubah tingkahlaku AndaBila Anda mengubah tingkahlaku AndaAnda mengubah prestasi kerja AndaBila Anda mengubah prestasi kerja AndaAnda mengubah nasib AndaBila Anda mengubah nasib AndaAnda mengubah HIDUP Anda!Rumusan: KUASAI MINDA ANDA,KUASAI MASA DEPAN(MASTER YOUR MIND,DESIGN YOUR DESTINY by Mbustaman, IAB)
  • • Bincangkan kesan/impak daritidak memiliki 7 sifat pemimpinyang berfikir strategik ke ataspembinaan dan pelaksanaanstrategi yang berjaya.• Sila rujuk model aliran prosesyang diedarkanAktiviti Kumpulan112 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • 1. Pemikiran positif dan proaktif• 2. Pengurusan masa yang cekap• 3. Peka dan sensitif kepada perubahanpersekitaran.• 4. Inovatif dan kreatif• 5. Optimistik• 6. Menerima kepelbagaian• 7. Pemurah113 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 20127 Cabaran untuk bina CorakMinda Strategik
  • • 1. kenalpasti (refleksi) amalan-amalancorak pemikiran strategik dalamkehidupan anda.• 2..Penilaian kendiri: Sejauhmanakahamalan corak pemikiran strategik tersebutdalam kehidupan anda• 3. Kenalpasti punca asal (root cause)anda gagal untuk berfikir strategik dancadangkan cara untuk mengatasinya?Aktiviti Pengukuhan114 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • • Focus: critical issue/decision today• Scan: two trends likely to affect your decisioninto the future (think uncertainty notpredictability)• Interpret: think about how these trends mightplay out over the next 10 years• Imagine: how your organisation look like in 10years – image/metaphor/book or movie title• Decision: – implications/options for yourdecision today. What will be the same, whatmight you do differently?Your turn… (Activity)115 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Proses 1• Pengenalan: Pemahaman tentang konsep PemikiranStrategik (PS)• Konsep PS, Ciri ciri Minda Strategik,Proses 2• Mengurus Cabaran Untuk Berfikir Strategik• 5 Corak minda strategik dan aplikasinya, Pemahaman persekitaran,Bina Hala TujuProses 3• Menterjemah pemikiran kepada Pelaksanaan• KRA, Objektif, KPI, Sasaran Prestasi dan InisiatifProses 4Proses 5116 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Tindakan: mengurus pelaksanaan strategi dan prestasiPembudayaan Pemikiran Strategik
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 117Penetapan Aspirasi/Hasil Akhir(outcomes)
  • ―Vision‖implies thatother peoplecanPICTUREwhat you‘retalkingabout.
  • BE THE ARCHITECT OF YOUR FUTURE….119Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012•What‘s your vision?Seeing possibilities beyondthe present•Thinking big and broadly
  • Primary Questions That Are Central to Your PersonalMission and VisionPersonal Mission Personal Vision• Who am I?• What is my philosophy of life?• Why am I on this earth?• What are my overall life objectives?• What do I live for?• What are my deepest aspirations?• Why do I do what I do?• What are my unique talents?• Where do I stand now?• What are my core beliefs?• Where am I going?• Which values and principles guide myway?• What do I want to help realize?• What do I want to achieve?• What are my long-term intentions?• What is my ideal?• What do I stand for?• What do I believe in?• Which contribution to society do I striveto make?• How do I see myself? (What is my self-image and my sense of self-worth?)Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 120
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 121ANALISIS PERSEKITARAN―Reading the environment of today and anticipating theenvironment of tomorrow‖Zoom-in, Zoom-out: looking beyond thepicture you see from where you stand
  • Rujuk W.sheet 3: AnalyzingInformation122Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Proses 1• Penjelasan konsep Asas Pemikiran Strategik (PS)• Konsep PS, Ciri ciri Minda Strategik,dan kepentingannyaProses 2• Pemahaman Corak & Cabaran Untuk Berfikir Strategik• Corak-corak minda strategik (10 corak) dan aplikasinya.• Ciri 1 PS : Bina/jelas „outcomes”/ Dasar & Hala TujuProses 3• Menterjemah pemikiran kepada Pelaksanaan•Tindakan yang berfokus & jelas , ‘Align’, boleh diukur dan ada inisiatif•Ciri 2: KRA, Objektif, KPI, Sasaran Prestasi dan InisiatifProses 4Proses 5123 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Implementasi : Pengoperasian, pengukuran prestasi danpenambahbaikan prestasiPembudayaan Pemikiran Strategik
  • Video• A little tiny frogPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 124
  • W3- Sifat Pemimpin Strategik:Berfokus, ‗Align‘, KPI dansasaran serta ada inisiatifMesti jelas:a. KRA (‘Outcomes’ Umum)b. Objektif (‘Outcomes’ Khusus) & ‘align’dengan misi dan visi.c. Petunjuk Prestasi (KPI) & SasaranPrestasi (termasuk TOV)d. Inisiatif berkaitan (strategi)Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 126a. Penetapan Matlamat Strategik/Key Results Areas -KRA• KRA ialah bidang kejayaan kritikal yang mestidicapai untuk mencapai misi dan visi organisasi(General Outcomes).• Strategic goals define what must be done toachieved the mission & vision. (Niven, 2003)• Jumlah: Prinsip 7 plus or minus 2 = 5
  • 127mbam@IAB.MOE 07 127Govt’ Mandate &MissionVisionGoals/KRAObjectivesMeasuresTargetsActions/InitiativesWhy we existWhat we want to beWhat we must achieve to be successfulIndicators andMonitors of successDesired level ofperformance and timelinesPlanned Actions toAchieve ObjectivesO1 O2AI1 AI2 AI3M1M2M3T1T1 T1Specific outcomes expressed inmeasurable terms (NOT activities)Strategic PlanningAction PlanningImplementation /MeasuresKRA or Strategic GoalsKRA or Goals serve as the starting point for developing Objectives,Initiatives, and KPIs down through the organizationmbustaman/IAB/KPM/12
  • B. Jelaskan Objektif ( Specific0utcomes) & ―Align‖ dengan MV128 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 129Perhatian Penting• Setiap penulisan pernyataan objektif mesti jelasapakah hasil akhir khusus atau specificoutcomes yang ingin dicapai dalam satutempoh tertentu.• Berasaskan tahunan cth 2012, 2013, 2014, ..• Kesilapan umum: Objektif ialah ends bukanproses atau cara (means) iaitu strategi.• Kegagalan mematuhi perkara di atas bolehmemberi masalah untuk membina KPI.
  • 130 What are SMART-A Measures?When creating a ‘balanced’ set measures for an organization, aligningmeasures where possible is also critical for your success ….TIMELYREALISTICAGREED TOMEASURABLESMARTMEASURESSPECIFICALIGNEDmbustaman/IAB/KPM/12
  • The individualneeds of eachstudent are metOur students enjoya positive andenjoyable learningexperience Our studentsdemonstrateexemplarybehaviourProviding quality &varied extracurricula activitiesEffective teachingmethods that instilthe joy of learningKnowledgeable,efficient, competent,nurturing & highlymotivated staff whodisplay our core valuesTransparency &AccountabilityFinancial viabilityFIDUCIARYLEARNINGINTERNALCUSTOMERb.1. ‗Align‘: Pemetaan Objektif dengan Misi & Visi sekolahOur studentsstrive towardsacademicexcellenceSafe welcoming, efficient,comfortable facilities andworking environmentOngoingmaintenance &upgrading offacilitiesAmple supply ofresources – teachingaids, technology,equipmentConsistentdisciplineProvidingopportunity forLearning religionPrinciplesResponsive curriculumthat encompasses themotto ―work, play andlearn together‖Our students arewell rounded &excel in all fieldsOur students enjoy asafe, welcoming,efficient, comfortableand family orientedenvironmentmbustaman/IAB/KPM/12 131
  • Basic Scorecard Terminology(Institute Aminuddin Baki)ObjectivesObjectives:What thestrategy istrying toachieveTargetsTargets:The level ofperformanceor rate ofimprovementneededInitiatives:Key actionprogramsrequired toachievetargetsInitiativesMeasuresMeasures:How successor failure(performance)againstobjectives ismonitoredFinancialExcellent Financial ManagementStakeholders &Customer satisfiedwith IAB servicesStakeholders & CustomersatisfactionInnovation & GrowthStrategy MapQualityCore BusinessQuality &World ClassEducationalLeadersHigh CompetencyStaff and PeacefullInternal Business ProcessesMission & Vision
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 133C. Bina Matrik Pengukur (Measure) &sasaran Perkembangan prestasi• KPI adalah suatu parameter yang boleh diukur,yang telah dipersetujui bersama, dan yang akanmencerminkan kejayaan sesuatu organisasi(Muhamad Yahaya, 2005).• KPI juga dikenali sebagai penunjuk kejayaanmembantu organisasi mentakrif dan mengukurkemajuan untuk mencapai matlamat organisasi.• Maka KPI adalah kaedah mengukur pencapaianmatlamat.
  • 134Developing KPI*Image via Bingmbustaman/IAB/KPM/12
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 135Mengapakah pentingnya KPI alam prosesperancangan strategik?Mengikut Kaplan (2003):• If we can‟t measure our processes, we can‟tmanage our processes• If we can‟t manage our processes, we can‟tchange our processes for improvement• If we can‟t improve our processes, we can‟tmeet or exceed our customers‟ expectations• MEASURE - MANAGE – CHANGE - EXCEED
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 136
  • 137Identifying & Creating KPIs… That Can Present in Different FormsRankings(Benchmarks)AbsoluteNumbersRating(surveys)RatioPercentagesIndicesStrategic Information GeneratedComplexityofAnalysisPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 138mbam@IAB.MOE 07 138D. Hubungkan KPI denganSasaran dan Inisiatif• Target: Desired level of performance for aperformance measure (e.g., % of customersatisfaction target = 95%)• Initiatives: Action programs that will achieve ourperformance goals (e.g., Improve trainingmethodology & Increase Trainer skills(source: Balanced Scorecard Institute, USA. 2005)Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 139CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVEKRA: …StrategicObjectiveStrategic Measures (2011, 2012,2013) Strategic Initiatives2011StrategicInitiativesAccountabilityKPI Target KPI OwnerC1. C1.1 Tov::2011:2012:2013:C1.2 BL: NEWST:LTmbustaman/IAB/KPM/12
  • 140mbam@IAB.MOE 07 140MATLAMATSTRATEGIKOBJEKTIF KPI SASARAN PRESTASIBIDANG:KURIKULUMTOV(08)09 10 11 12 13MeningkatkankecemerlanganakademikMeningkatkaPencapaianCemerlangdalamPMR, SPMdanSTPM1. Peratus (%)KelulusanPeperiksaanPMR2. (% As)3. (GredPurata)80.9 82.0 84.0 90.0 95.0 100%KelulusanSPM(% As)(Gred Purata)94.8 96.0 97.0 98.0 99.0 100%KelulusanSTPM(% As)(Gred Purata)97.5 98.0 100 100 100 100mbustaman/IAB/KPM/12
  • Untuk lebih Berkesan: Gunakan‗Thinking Tools‘1. Questioning4. Cognitive ResearchTrust (CoRT)2. Concepts3. Mindmaps141 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • But first, What is a Thinking Tool?A Thinking Tool is an instrument that can helpus in using our minds systematically, clearly,and easy to be understood and effectively..• Questioning• Concepts• Mindmaps• Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT)142Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Proses 1• Penjelasan konsep Asas Pemikiran Strategik (PS)• Konsep PS, Ciri ciri Minda Strategik,dan kepentingannyaProses 2• Pemahaman Corak & Cabaran Untuk Berfikir Strategik• Corak-corak minda strategik (10 corak) dan aplikasinya.• Ciri 1 PS : Bina/jelas „outcomes”/ Dasar & Hala TujuProses 3• Menterjemah pemikiran kepada Pelaksanaan•Tindakan yang berfokus & jelas , ‘Align’, boleh diukur dan ada inisiatif•Ciri 2: KRA, Objektif, KPI, Sasaran Prestasi dan InisiatifProses 4Proses 5143 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Implementasi : Pengoperasian, pengukuran prestasi danpenambahbaikan prestasiPembudayaan Pemikiran Strategik
  • Pengoperasian• Isu:1. ‗Communicate and cascading theplan/ideas‘• 2. ‗Teambuilding‘• 3. Mengurus perubahan5. Pengurusan prestasi: kawalan danpelaporan• 6. Penambahbaikan berterusanmbustaman/IAB/KPM/12144
  • 145mbam@IAB.MOE 07 145MISI VISIContoh: BORANG PELAPORAN PRESTASIObjektif KPI Tov Sasaran Prestasi Sebenar UlasanMATLAMAT:Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Proses 1• Penjelasan konsep Asas Pemikiran Strategik (PS)• Konsep PS, Ciri ciri Minda Strategik,dan kepentingannyaProses 2• Pemahaman Corak & Cabaran Untuk Berfikir Strategik• Corak-corak minda strategik (10 corak) dan aplikasinya.• Ciri 1 PS : Bina/jelas „outcomes”/ Dasar & Hala TujuProses 3• Menterjemah pemikiran kepada Pelaksanaan•Tindakan yang berfokus & jelas , ‘Align’, boleh diukur dan ada inisiatif•Ciri 2: KRA, Objektif, KPI, Sasaran Prestasi dan InisiatifProses 4Proses 5146 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012Implementasi : Pengoperasian, pengukuran prestasi danpenambahbaikan prestasiPembudayaan Pemikiran Strategik
  • Pembudayaan PemikiranStrategik Dalam TindakanSeharian Pemimpin:Contoh Pelan KecemerlanganKendiri Pendekatan ‗BalancedScorecard‘.Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Primary Questions That Are Central to Your PersonalMission and VisionPersonal Mission Personal Vision• Who am I?• What is my philosophy of life?• Why am I on this earth?• What are my overall life objectives?• What do I live for?• What are my deepest aspirations?• Why do I do what I do?• What are my unique talents?• Where do I stand now?• What are my core beliefs?• Where am I going?• Which values and principles guide myway?• What do I want to help realize?• What do I want to achieve?• What are my long-term intentions?• What is my ideal?• What do I stand for?• What do I believe in?• Which contribution to society do I striveto make?• How do I see myself? (What is my self-image and my sense of self-worth?)Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 148
  • The Personal Ambition of Muhd. Bustaman*Personal Mission :To live with ‘TAQWA’ and mean something to others.*Personal Vision: To be a leader in strategic managementstudies especially in educational management.I want to fulfill my mission in the following way.• Be honest with others.• Work with others harmoniously, help each other, inspire others, and shareknowledge.• Do things that make a difference in the lives of others.• Take initiative, learn from mistakes, continuously improve and developmyself.• Strive for physical, mental,soul and financial health.• Have respect and appreciation for others, as well as be appreciated by myfamily, friends, employer, and associates.• Deliver high-quality work so that my organisatitor is continuously satisfied.Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 149
  • MY KEY ROLESIn order to achieve my mission, the following key roleshave top priority:• Wife: My wife is the most important person in my life.• Father : I want to promote the capabilities and creativity ofmy children continuously and to help them reach a happyexistence.• Muslim: God (Allah) can count on me to keep my dutytowards others.• Manager: Help the organization (IAB, KPM) where I workbecome successful and by doing this serve society/nation.• Student: I want to learn something new every day, I willalways be a scholar.Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 150
  • Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPMCritical Success Areas & Factors of M.Bustaman151Financial Perspective External Perspective• Financial health• Extra Income•Be appreciated by family, friends,colleagues, and employer•Deliver high-quality workInternal Perspective Learning Perspective• working together harmoniously,helping each other, inspiring others,and sharing knowledge with eachother•Strive for physical and mental health•Take initiative, learn from mymistakes, continuously improve anddevelop myself•Learn something new every day andalways be a scholar
  • Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPMKRA, Objectives, KPI & Target of M Bustaman PDP152KRA (Financial) Objectives KPI Target•Financial health •More earnings•Reliable futureearnings•Curbing spending•Salary increase•Employmentcontract•Pension•Disability insurance•Ratio of income tospending•At least 5 % peryear•From temporary (as acting manager )to permanentemploymentcontract ( forunlimited time )within two years•13% of gross salary•5% of gross salary•Increase of at least5% within tow yearsKRA (External)•Beingappreciated byfamily, friends,colleagues, andemployer•Being appreciate bylife companion•Being appreciatedby own children•Being appreciated•Number of timesbeing together in acharmingatmosphere•Being cared for•At least once aweek•Every time there isan occasion for it•Increase depending
  • Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPMKRA, Objectives, KPI & Target of M Bustaman PDP153KRA (External) Objectives KPI Target•Deliver high-quality work•Being appreciatedby employer•Improved level ofsatisfaction ofemployees•Greater trust of myemployer in fulfillmentof my job•Level of reward•Number ofauthorities•Degree ofsatisfaction ofemployees•Level of satisfactionof employer•Increase at least5% per year•Increase of 25%within two years•At least 80% within1,5 years•At least 80% within1.5 yearsKRA (Internal)•Working togetherharmoniously,helping eachother, inspiringeach other andsharingknowledge witheach other•Strive forphysical and•Improvement level ofsatisfaction fromothers with respect toteamwork andpersonal contact•Satisfaction•Physically healthyand mentally strong•More time off•Enjoying the good•Perception scorefrom others withregard to teamworkand personalcontacts•Helping others•Percent of sickleave•Level of tension•Level of immunity•At least 80% within2 years•To be determined•Less than 2 % in 1year•Decrease by atleast 50% in 2 years•Decrease by atleast 50% in 2 years•At least 17 days
  • Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 154
  • Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 155
  • Hak Milik MBAM IAB KPM 156
  • Untuk lebih Berkesan: Gunakan‗Thinking Tools‘1. Questioning4. Cognitive ResearchTrust (CoRT)2. Concepts3. Mindmaps157 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Questioning - Five Ws and HThe Five W’s and H, is aninfluential, inspirational andimaginative checklist (often usedby journalists) to generate:• Data-gathering questions,during the early stages ofproblem solving when you aregathering data.• Idea-provoking questions (e.g.whilst brainstorming).• Criteria for evaluating options.WhatWhoWhereWhenWhyHow5WsH158Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2. ConceptsConcepts - General ideas that we use toidentify and organize our experience.Structure of Concepts:1) Sign - word/symbol that names the concept2) Referents - examples of the concept3) Properties - qualities that all examples of the conceptshare in common.PropertiesReferentsSignConceptsWords are the vocabulary of language;Concepts are the vocabulary of thought.159 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 2.1 Applying Concepts: ExampleSome may attribute a girls BEAUTY to her fair skin,rosy cheeks and long silky hair. Others, however,may attribute beauty to the kindness of her heartand considerate nature.How do you classify the concept ofBEAUTY?160Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 3. MindmapsA mindmap can be defined as a visual presentationof the ways in which concepts can be related toone another.It’s theUltimateLearning Tool!161Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 4. CoRT Thinking Method• The essence of the CoRT (Cognitive ResearchTrust) Thinking Method is to focus attentiondirectly on different aspects of thinking and tocrystallize these aspects into definite concepts andtools that can be used deliberately.• It is designed to encourage students to broadentheir thinking.162Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • CoRT Thinking ToolsCAF: Consider All FactorsFIP: First Important PrioritiesPMI: Plus, Minus, Interesting (ideas)APC: Alternatives, Possibilities, ChoicesOPV: Other Peoples ViewsAGO: Aims, Goals, Objectives (purpose)C&S: Consequence and Sequel163Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • CAF: Consider All FactorsUsed to look as widely as possible at all the factorsinvolved in a situation.Steps involved:List down all the factors.Consider each factor.What is the appropriate decision to be made?Example:Should IAB G.Highlands as a main campus?164Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012 165Buku Rujukan
  • Put your heart, mind, intellect, and soul eveninto your smallest acts. This is the secret ofsuccess in strategic decision.- MuhamadBustaman Abd Manaf (IAB. 2010)Final Quote166 Pengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012
  • 167Terima KasihDariInstitut Aminuddin BakiKementerian PelajaranMalaysiaPengubal:MBAM.IAB 2012