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Introduction to Bridge Engineering

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  • 1. CE 414 Introduction to Bridges Engineering Asst Prof Mansoor Khalid
  • 2. COURSE OUTLINE CE 414: BRIDGE ENGINEERING Fall Semester 2013 PREREQUISITES: CE 206 – Structural Analysis I, CE 307 Structural Analyses II, CE 309 Structural Analyses III, CE 446 – Reinforced Concrete Design CE 411 – Steel Structures TEXTBOOK: R.S.Rakshit, Design and construction of highway Bridges: 2004. (For IRC and WPHCB provisions) Taly, N. Design of Modern Highway Bridges, McGraw Hill, 1998 (For AASHTO provisions)
  • 3. COURSE PURPOSE: To introduce concepts in the analysis and design of reinforced concrete and steel bridges commonly encountered in the highway infrastructure. Basic concepts on the analysis and design of bridges using current West Pakistan Highway Code of Bridges (WPHCB), Indian Road Congress (IRC) Code and American Association of Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) specifications COURSE OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this course the student will be able to do the following: Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering in the analysis and design common reinforced concrete and steel bridges. Ability to analyze bridges subjected to a variety of loading conditions. Ability to design bridges meeting existing IRC/WPHCB Specifications. Ability to design bridges meeting existing AASHTO Specifications
  • 4. TOPICS COVERED: 1. Introduction (Week 1 -2) Brief History of Bridges – Week 1 Types and classification of Bridges – Week 1 Materials Used for Bridge Construction – Week 2 2. Concepts on Bridge Aesthetics (Week 3) 3. Introduction to Bridge Design /Specifications (Week-4) AASHTO 1996 specifications AASHTO LRFD specifications IRC specifications WPHCB specifications
  • 5. Types of Loads on Bridges (Week -5) a. Gravity Loads i. Permanent Loads ii. Transient Loads Lane loads Vehicle loads Pedestrian loads b. Lateral Loads i. Fluid Loads ii. Earthquake Loads iii. Ice Loads c. Deformation -induced Loads i. Temperature ii. Creep and Shrinkage d. Collision Loads Review of Influence Lines and Moment Distribution Method (Week 6) Influence lines Statically Determinate Beams Müller-Breslau Principle Statically Indeterminate Beams Moment Distribution Method
  • 6. Distribution of Loads in: (Week 7-9) Superstructure to include Bridge decks and Bridge girders Substructure to include abutments, Bearings, piers and foundations Analysis and Design of Bridges (Week 10-13) Solid Concrete slab Bridge (Week-10) Slab and Girder (T- Beam) Bridge (Week-11) Steel – Concrete Composite Bridge (Week-12) Precast-Prestressed Concrete Bridge (Week-13) Modeling, Analysis and Design of Highway Bridges Using CSIBridge and STAADPRO Software (Week 14-16 Week)
  • 7. DESIGN PROJECT: The design project will consist of the design of a bridge. The project will be executed by teams of 3 to 4 students each. Each team will select a particular type of bridge and will analyze and design the main structural components and verify the results by using software along with submission of Design calculations and software INPUT/OUTPUT files. A presentation of the final designs will be required at the end of the semester
  • 8. Grading Policy: Grades will assign in the following manner: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quiz 5% Mid-Term Exam/OHTs 30% Assignments 5% Design Project 10% Final exam (during finals week) 50% TOTAL 100%
  • 9. What is a BRIDGE? •Bridge is a structure which covers a gap •Generally bridges carry a road or railway across a natural or artificial obstacle such as, a river, canal or another railway or another road •Bridge is a structure corresponding to the heaviest responsibility in carrying a free flow of transport and is the most significant component of a transportation system in case of communication over spacings/gaps for whatever reason such as aquatic obstacles, valleys and gorges etc.
  • 10. Bridge is the KEY ELEMENT in a Transportation System
  • 11. History • Primitive Peoples: – Logs – Slabs of Rocks – Intertwined Vines or Ropes • Roman Empire—First Great Bridge Builders – Timber Truss Bridges – Masonry Arch Bridges • Europeans – Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use • Nineteenth Century— – Modern Long Bridges – Moveable Bridges
  • 12. Rock Bridges
  • 13. Wadi Rum Rock Bridge
  • 14. Rope Bridges
  • 15. Log Bridges
  • 16. LOG BRIDGE Members of a Denver and Salt Lake Railroad Company (D&SL) survey crew pose on a log bridge over the Colorado River in Gore Canyon (Grand County), Colorado.
  • 17. View of a settlement in (probably) Utah; shows a log bridge, a stream, and houses. People sit on a porch; a United States flag waves from a pole.
  • 18. U.S. Army soldiers from the Ohio Engineers, building a small log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois
  • 19. LOG BRIDGE View of hot springs site enclosed by stone and wooden frame buildings, Hot Sulphur Springs, CO
  • 20. Covered Bridges
  • 21. COVERED BRIDGE • Bridges. Old covered bridge, Jackson River, Va.
  • 22. Structure of covered bridge. Wallingford, Vermont
  • 23. Covered Bridge, Glen Canyon, Santa Cruz County, CA
  • 24. CONSTRUCTION • Must carry own weight and weight of traffic – – – – Must withstand force of high winds Must consider effects of contraction and/or Expansion due to temperature changes Most common materials • Wood—temporary • Steel—for long, strong spans • Reinforced concrete—attractive designs but difficult to work with on large bridges • Prestressed concrete—stronger than reinforced, cheaper than steel
  • 25. TYPES OF BRIDGES • Fixed • Moveable • Other
  • 26. Beam or Girder Bridges
  • 27. FIXED • Beam or Girder – Two parallel beams w/ flooring supported by piers – Span can be supported by trestle – Used for hwy over/underpasses or small stream crossings – Example—Covered Bridge
  • 28. Cars on a suspension bridge over a river, possibly in Colorado.
  • 29. enz_bridge.jpg
  • 30. Millennium Bridge, London
  • 31. ostruz.jpg www.prevodi-vertalingen.com/.../ ostruz.html
  • 32. Truss Bridges
  • 33. FIXED • Truss – Beam bridge strengthed by trusses (structural spts joined to form triangles with tie rods) – Lighter than ordinary beam sections of equal length – Useful for longer bridges
  • 34. Timber Truss Bridge
  • 35. Continuous Truss Bridges
  • 36. View west of an iron truss bridge crossing the Colorado River on the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Montrose line at Grand Junction, Colorado; people and horses are on a sand bar.
  • 37. View of the bridge crossing the White River at Meeker, CO
  • 38. White Water Creek Bridge, Spanning White Water Creek, Bernard vicinity, Dubuque County, IA
  • 39. Truss Bridge View of a trestle bridge that crosses Arastra Gulch near Silverton (San Juan County), Colorado.
  • 40. Jefferson Barracks Bridge Location: Mississippi River, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri
  • 41. Simple Truss Bridges
  • 42. FAI 24 Bridge Over the Ohio River Paducah, Kentucky www.modjeski.com/projects/ servproj/paducah.htm
  • 43. gcdranet.homelinux.com/davehonan/ bridges/il.html Cairo
  • 44. Ohio River ferry and railroad bridge, Metropolis, IL
  • 45. Arch Bridges
  • 46. FIXED • Arch – One or more arches – Masonry, reinforced concrete or steel – Roadway on toop of arches or suspended by cables – Spans can be longer than beam or truss
  • 47. Aquaduct
  • 48. Old stone bridge at Bull Run Battlefield. Manassas, Virginia.
  • 49. Stone bridge in Rock Creek Park.
  • 50. Stone bridge, Elizabeth Park, Hartford, Ct..
  • 51. Old Stone Bridge, Boonton, N.J..
  • 52. Stone Bridge at Bowling Green, Gallatin vicinity, Sumner County, TN
  • 53. Segovia, Spain
  • 54. Franklin Park, Ellicott Bridge, Emerald Necklace, Boston, MA
  • 55. Pont du Gard
  • 56. Arch bridge, Bellows Falls, Vt..
  • 57. Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Is, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ
  • 58. Kill van Kull Bridge
  • 59. [Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge), New York].
  • 60. [Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge), New York].
  • 61. Steel Arch Bridge, Niagara.
  • 62. History of Bridge Development Natural Bridges 700 A.D. Asia Great Stone Bridge in China Clapper Bridge Tree trunk Stone Low Bridge Shallow Arch Strength of Materials Roman Arch Bridge The Arch Natural Cement 100 B.C. Romans Mathematical Theories Development of Metal 1300 A.D. Renaissance
  • 63. History of Bridge Development 1800 A.D. 1900 A.D. Truss Bridges Mechanics of Design First Cast-Iron Bridge Coalbrookdale, England Britannia Tubular Bridge Wrought Iron 1850 A.D. 2000 A.D. Prestressed Concrete Steel Suspension Bridges Use of Steel for the suspending cables 1920 A.D.
  • 64. Basic Concepts Span - the distance between two bridge supports, whether they are columns, towers or the wall of a canyon. Force - any action that tends to maintain or alter the position of a structure Compression - a force which acts to compress or shorten the thing it is acting on. Tension - a force which acts to expand or lengthen the thing it is acting on. Compression Tension
  • 65. Basic Concepts Beam - a rigid, usually horizontal, structural element Beam Pier Pier - a vertical supporting structure, such as a pillar Cantilever - a projecting structure supported only at one end, like a shelf bracket or a diving board Load - weight distribution throughout a structure
  • 66. Basic Concepts Truss - a rigid frame composed of short, straight pieces joined to form a series of triangles or other stable shapes Stable - (adj.) ability to resist collapse and deformation; stability (n.) characteristic of a structure that is able to carry a realistic load without collapsing or deforming significantly Deform - to change shape
  • 67. Basic Concepts Buckling is what happens when the force of compression overcomes an object's ability to handle compression. A mode of failure characterized generally by an unstable lateral deflection due to compressive action on the structural element involved. Snapping is what happens when tension overcomes an object's ability to handle tension. To dissipate forces is to spread them out over a greater area, so that no one spot has to bear the brunt of the concentrated force. To transfer forces is to move the forces from an area of weakness to an area of strength, an area designed to handle the forces.
  • 68. • Bridge Definition • Bridge type • Aesthetics in bridge design • Factors considered in deciding bridge types • Bridge components
  • 69. It Controls the Capacity of the System If the width of a bridge is insufficient to carry the number of lanes required to handle the traffic volume, the bridge will be a constriction to the flow of traffic. If the strength of a bridge is deficient and unable to carry heavy trucks, load limits will be posted and truck traffic will be rerouted. The bridge controls both the volume and weight of the traffic carried by the transportation system.
  • 70. Highest Cost per Mile of the System Bridges are expensive. The typical cost per mile of a bridge is many times that of the approach roads to the bridge.`  Since, bridge is the key element in a transportation system, balance must be achieved between handling future traffic volume and loads and the cost of heavier and wider bridge structure. 
  • 71. If the Bridge Fails, the System Fails The importance of a Bridge can be visualized by considering the comparison between the two main components of a highway system i.e. a road and bridge itself. EXAMPLE: Suppose in a road there occurs deterioration and ultimately a crack, thus making a sort of inconvenience but it wont result in stopping of the flow of traffic as traffic can pass or otherwise a bypass can be provided. The traffic no doubt will pass with a slower speed but in case of a bridge its flow is completely stopped incase of the failure of the bridge, that is the reason its often called “If the bridge fails the structure fails” as the function of the structure could no longer be served at all.
  • 72. Classification of Bridges Material Usage Steel Concrete Wood Hybrid Stone/Brick Pedestrian Highway Railroad Span Structural Form Short Medium Long Slab Girder Truss Arch Suspension Cable-Stayed Structural Arrangement
  • 73. Discussion on Classification According To STRUCTURAL FORM Distinctive Features of Girder Bridge Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge Distinctive Features of Cable-Stayed Bridges
  • 74. Distinctive Features of Girder Bridges •Widely constructed •Usually used for Short and Medium spans •Carry load in Shear and Flexural bending •Efficient distribution of material is not possible •Stability concerns limits the stresses and associated economy •Economical and long lasting solution for vast majority of bridges •Decks and girder usually act together to support the entire load in highway bridges
  • 75. Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge •Arch action reduces bending moments ( that is Tensile Stresses ) •Economical as compared to equivalent straight simply supported Girder or Truss bridge •Suitable site is a Valley with arch foundations on a DRY ROCK SLOPES •Conventional curved arch rib has high Fabrication and Erection costs •Erection easiest for Cantilever Arch and most difficult for Tied Arch •Arch is predominantly a Compression member. Buckling must be worked to the detail so as to avoid reductions in allowable stresses.
  • 76. Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge •Classic arch form tends to favor Concrete as a construction material •Conventional arch has two moment resistant components : The deck and the Arch Rib. •Near the crown of the arch and the region where Spandrel Columns are short, undesirable B.M. can occur. By using Pin ended columns it can be avoided •Space beneath the arch is less and hence danger for collision with the Rib, specially on a highway •Curved shaped is always very pleasing and arch is the most successful and beautiful structure
  • 77. Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge •The primary member forces are axial loads •The open web system permits the use of a greater overall depth than for an equivalent solid web girder, hence reduced deflections and rigid structure •Both these factors lead to Economy in material and a reduced dead weight •These advantages are achieved at the expense of increased fabrication and maintenance costs •Other bridge types have rendered the truss bridge types less likely to be used due to its high maintenance and fabrication costs. •The truss is instead being used widely as the stiffening structure for the suspension bridges due to its acceptable aerodynamic behavior since the wind gusts can pass through the truss as is not with the case in girder, arch bridges.
  • 78. Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge •It’s a light weight structure it can be assembled member by member using lifting equipment of small capacity. •Rarely aesthetically pleasing complexity of member intersections if viewed from oblique direction •In large span structures poor aesthetic appearance of the truss bridge is compensated with the large scale of the structure. For moderate spans its best to provide a simple and regular structure
  • 79. Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge •Major element is a flexible cable, shaped and supported in such a way that it transfers the loads to the towers and anchorage •This cable is commonly constructed from High Strength wires, either spun in situ or formed from component, spirally formed wire ropes. In either case allowable stresses are high of the order of 600 MPA •The deck is hung from the cable by Hangers constructed of high strength ropes in tension •As in the long spans the Self-weight of the structures becomes significant, so the use of high strength steel in tension, primarily in cables and secondarily in hangers leads to an economical structure. •The economy of the cable must be balanced against the cost of the associated anchorage and towers. The anchorage cost may be high where foundation material is poor
  • 80. Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge •The main cable is stiffened either by a pair of stiffening trusses or by a system of girders at deck level. •This stiffening system serves to (a) control aerodynamic movements and (b) limit local angle changes in the deck. It may be unnecessary in cases where the dead load is great. •The complete structure can be erected without intermediate staging from the ground •The main structure is elegant and neatly expresses its function. •It is the only alternative for spans over 600m, and it is generally regarded as competitive for spans down to 300m. However, shorter spans have also been built, including some very attractive pedestrian bridges •The height of the main towers can be a disadvantage in some areas; for example, within the approach road for an AIRPORT
  • 81. Distinctive Features of Cable-stayed Bridge •The use of high strength cables in tension leads to economy in material, weight, and cost.. •As compared with the stiffened suspension bridge, the cables are straight rather than curved. As a result, the stiffness is greater •The cables are anchored to the deck and cause compressive forces in the deck. For economical design, the deck must participate in carrying these forces •All individual cables are shorter than full length of the superstructure. They are normally constructed of individual wire ropes, supplied complete with end fittings, prestretched and not spun. •There is a great freedom of choice in selecting the structural arrangement •Less efficient under Dead Load but more efficient in support Live Load. It is economical over 100-350m, some designer would extend the upper bound as high as 800m
  • 82. Distinctive Features of Cable-stayed Bridge •Aerodynamic stability has not been found to be a problem in structures erected to date •When the cables are arranged in the single plane, at the longitudinal center line of the deck, the appearance of the structure is simplified and avoids cable intersections when the bridge is viewed obliquely
  • 83. Discussion on Classification According To SPAN Small Span Bridges (up to 15m) Medium Span Bridges (up to 50m) Large Span Bridges (50-150m) Extra Large ( Long ) Span Bridges (over 150m)
  • 84. Small Span Bridges (up to 15m) Culvert Bridge Slab Bridges T-Beam Bridge Wood Beam Bridge Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Pre-cast Concrete I-Beam Bridge Rolled Steel Beam Bridge
  • 85. Medium Span Bridges (up to 50m) Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam & Pre-cast Concrete IBeam Composite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge Composite Steel Plate Girder Bridge Cast-in-place RCC Box Girder Bridge Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned Concrete Box Girder Composite Steel Box Girder
  • 86. Large Span Bridges (50 to 150m) Composite Steel Plate Girder Bridge Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned concrete Box Girder Post-Tensioned Concrete Segmental Construction Concrete Arch and Steel Arch
  • 87. Extra Large (Long) Span Bridges (Over 150m) Cable Stayed Bridge Suspension Bridge
  • 88. Discussion on Classification According To Structural Arrangement The classification of the bridge types can also be according to the location of the main structure elements relative to the surface on which the user travels, as follows: •Main Structure Below the Deck Line •Main Structure Above the Deck Line •Main Structure coincides with the Deck Line
  • 89. Main Structure Below the Deck Line Masonry Arch Concrete Arch Arch Bridge Inclined Leg Frame Arch Rigid Frame Arch Steel Truss-Arch Truss-Arch Bridge Steel Deck Truss
  • 90. Main Structure Above the Deck Line Suspension Bridges Cable Stayed Bridges Through-Truss Bridge
  • 91. Main Structure Coincides with the Deck Line Slab (solid and voided) T-Beam (cast-in-place) I-beam (pre-cast or pre-stressed Girder Bridge Wide-flange beam (composite & noncomposite Concrete Box (cast-in-place, segmental & prestressed Steel Plate Girder (straight & haunched) Steel box (Orthotropic deck)
  • 92. CLASSIFICATION GIVEN BY R.S.RAKSHIT
  • 93. YOUR TASK PREPARE A COMPARISON SHEET
  • 94. FACTORS CONSIDERED IN DECIDING BRIDGE TYPE In general all the factors are related to economy, safety and aesthetics. •Geometric Conditions of the Site •Subsurface Conditions of the Site •Functional Requirements •Aesthetics •Economics and Ease of Maintenance •Construction and Erection Consideration •Legal Considerations
  • 95. Geometric Conditions of the Site •The type of bridge selected will always depend on the horizontal and vertical alignment of the highway route and on the clearances above and below the roadway •For Example: if the roadway is on a curve, continuous box girders and slabs are a good choice because they have a pleasing appearance, can readily be built on a curve, and have a relatively high torsion resistance •Relatively high bridges with larger spans over navigable waterways will require a different bridge type than one with medium spans crossing a flood plain •The site geometry will also dictate how traffic can be handled during construction, which is an important safety issue and must be considered early in the planning stage
  • 96. Subsurface conditions of the soil •The foundation soils at a site will determine whether abutments and piers can be founded on spread footings, driven piles, or drilled shafts •If the subsurface investigation indicates that creep settlement is going to be a problem, the bridge type selected must be one that can accommodate differential settlement over time •Drainage conditions on the surface and below ground must be understood because they influence the magnitude of earth pressures, movement of embankments, and stability of cuts or fills •For Example: An inclined leg frame bridge requires strong foundation material that can resist both horizontal and vertical thrust. If it is not present, then another bridge type is more appropriate.
  • 97. Subsurface conditions of the soil •The potential for seismic activity at a site should also be a part of the subsurface investigation. If seismicity is high, the substructure details will change, affecting the superstructure loads as well •All of these conditions influence the choice of substructure components which in turn influence the choice of superstructure
  • 98. Functional Requirements •Bridge must function to carry present and future volumes of traffic. •Decisions must be made on the number of lanes of traffic, inclusion of sidewalks and/or bike paths, whether width of the bridge deck should include medians, drainage of the surface waters, snow removal, and future wearing surface. •For Example: In the case of stream and flood plain crossings, the bridge must continue to function during periods of high water and not impose a severe constriction or obstruction to the flow of water or debris. •Satisfaction of these functional requirements will recommend some bridge types over others. •For Example: if future widening and replacement of bridge decks is a concern, multiple girder bridge types are preferred over concrete segmental box girders.
  • 99. Economic and ease of maintenance •The initial cost and maintenance cost over the life of the bridge govern when comparing the economics of different bridge types. •A general rule is that the bridge with the minimum number of spans, fewest deck joints, and widest spacing of girders will be the most economical. •For Example: (1) By reducing the number of spans in a bridge layout by one span, the construction cost of one pier is eliminated. (2) Deck joints are a high maintenance cost item, so minimizing their number will reduce the life cycle cost of the bridge. (3) When using the empirical design of bridge decks in the AASHTO (1994) LRFD Specifications, the same reinforcement is used for deck spans up to 4.1m. Therefore, there is little cost increase in the deck for wider spacing for girders and fewer girders means less cost although at the “expense” of deeper sections.
  • 100. Economic and ease of maintenance •Generally, concrete structures require less maintenance than steel structure. The cost and hazard of maintenance painting of steel structures should be considered in type selection studies. •One effective way to reduce the overall project cost is to allow contractors to propose an alternative design or designs.
  • 101. Construction and Erection Considerations •The length of the time required to construct a bridge is important and will vary with the bridge type. •Generally, larger the prefabricated or pre-cast members shorter the construction time. However, the larger the members, the more difficult they are to transport and lift into place. •The availability of skilled labor and specified materials will also influence the choice of a particular bridge type. •For Example: if there are no pre-cast plants for pre-stressed girders within easy transport but there is a steel fabrication plant nearby that could make the steel structure more economical. •The only way to determine which bridge type is more economical is to bid alternative designs.
  • 102. Legal Considerations •Regulations are beyond the control of an engineer, but they are real and must be considered. Examples of certain regulations are as follows: •Permits Over Navigable Waterways •National Environmental policy Act •Department of Transportation Act •National historic preservation Act •Clean Air Act •Noise Control Act
  • 103. Legal Considerations •Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act •The Endangered Species Act •Water Bank Act •Wild and Scenic Rivers Act •In addition to the environmental laws and acts defining national policies, local and regional politics are also of concern
  • 104. Discussion on Bridge Components •Common bridge components •Components of a Girder bridge (Beam Bridge) •Components of a Suspension Bridge
  • 105. General Bridge Components Bridge Bearings: These are supports on a bridge pier, which carry the weight of the bridge and control the movements at the bridge supports, including the temperature expansion and contraction. They may be metal rockers, rollers or slides or merely rubber or laminated rubber ( Rubber with steel plates glued into it). Bridge Dampers & Isolators: Bridge dampers are devices that absorb energy generated by earthquake waves and lateral load Bridge Pier: A wide column or short wall of masonry or plain or reinforced concrete for carrying loads as a support for a bridge, but in any case it is founded on firm ground below the river mud
  • 106. General Bridge Components Bridge Cap: The highest part of a bridge pier on which the bridge bearings or rollers are seated. It may be of stone, brick or plain or reinforced concrete. Bridge Deck: The load bearing floor of a bridge which carries and spreads the loads to the main beams. It is either of reinforced concrete., pre-stressed concrete, welded steel etc. Abutment: A support of an arch or bridge etc which may carry a horizontal force as well as weight. Expansion Joints : These are provided to accommodate the translations due to possible shrinkage and expansions due to temperature changes.
  • 107. Components of a Girder bridge (Beam Bridge)
  • 108. Components of a Suspension Bridge • • • • • • Anchor Block: Just looking at the figure we can compare it as a dead man having no function of its own other than its weight. Suspension girder: It is a girder built into a suspension bridge to distribute the loads uniformly among the suspenders and thus to reduce the local deflections under concentrated loads. Suspenders: a vertical hanger in a suspension bridge by which the road is carried on the cables Tower: Towers transfers compression forces to the foundation through piers. Saddles: A steel block over the towers of a suspension bridge which acts as a bearing surface for the cable passing over it. Cables: Members that take tensile forces and transmit it through saddles to towers and rest of the forces to anchorage block.
  • 109. • •    BRIDGE SPECIFICATIONS Meaning of bridge specifications. Need of bridge specifications. History Development Lack of specification and usage of proper codes and safety factors -------reason of failure of a structure (bridge)  Use and check of safety factors case study of wasserwork bridge for the check of present working capacity.  Assignment: Main reason of failure for some bridge/bridges
  • 110. BRIDGE SPECIFICATION • Basically the word specification stands in general for a collection of work description upon which there is a mutual agreement of the most experienced group of people based upon their practical and theoretical knowledge • Bridge specification: Applying the above mentioned definition, context to bridge makes it self explanatory.
  • 111. Bridge Cap and Damper
  • 112. ARCH BRIDGE
  • 113. ARCH BRIDGE
  • 114. ARCH BRIDGE
  • 115. ARCH BRIDGE
  • 116. GIRDER BRIDGE
  • 117. GIRDER BRIDGE
  • 118. GIRDER BRIDGE
  • 119. GIRDER BRIDGE
  • 120. Totally Precast Concrete Bridges FORWARD
  • 121. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Is it possible to design an “Instant Bridge?” Almost! There are many ways to put a bridge together quickly with precast concrete products. BACK FORWARD
  • 122. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES The speed and variety of precast prestressed products and methods give designers many options. Consider these advantages of an all-precast bridge… BACK FORWARD
  • 123. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Benefits to Owner Agencies:  Reduction in the duration of work zones  Reduced traffic handling costs  Reduced accident exposure risks  Less inconvenience to the traveling public  Fewer motorist complaints BACK Fast construction benefits owner agencies by reducing the duration of the work zone. Fast construction reduces traffic handling costs and accident exposure risks. There’s less inconvenience to the traveling public, fewer delays, and fewer motorist complaints. According to a report by the Texas Transportation Institute, costs incurred by drivers passing through a work zone (along with engineering costs) can be $10,000 to $20,000 per day. A recent Federal report indicates user costs of $50,000 per day for work zones in urban areas. FORWARD
  • 124. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Benefits to Contractors:  Reduced exposure to hazards  More work -- less time Contractors benefit from reduced exposure to traffic hazards. More work can be accomplished in less time, with fewer weather delays. Costs are lower for forms, skilled field labor, scaffolding and shoring, and cranes.  Fewer weather delays  Lower costs  Less skilled labor BACK FORWARD
  • 125. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES After foundations have been completed, scheduling can be controlled by a single contractor working with a familiar material. Scheduling Control BACK FORWARD
  • 126. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Precast concrete structural elements should always be plant produced under carefully controlled conditions…by plants that are Certified by PCI. Plant-produced Elements BACK FORWARD
  • 127. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES … so all structural elements benefit from the excellent quality and corrosion resistance of prestressed concrete. Quality and Corrosion Resistance BACK FORWARD
  • 128. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Fully-cured precast concrete structural elements can be stockpiled in advance of need… Stockpiled in Advance BACK FORWARD
  • 129. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES …and can be scheduled for “just-in-time” delivery and erection… Immediate Delivery and Erection BACK FORWARD
  • 130. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES There’s no curing time required at the jobsite, as with cast-in-place concrete. Bridge piers can be erected in a day, and beams can follow immediately. No Curing Time BACK FORWARD
  • 131. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES The following photos illustrate the many products and construction methods that enable very rapid project completion. In addition to the often-used superstructure elements of girders and deck slabs, substructure components such as these piers can also be precast. BACK FORWARD
  • 132. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Precast concrete piles are quite popular in much of the country. They come in different sizes and shapes, ranging from 10-inch square piles to 66-inch diameter hollow cylinder piles. BACK FORWARD
  • 133. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Pile caps also can be precast concrete, reducing exposure, forming and curing in the field. BACK FORWARD
  • 134. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Piers can be made of precast concrete pieces quickly assembled in the field. BACK FORWARD
  • 135. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Abutments can also be made of precast. BACK FORWARD
  • 136. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES The Sucker Creek Bridge in Hague, New York, consists of precast concrete box beams supported on precast concrete abutments assembled into a jointless, rigid frame. Sucker Creek Bridge in Hague BACK FORWARD
  • 137. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES In San Juan, Puerto Rico, the totally precast concrete Baldorioty de Castro Avenue bridges were built in recordsetting time, attractively, and economically. Puerto Rico MAIN BACK FORWARD
  • 138. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Each of four bridges, ranging in length from 700 to 900 feet, was erected in about 24 hours. This was well within the owner’s construction allowance of 72 hours per bridge, a condition established to minimize disruption to one of the city’s highly traveled corridors. Puerto Rico A totally precast bridge BACK FORWARD
  • 139. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES In addition to speed, the bridges also met the city’s budgetary needs. The four box-beam bridges were constructed for $2 million less than the next lowest bid for another material. Puerto Rico BACK FORWARD
  • 140. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Totally precast bridge systems may be the only viable solution in harsh field conditions. The Confederation Bridge connecting Canada’s Prince Edward Island to mainland New Brunswick is such an example. The bridge spanned the eightmile-wide Northumberland strait, which experiences severe winters and is covered with ice floes for five months of the year. Confederation Bridge New Brunswick, Canada BACK FORWARD
  • 141. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Even in such harsh conditions, precast concrete was able to meet the owner’s requirements of a 100-year service life, a 3½-year construction period, and attractiveness. Confederation Bridge BACK FORWARD
  • 142. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES It just makes economic sense to evaluate conversion of cast-in-place to precast concrete. This was done for the Edison Bridge in Florida. Precast piers and beams were spliced to produce tall pier bents. Edison Bridge Florida BACK FORWARD
  • 143. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES The state of Texas has constructed several bridges with segmental precast concrete piers. The attractive piers and pier caps are hollow members. Some are made of highperformance concrete. Such segments may be matchcast, similar to segmental box girder bridges, or separated by a thin mortar bed, much like giant masonry units. Texas - Precast Piers BACK FORWARD
  • 144. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES In Houston, the Louetta Road Overpass utilized precast concrete match-cast piers, as well as precast, prestressed U-beams and stay-in-place deck panels. Louetta Road Bridge Texas BACK FORWARD
  • 145. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Another famous bridge is the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay in Florida. The piles, piers and pier caps were constructed of precast concrete elements connected together with post-tensioning threadbars. Sunshine Skyway Bridge Florida BACK FORWARD
  • 146. Truss Basics – Overview Truss Bridges A metal truss bridge is a bridge whose main structure comes from a triangular framework of structural steel or iron.
  • 147. Truss Basics – Forms of Metal Iron and Steel Due to their variety of designs, there is a system that is used to classify metal truss bridges by design.
  • 148. Truss Basics – Pony / Through Truss Basics If the trusses run beside the deck, with no cross bracing above the deck, it is called a pony truss bridge. Pony Truss Through Truss If cross-bracing is present above the deck of the bridge, then the bridge is referred to as a “through truss.”
  • 149. Truss Basics – Deck Truss Basics Deck Truss Trusses may run under the deck: these are called simply Deck truss bridges.
  • 150. Truss Bridge Parts Truss Bridge Parts The different parts of a truss bridge are all named. Some of the parts: Hip Vertical (Only the Top / Upper Chord Vertical (Member) verticals that meet the Diagonal (Member) top of the end post) End Post Floor beam Bottom / Lower Chord Each space Portal Bracing between vertical members and end Sway Bracing posts is one panel. This bridge has six Lateral Bracing panels. Connections
  • 151. Truss Bridge Forces Truss Bridge Forces Compression Tension The chords and members of a truss bridge experience strain in the form of tension (stretching apart) and compression (squeezing together). Engineers often picked different types of materials and designs for the different parts of a bridge based on these forces. An example is shown above.
  • 152. Truss Connections Truss Bridge Connections The pieces of the framework of a truss bridge are held together by connections. Most connections on historic bridges are either riveted or pinned.
  • 153. Truss Connections Pinned Pinned Connections Pin Pinned connections can be identified by the bolt-like object called a pin going through the loops of the members. They tend to show up on bridges from the first half of the truss bridge era.
  • 154. Truss Connections Riveted Riveted Connections Riveted connections are identified by a “gusset plate” which diagonals and vertical members are riveted to, and no pin is present. These connections tend to show up in the second half of the truss bridge era.
  • 155. Truss Configurations Pratt Overview: One of the two most common configurations, it tends to occupy the earlier half of the truss bridge era, but was used throughout. Originally developed by Thomas and Caleb Pratt in 1844. Appearance: Diagonal members angle toward the center and bottom of bridge.
  • 156. Truss Configurations Pratt – Additional Notes The Pratt may have additional diagonal members, sometimes of a smaller size, that do not follow the standard pattern to form an “X” shape on panels toward the center.
  • 157. Truss Configurations Whipple Overview: The Whipple truss is also known as the doubleintersection Pratt truss. It was patented by Squire Whipple in 1847 as a stronger version of the Pratt truss. Appearance: Similar to the Pratt truss, but the diagonals pass through one vertical member before reaching the bottom chord. They tend to show up on longer spans built in the first half of the truss era, and with pinned connections.
  • 158. Truss Configurations Baltimore Overview: The Baltimore railroad designed a truss configuration that eventually found use on both railroads and highways. It is a Pratt truss with additional members added for additional strength. Appearance: Characterized by a Pratt configuration with extra smaller members branching off of the diagonals.
  • 159. Truss Configurations Parker Overview: Charles H. Parker modified the Pratt design to create what became known as the Parker truss configuration. This design allowed one to use less materials to get the a similar load capacity. The downside was the more complex design. Appearance: Characterized by an arch-shaped (polygonal) top chord, with diagonals that follow the Pratt configuration.
  • 160. Truss Configurations Pennsylvania Overview: Sometimes called the Petit truss. Designed by the Pennsylvania railroad, this configuration combines the engineering ideas behind the Baltimore with those of the Parker or Camelback. Appearance: Features an arch-shaped (polygonal) top chord with a diagonal arrangement like the Baltimore.
  • 161. Truss Configurations Warren Overview: The other most common truss configuration, this design tended to be used in the second half of the truss bridge era, and with riveted connections. Originally developed in 1848 by James Warren and Willoughby Monzoni. Appearance: Alternating diagonal members form a repeating “V” shape. A true Warren does not have vertical members.
  • 162. Truss Configurations Warren: With Verticals Most Warren truss bridges do in fact feature vertical members. They may be referenced simply as “warren with verticals” truss bridges. Vertical members may occur at each connection, or every other connection.
  • 163. Truss Configurations Double-Intersection Warren Overview: Often called simply the Double Warren, this is an uncommon truss configuration. Bridges with this configuration often have riveted connections. Appearance: Looks like two Warren trusses offset and superimposed on each other, forming a repeating “X” shape.
  • 164. Truss Configurations Lenticular Overview: One of the rarest bridge designs in the country. Patented by the Berlin Iron Bridge Company of East Berlin, CT Appearance: Both the top chord and bottom chord have an arched appearance, forming a distinctive oval or eye-like shape.
  • 165. Truss bridge
  • 166. Truss Bridge
  • 167. Truss Bridge
  • 168. Truss Bridge
  • 169. Truss Bridge
  • 170. Truss Bridge
  • 171. Curved Cable Stayed Bridge This is an innovative curved cable stayed bridge. It is designed to provide maximum support around turns where a whole new bridge would need to be built.
  • 172. Waldo Hancock Bridge This the is new Waldo Hancock Bridge. It replaced the old one in the background due to corrosion. This is one of the only suspension bridges in the country that has an observation tower in the top. I have been up in the tower and would strongly suggest seeing it for yourself.
  • 173. Suspension Bridge Design
  • 174. What you need to know A suspension bridge is a type of bridge where the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. Suspension bridges are efficient at holding up a large amount of wait over a long span. A suspension bridge usually has two towers that hold up the horizontal cables. From these main horizontal cables hang vertical cables that are attached to the deck of the bridge. A suspension bridge must with stand forces of tension on its cables and
  • 175. Famous Suspension Bridges The Akashi-Kaikyo bridge in Japan The longest bridge in the world at 6529 feet long. The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco
  • 176. Verrazano-Narrows Bridge The VerrazanoNarrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the U.S. It is 4,260 feet long. It is a double decked bridge in New York City.
  • 177. Suspension Bridge
  • 178. Suspension Bridge
  • 179. Suspension Bridge
  • 180. Movable Bridges • They span waterways • Closed bridge to carry traffic •Open to allow marine traffic to travel under • Usually powered by electric motors •In the past they were powered by steam engines • There are three main types: 1.Bascule 2.Vertical lift 3. Swing
  • 181. Bascule Bridge or Drawbridge •Used for short distances •Have two movable spans the rise upward, opening in the middle •When open the weight is supported by the stationary section of the bridge
  • 182. Vertical-lift Bridge • Used for longer distances • Straight bridge, held between two towers • Lifted by steel ropes, attached to counterweights -as the counterweights go down the bridge goes up and vise-versa. • Operate in an elevator like fashion
  • 183. Swing Bridges • Mounted on a central pier • The central pier allows the bridge to rotate to the side • Uncommonly used because the central pier is located in the area where boats like to travel
  • 184. http://www.brokk.com/images/jpg/sando.jpg
  • 185. Sydney, Australia
  • 186. Arches can also be set above the deck as on the Sydney harbour bridge in Australia. This allows much more space beneath for ships to pass under. www.bardaglea.org.uk/.../ bridge-types-arch.html
  • 187. Blue Water Bridges are a major international crossing over the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron Blue Water Bridge
  • 188. Eads Bridge, St. Louis
  • 189. Port Mann Bridge, Coquitlam-Surrey BC This graceful steel arch, once the third-longest of its kind in the world, carries the Trans-Canada highway across the Fraser River. In 2002 its capacity was increased with the addition of an eastbound high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane, bringing the total to five www.balsabridge.com/ bridge-van.htm
  • 190. Cantilever Bridges
  • 191. FIXED • Cantilever • Double-ended brackets supporting a center span • Shore end of each cantilever firmly anchored • Center supported by pier
  • 192. Quebec Bridge
  • 193. Quebec Bridge
  • 194. Quebec Bridge
  • 195. Quebec Bridge
  • 196. Quebec Bridge
  • 197. Quebec Bridge
  • 198. Quebec Bridge On June 15, 1907 an inspecting engineer noted that two girders of the anchor was misaligned by a quarter of an inch. Cooper called this a "not serious" problem. In the inspection report in August, 1907, it was noted that the girders had moved out alignment a bit more and "appeared bent". Although this condition was a bit more concerning, the work continued.
  • 199. Scotland's Firth of Forth A period museum photo shows cranes atop the massive structure. The bridge was constructed from 1882-1890, 2.5 KM (1.5 miles) across Scotland's Firth of Forth. Note reflection of photographer from glass frame. http://www.pre-engineering.com/resources/forth/forthbridge.htm
  • 200. http://www.brantacan.co.uk/cantilever.htm
  • 201. Lewis and Clark Bridge (Longview-Rainier Bridge) across the Columbia River.
  • 202. [Queensboro Bridge, Roosevelt Island, New York, N.Y.].
  • 203. Astoria bridge
  • 204. Suspension Bridges
  • 205. FIXED • Suspension – Roadway hangs from vertical cables supported by overhead cables strung between two or more towers – Longest spans – Costly – Difficult to design – Highly susceptible to winds and swaying – Cables can be up to three feet in diameter
  • 206. Tanana River suspension bridge. http://tapseis.anl.gov/guide/photo/Tanana_Bridge.html
  • 207. Tsing Ma Bridge, Hong Kong
  • 208. Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan
  • 209. Brooklyn Bridge
  • 210. The 3rd Carquinez Strait Bridge will replace the original bridge that was built in 1927.
  • 211. Ambassador Bridge
  • 212. Ambassador Bridge
  • 213. Golden Gate Bridge
  • 214. Golden Gate Structures
  • 215. When it opened in 1964, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge was the world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber Bridge in England.
  • 216. Verrazano
  • 217. Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing, Tacoma, Washington, 1940 On the morning of November 7, 1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisted violently in 42-mile-perhour winds and collapsed into the cold waters of the Puget Sound. The disaster -- which luckily took no human lives -- shook the engineering community and forever changed the way bridges were built around the world. Roadway of Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisting violently in a windstorm, Tacoma, Washington, 1940
  • 218. Cable-Stayed Bridges
  • 219. FIXED • Cable-Stayed • Suspended by cables that run directly down to roadway from central towers • Less costly than suspension • Quickly constructable • Spans must be limited in length
  • 220. Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida
  • 221. Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida
  • 222. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  • 223. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  • 224. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  • 225. Dames Port Florida
  • 226. Dames Port Florida
  • 227. Dames Port Florida
  • 228. Swing Bridges
  • 229. MOVEABLE • Swing • Central span turned 90 degrees on pivot pier placed in middle of waterway • Double swing possible
  • 230. Catalog Advertisement
  • 231. Moveable Bridge
  • 232. BRIDGE ACROSS SHATT-AL-ARAB, IRAQ
  • 233. Detail of south truss showing truss configuration and connections HAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
  • 234. Detail of south truss showing truss configuration and connections HAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
  • 235. Coleman Bridge, Spanning Phelps Brook, on Windsor Bush Road, at th, Windsor, Berkshire County, MA
  • 236. Bascule Bridges
  • 237. MOVEABLE • Bascule – One or two sections not supported by piers – Balanced on one end by counterweights – Section jackknifes up to allow passage of ships – Most common type of highway drawbridge
  • 238. View of an elevated train crossing the Van Buren Street Railroad Bridge which spanned the Chicago River from the Loop to the Near West Side community area in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 239. View of a bascule bridge over the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 240. Haarlem old lifting bridge. Lifting bridges are moveable bridges which enable boats to pass. They vary from simple wooden designs such as many seen in the Netherlands to large steel structures which carry heavy roads such as the bascule bridge in Docklands.
  • 241. Erie Street Bridge, a bascule bridge, with the two leaves in raised position
  • 242. Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge
  • 243. Erie Avenue Bridge Newberry Bridge
  • 244. Vertical Lift Bridges
  • 245. MOVEABLE • Vertical Lift – Central span extends between two towers – Balanced by counterweights – Variation of this type is bridge over Shatt-alarab River in Iraq—Roadway sinks into water to allow ships to pass over it
  • 246. Vertical lift Baltimore (Pratt) through-truss railroad bridge
  • 247. Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts
  • 248. Leamington Lift Bridge, Scotland
  • 249. Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
  • 250. Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
  • 251. GUIABA RIVER AT PORTO ALEGRE, BRAZIL
  • 252. The vertical lift bridge that carries US-41 across the Portage Canal.
  • 253. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  • 254. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  • 255. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  • 256. Bailey Bridges
  • 257. OTHER • Bailey – Small truss bridge made in sections – Assembled on shore – Pushed out from shore to cover span – Transportable to new sites
  • 258. Bailey Tank destroyer advances along a mountain road, Italy
  • 259. Pontoon Bridges
  • 260. OTHER • Pontoon – Floats on water – Can be disassembled and moved to new site – Supported by pontoons or barges
  • 261. The U.S. Army's Sava River bridge is taken apart at nightfall and put together in the morning
  • 262. View of James River Pontoon Bridge, from south side, above Jones' Landing.
  • 263. Pontoon bridges, North Anna, constructed by the 50th N.Y.V. Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864
  • 264. Broadway Landing, Va. Pontoon bridge across the Appomattox
  • 265. Evergreen Floating Bridge
  • 266. Evergreen Bridge. The official name of the bridge is the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge at Evergreen Point, after a popular former governor who was in office when the bridge opened.
  • 267. Combined Bridges
  • 268. [Stony Brook glen, Shawmut Bridge, Dansville, N.Y.].
  • 269. Knie_bridge
  • 270. Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
  • 271. Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
  • 272. Old Alton Bridge
  • 273. Name that Bridge Give the type for each.