CE 414
Introduction
to Bridges
Engineering

Asst Prof Mansoor Khalid
COURSE OUTLINE
CE 414: BRIDGE ENGINEERING
Fall Semester 2013
PREREQUISITES: CE 206 – Structural Analysis I, CE 307 Structu...
COURSE PURPOSE:
To introduce concepts in the analysis and design of reinforced concrete
and steel bridges commonly encount...
TOPICS COVERED:

1. Introduction (Week 1 -2)
Brief History of Bridges – Week 1
Types and classification of Bridges – Week ...
Types of Loads on Bridges (Week -5)
a. Gravity Loads
i. Permanent Loads
ii. Transient Loads
Lane loads
Vehicle loads
Pedes...
Distribution of Loads in: (Week 7-9)
Superstructure to include Bridge decks and Bridge girders
Substructure to include abu...
DESIGN PROJECT:

The design project will consist of
the design of a bridge. The project
will be executed by teams of 3 to ...
Grading Policy:
Grades will assign in the following manner:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Quiz
5%
Mid-Term Exam/OHTs
30%
Assignments
5%
...
What is a BRIDGE?
•Bridge is a structure which covers a gap
•Generally bridges carry a road or railway across a natural or...
Bridge is the KEY ELEMENT
in a Transportation System
History
• Primitive Peoples:

– Logs
– Slabs of Rocks
– Intertwined Vines or Ropes

• Roman Empire—First Great Bridge Buil...
Rock Bridges
Wadi Rum Rock Bridge
Rope Bridges
Log Bridges
LOG BRIDGE
Members of a Denver
and Salt Lake Railroad
Company (D&SL)
survey crew pose on a
log bridge over the
Colorado Ri...
View of a settlement in (probably) Utah; shows a log bridge, a stream, and houses.
People sit on a porch; a United States ...
U.S. Army soldiers from the Ohio Engineers, building a small log
bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois
LOG BRIDGE

View of hot springs site enclosed by stone and
wooden frame buildings, Hot Sulphur Springs, CO
Covered Bridges
COVERED
BRIDGE
• Bridges. Old

covered bridge,
Jackson River,
Va.
Structure of covered bridge. Wallingford, Vermont
Covered Bridge, Glen
Canyon, Santa Cruz
County, CA
CONSTRUCTION
• Must carry own weight and weight of traffic
–
–
–
–

Must withstand force of high winds
Must consider effec...
TYPES OF BRIDGES

• Fixed
• Moveable
• Other
Beam or Girder Bridges
FIXED
• Beam or Girder
– Two parallel beams w/ flooring supported by
piers
– Span can be supported by trestle
– Used for h...
Cars on a suspension bridge over a river, possibly in Colorado.
enz_bridge.jpg
Millennium Bridge, London
ostruz.jpg

www.prevodi-vertalingen.com/.../ ostruz.html
Truss Bridges
FIXED
• Truss
– Beam bridge strengthed by trusses (structural
spts joined to form triangles with tie rods)
– Lighter than ...
Timber Truss Bridge
Continuous Truss Bridges
View west of an iron truss bridge crossing the Colorado River on the Denver
and Rio Grande Railroad Montrose line at Grand...
View of the bridge crossing the White River at Meeker, CO
White Water Creek Bridge, Spanning White Water Creek,
Bernard vicinity, Dubuque County, IA
Truss Bridge

View of a trestle bridge that
crosses Arastra Gulch near
Silverton (San Juan County),
Colorado.
Jefferson Barracks Bridge
Location: Mississippi River, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri
Simple Truss Bridges
FAI 24 Bridge Over the Ohio River
Paducah, Kentucky
www.modjeski.com/projects/ servproj/paducah.htm
gcdranet.homelinux.com/davehonan/ bridges/il.html

Cairo
Ohio River ferry and railroad bridge, Metropolis, IL
Arch Bridges
FIXED
• Arch
– One or more arches
– Masonry, reinforced concrete or steel
– Roadway on toop of arches or suspended by
cabl...
Aquaduct
Old stone bridge at Bull Run Battlefield. Manassas, Virginia.
Stone bridge in Rock Creek Park.
Stone bridge, Elizabeth Park, Hartford, Ct..
Old Stone Bridge, Boonton, N.J..
Stone Bridge at Bowling Green, Gallatin vicinity, Sumner County, TN
Segovia, Spain
Franklin Park, Ellicott Bridge, Emerald Necklace, Boston, MA
Pont du Gard
Arch bridge, Bellows Falls, Vt..
Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne &
Staten Is, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ
Kill van Kull Bridge
[Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge), New York].
[Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge), New York].
Steel Arch Bridge, Niagara.
History of Bridge Development
Natural Bridges

700 A.D. Asia

Great Stone Bridge in China

Clapper Bridge

Tree trunk
St...
History of Bridge Development
1800 A.D.

1900 A.D.

Truss Bridges
Mechanics of
Design

First Cast-Iron Bridge
Coalbrookda...
Basic Concepts
Span - the distance between two bridge
supports, whether they are columns, towers or
the wall of a canyon.
...
Basic Concepts

Beam - a rigid, usually horizontal, structural element
Beam
Pier

Pier - a vertical supporting structure, ...
Basic Concepts
Truss - a rigid frame composed of short, straight pieces joined to
form a series of triangles or other stab...
Basic Concepts
Buckling is what happens when the force of
compression overcomes an object's ability to
handle compression....
•

Bridge Definition

•

Bridge type

•

Aesthetics in bridge design

•

Factors considered in deciding bridge types

•

B...
It Controls the Capacity of the System
If the width of a bridge is insufficient to carry the number of
lanes required to h...
Highest Cost per Mile of the System
Bridges are expensive. The typical cost per mile of a bridge is many
times that of the...
If the Bridge Fails, the System Fails
The importance of a Bridge can be visualized by considering the comparison
between t...
Classification of Bridges
Material
Usage

Steel Concrete Wood
Hybrid
Stone/Brick
Pedestrian Highway Railroad

Span
Structu...
Discussion on Classification According To
STRUCTURAL FORM
Distinctive Features of Girder Bridge
Distinctive Features of Ar...
Distinctive Features of Girder Bridges
•Widely constructed
•Usually used for Short and Medium spans
•Carry load in Shear a...
Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge
•Arch action reduces bending moments ( that is Tensile
Stresses )
•Economical as compa...
Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge
•Classic arch form tends to favor Concrete as a
construction material
•Conventional ar...
Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge
•The primary member forces are axial loads
•The open web system permits the use of a ...
Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge
•It’s a light weight structure it can be assembled member by member using
lifting equ...
Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge
•Major element is a flexible cable, shaped and supported in such a way that it
t...
Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge
•The main cable is stiffened either by a pair of stiffening trusses or by a syst...
Distinctive Features of Cable-stayed Bridge
•The use of high strength cables in tension leads to economy in material, weig...
Distinctive Features of Cable-stayed Bridge
•Aerodynamic stability has not been found to be a problem in structures erecte...
Discussion on Classification According To
SPAN

Small Span Bridges (up to 15m)
Medium Span Bridges (up to 50m)
Large Span ...
Small Span Bridges (up to 15m)
Culvert Bridge
Slab Bridges
T-Beam Bridge
Wood Beam Bridge
Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam ...
Medium Span Bridges (up to
50m)
Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam & Pre-cast Concrete IBeam
Composite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge
...
Large Span Bridges (50 to 150m)
Composite Steel Plate Girder Bridge
Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned concrete Box
Girder
Po...
Extra Large (Long) Span Bridges
(Over 150m)
Cable Stayed Bridge
Suspension Bridge
Discussion on Classification According To
Structural Arrangement
The classification of the bridge types can also be accord...
Main Structure Below the Deck Line
Masonry Arch
Concrete Arch

Arch Bridge
Inclined Leg Frame Arch

Rigid Frame Arch

Stee...
Main Structure Above the Deck Line
Suspension
Bridges
Cable Stayed Bridges

Through-Truss Bridge
Main Structure Coincides with the
Deck Line
Slab (solid and voided)

T-Beam (cast-in-place)
I-beam (pre-cast or pre-stress...
CLASSIFICATION GIVEN BY R.S.RAKSHIT
YOUR TASK
PREPARE A COMPARISON SHEET
FACTORS CONSIDERED IN DECIDING
BRIDGE TYPE
In general all the factors are related to economy, safety and aesthetics.

•Geo...
Geometric Conditions of the Site
•The type of bridge selected will always depend on the horizontal and vertical
alignment ...
Subsurface conditions of the soil
•The foundation soils at a site will determine whether abutments and piers can be
founde...
Subsurface conditions of the soil
•The potential for seismic activity at a site should also be a part of the
subsurface in...
Functional Requirements
•Bridge must function to carry present and future volumes of traffic.
•Decisions must be made on t...
Economic and ease of maintenance
•The initial cost and maintenance cost over the life of the bridge govern when
comparing ...
Economic and ease of maintenance
•Generally, concrete structures require less maintenance than steel structure. The
cost a...
Construction and Erection Considerations
•The length of the time required to construct a bridge is important and will vary...
Legal Considerations
•Regulations are beyond the control of an engineer, but they are real and must
be considered.
Example...
Legal Considerations
•Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
•The Endangered Species Act

•Water Bank Act
•Wild and Scenic Riv...
Discussion on Bridge Components
•Common bridge components
•Components of a Girder bridge (Beam Bridge)

•Components of a S...
General Bridge Components
Bridge Bearings: These are supports on a bridge pier, which carry
the weight of the bridge and ...
General Bridge Components
Bridge Cap: The highest part of a bridge pier on which the bridge
bearings or rollers are seate...
Components of a Girder bridge (Beam Bridge)
Components of a Suspension Bridge

•
•
•
•
•

• Anchor Block: Just looking at the figure we can compare it as a dead
man h...
•
•




BRIDGE SPECIFICATIONS

Meaning of bridge specifications.
Need of bridge specifications.
History
Development
Lac...
BRIDGE SPECIFICATION
• Basically the word specification stands in general for a
collection of work description upon which ...
Bridge Cap and
Damper
ARCH BRIDGE
ARCH BRIDGE
ARCH BRIDGE
ARCH BRIDGE
GIRDER BRIDGE
GIRDER BRIDGE
GIRDER BRIDGE
GIRDER BRIDGE
Totally Precast
Concrete
Bridges

FORWARD
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Is it possible to design
an “Instant Bridge?”
Almost! There are many
ways to put ...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

The speed and
variety of precast
prestressed
products and
methods give
designers ...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Benefits to Owner Agencies:
 Reduction in the duration of
work zones
 Reduced t...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Benefits to Contractors:
 Reduced exposure to hazards

 More work -- less time
...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

After foundations have been
completed, scheduling can
be controlled by a single
c...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Precast concrete structural
elements should always be
plant produced under
carefu...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

… so all structural elements
benefit from the excellent
quality and corrosion
res...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Fully-cured precast concrete
structural elements can be
stockpiled in advance of
...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

…and can be scheduled for
“just-in-time” delivery and
erection…

Immediate Delive...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

There’s no curing time
required at the jobsite, as
with cast-in-place concrete.
B...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

The following photos
illustrate the many products
and construction methods
that e...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Precast concrete piles are
quite popular in much of the
country. They come in
dif...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Pile caps also can be precast
concrete, reducing exposure,
forming and curing in
...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Piers can be made of precast
concrete pieces quickly
assembled in
the field.

BAC...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Abutments can also be made
of precast.

BACK

FORWARD
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

The Sucker Creek Bridge in
Hague, New York, consists of
precast concrete box beam...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

In San Juan, Puerto Rico, the
totally precast concrete
Baldorioty de Castro Avenu...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Each of four bridges, ranging
in length from 700 to 900
feet, was erected in abou...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

In addition to speed, the
bridges also met the city’s
budgetary needs. The four
b...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES
Totally precast bridge systems
may be the only viable solution
in harsh field cond...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Even in such harsh
conditions, precast concrete
was able to meet the
owner’s requ...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

It just makes economic sense
to evaluate conversion of
cast-in-place to precast
c...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

The state of Texas has
constructed several bridges
with segmental precast
concret...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

In Houston, the Louetta
Road Overpass utilized
precast concrete match-cast
piers,...
TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES

Another famous bridge is the
Sunshine Skyway Bridge over
Tampa Bay in Florida. Th...
Truss Basics – Overview

Truss Bridges

A metal truss bridge is a bridge whose main structure
comes from a triangular fram...
Truss Basics – Forms of Metal

Iron and Steel

Due to their variety of designs, there is a system that is
used to classify...
Truss Basics – Pony / Through

Truss Basics

If the trusses run beside the deck, with no cross bracing
above the deck, it ...
Truss Basics – Deck

Truss Basics

Deck Truss

Trusses may run under the deck: these are called simply
Deck truss bridges.
Truss Bridge Parts

Truss Bridge Parts

The different parts of a truss bridge are all named. Some of the parts:
Hip Vertic...
Truss Bridge Forces

Truss Bridge Forces

Compression
Tension

The chords and members of a truss bridge experience
strain ...
Truss
Connections

Truss Bridge Connections

The pieces of the framework of a truss bridge are held
together by connection...
Truss Connections Pinned

Pinned Connections

Pin
Pinned connections can be identified by the bolt-like
object called a pi...
Truss Connections Riveted

Riveted Connections

Riveted connections are identified by a “gusset plate”
which diagonals and...
Truss Configurations

Pratt

Overview: One of the two most common configurations, it tends
to occupy the earlier half of t...
Truss Configurations

Pratt – Additional Notes

The Pratt may have additional diagonal members,
sometimes of a smaller siz...
Truss Configurations

Whipple

Overview: The Whipple truss is also known as the doubleintersection Pratt truss. It was pat...
Truss Configurations

Baltimore

Overview: The Baltimore railroad designed a truss configuration
that eventually found use...
Truss Configurations

Parker

Overview: Charles
H. Parker modified
the Pratt design to
create what became
known as the Par...
Truss Configurations

Pennsylvania

Overview: Sometimes called the Petit truss. Designed by the
Pennsylvania railroad, thi...
Truss Configurations

Warren

Overview: The other most common truss configuration, this
design tended to be used in the se...
Truss Configurations

Warren: With Verticals

Most Warren truss bridges do in fact feature vertical members.
They may be r...
Truss Configurations

Double-Intersection Warren

Overview: Often called simply the Double Warren, this is an
uncommon tru...
Truss Configurations

Lenticular

Overview: One of the rarest bridge designs in the country.
Patented by the Berlin Iron B...
Truss bridge
Truss Bridge
Truss Bridge
Truss Bridge
Truss Bridge
Truss Bridge
Curved Cable Stayed Bridge
This is an innovative
curved cable stayed
bridge. It is designed
to provide maximum
support aro...
Waldo Hancock Bridge
This the is new Waldo Hancock Bridge. It replaced the old one
in the background due to corrosion. Thi...
Suspension Bridge Design
What you need to know
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge where
the deck is hung below suspension cables on
vertical s...
Famous Suspension Bridges

The Akashi-Kaikyo bridge in Japan
The longest bridge in the world at 6529
feet long.
The Golden...
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
The VerrazanoNarrows Bridge is
the longest
suspension bridge
in the U.S. It is
4,260 feet long. I...
Suspension Bridge
Suspension Bridge
Suspension Bridge
Movable Bridges
• They span waterways
• Closed bridge to carry traffic
•Open to allow marine traffic to travel
under
• Usu...
Bascule Bridge or Drawbridge
•Used for short distances
•Have two movable spans
the rise upward, opening
in the middle
•Whe...
Vertical-lift Bridge

• Used for longer distances
• Straight bridge, held between two towers
• Lifted by steel ropes, atta...
Swing Bridges
• Mounted on a central pier
• The central pier allows the bridge to rotate to the side
• Uncommonly used bec...
http://www.brokk.com/images/jpg/sando.jpg
Sydney, Australia
Arches can also be set above the deck as on the Sydney harbour bridge
in Australia. This allows much more space beneath fo...
Blue Water Bridges are a major international crossing over the St. Clair river at the
southern end of Lake Huron

Blue Wat...
Eads Bridge, St. Louis
Port Mann Bridge, Coquitlam-Surrey BC
This graceful steel arch, once the third-longest of its kind in the world, carries
t...
Cantilever Bridges
FIXED
• Cantilever
• Double-ended brackets supporting a
center span
• Shore end of each cantilever firmly
anchored
• Cente...
Quebec Bridge
Quebec Bridge
Quebec Bridge
Quebec Bridge
Quebec
Bridge
Quebec Bridge
Quebec Bridge

On June 15, 1907 an inspecting engineer noted that two girders of the anchor was
misaligned by a quarter of...
Scotland's Firth of Forth

A period museum photo shows cranes atop the massive structure. The bridge
was constructed from ...
http://www.brantacan.co.uk/cantilever.htm
Lewis and Clark Bridge (Longview-Rainier Bridge) across the Columbia River.
[Queensboro Bridge, Roosevelt Island, New York, N.Y.].
Astoria bridge
Suspension Bridges
FIXED
• Suspension
– Roadway hangs from vertical cables supported by
overhead cables strung between two or more towers
– L...
Tanana River suspension bridge.

http://tapseis.anl.gov/guide/photo/Tanana_Bridge.html
Tsing Ma Bridge, Hong Kong
Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan
Brooklyn Bridge
The 3rd Carquinez Strait Bridge will replace the original bridge that was built in 1927.
Ambassador Bridge
Ambassador Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate
Structures
When it opened in 1964, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge was the
world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpass...
Verrazano
Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing, Tacoma, Washington, 1940
On the morning of November 7, 1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge t...
Cable-Stayed Bridges
FIXED
• Cable-Stayed
• Suspended by cables that run directly
down to roadway from central towers
• Less costly than suspen...
Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida
Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida
Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
Dames Port Florida
Dames Port Florida
Dames Port Florida
Swing Bridges
MOVEABLE
• Swing
• Central span turned 90 degrees on pivot
pier placed in middle of waterway
• Double swing possible
Catalog Advertisement
Moveable Bridge
BRIDGE ACROSS SHATT-AL-ARAB, IRAQ
Detail of south truss showing truss configuration and connections
HAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
Detail of south truss showing truss configuration and connections
HAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
Coleman Bridge,
Spanning Phelps
Brook, on Windsor
Bush Road, at th,
Windsor, Berkshire
County, MA
Bascule Bridges
MOVEABLE
• Bascule
– One or two sections not supported by piers
– Balanced on one end by counterweights
– Section jackknif...
View of an elevated train crossing the Van Buren Street Railroad
Bridge which spanned the Chicago River from the Loop to t...
View of a bascule bridge over the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois.
Haarlem old lifting bridge.

Lifting bridges are moveable bridges which enable boats
to pass. They vary from simple wooden...
Erie Street Bridge, a bascule bridge, with the two leaves in raised position
Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge
Erie Avenue Bridge
Newberry Bridge
Vertical Lift Bridges
MOVEABLE
• Vertical Lift
– Central span extends between two towers
– Balanced by counterweights
– Variation of this type i...
Vertical lift Baltimore (Pratt) through-truss railroad bridge
Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge
Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts
Leamington Lift Bridge, Scotland
Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to
Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to
Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
GUIABA RIVER AT PORTO ALEGRE, BRAZIL
The vertical lift bridge that carries US-41 across the Portage Canal.
Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
Bailey Bridges
OTHER
• Bailey
– Small truss bridge made in sections
– Assembled on shore
– Pushed out from shore to cover span
– Transpor...
Bailey

Tank destroyer advances along
a mountain road, Italy
Pontoon Bridges
OTHER
• Pontoon
– Floats on water
– Can be disassembled and moved to new site
– Supported by pontoons or barges
The U.S. Army's Sava
River bridge is taken
apart at nightfall and
put together in the
morning
View of James River Pontoon Bridge, from south side, above Jones' Landing.
Pontoon bridges, North Anna, constructed by the 50th N.Y.V. Engineers,
below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd C...
Broadway Landing, Va. Pontoon bridge across the
Appomattox
Evergreen Floating Bridge
Evergreen Bridge.
The official name of the bridge is the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge at
Evergreen Point, after a p...
Combined Bridges
[Stony Brook glen,
Shawmut Bridge,
Dansville, N.Y.].
Knie_bridge
Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
Old Alton Bridge
Name that Bridge
Give the type for each.
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Introduction to Bridge Engineering

  1. 1. CE 414 Introduction to Bridges Engineering Asst Prof Mansoor Khalid
  2. 2. COURSE OUTLINE CE 414: BRIDGE ENGINEERING Fall Semester 2013 PREREQUISITES: CE 206 – Structural Analysis I, CE 307 Structural Analyses II, CE 309 Structural Analyses III, CE 446 – Reinforced Concrete Design CE 411 – Steel Structures TEXTBOOK: R.S.Rakshit, Design and construction of highway Bridges: 2004. (For IRC and WPHCB provisions) Taly, N. Design of Modern Highway Bridges, McGraw Hill, 1998 (For AASHTO provisions)
  3. 3. COURSE PURPOSE: To introduce concepts in the analysis and design of reinforced concrete and steel bridges commonly encountered in the highway infrastructure. Basic concepts on the analysis and design of bridges using current West Pakistan Highway Code of Bridges (WPHCB), Indian Road Congress (IRC) Code and American Association of Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) specifications COURSE OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this course the student will be able to do the following: Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering in the analysis and design common reinforced concrete and steel bridges. Ability to analyze bridges subjected to a variety of loading conditions. Ability to design bridges meeting existing IRC/WPHCB Specifications. Ability to design bridges meeting existing AASHTO Specifications
  4. 4. TOPICS COVERED: 1. Introduction (Week 1 -2) Brief History of Bridges – Week 1 Types and classification of Bridges – Week 1 Materials Used for Bridge Construction – Week 2 2. Concepts on Bridge Aesthetics (Week 3) 3. Introduction to Bridge Design /Specifications (Week-4) AASHTO 1996 specifications AASHTO LRFD specifications IRC specifications WPHCB specifications
  5. 5. Types of Loads on Bridges (Week -5) a. Gravity Loads i. Permanent Loads ii. Transient Loads Lane loads Vehicle loads Pedestrian loads b. Lateral Loads i. Fluid Loads ii. Earthquake Loads iii. Ice Loads c. Deformation -induced Loads i. Temperature ii. Creep and Shrinkage d. Collision Loads Review of Influence Lines and Moment Distribution Method (Week 6) Influence lines Statically Determinate Beams Müller-Breslau Principle Statically Indeterminate Beams Moment Distribution Method
  6. 6. Distribution of Loads in: (Week 7-9) Superstructure to include Bridge decks and Bridge girders Substructure to include abutments, Bearings, piers and foundations Analysis and Design of Bridges (Week 10-13) Solid Concrete slab Bridge (Week-10) Slab and Girder (T- Beam) Bridge (Week-11) Steel – Concrete Composite Bridge (Week-12) Precast-Prestressed Concrete Bridge (Week-13) Modeling, Analysis and Design of Highway Bridges Using CSIBridge and STAADPRO Software (Week 14-16 Week)
  7. 7. DESIGN PROJECT: The design project will consist of the design of a bridge. The project will be executed by teams of 3 to 4 students each. Each team will select a particular type of bridge and will analyze and design the main structural components and verify the results by using software along with submission of Design calculations and software INPUT/OUTPUT files. A presentation of the final designs will be required at the end of the semester
  8. 8. Grading Policy: Grades will assign in the following manner: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quiz 5% Mid-Term Exam/OHTs 30% Assignments 5% Design Project 10% Final exam (during finals week) 50% TOTAL 100%
  9. 9. What is a BRIDGE? •Bridge is a structure which covers a gap •Generally bridges carry a road or railway across a natural or artificial obstacle such as, a river, canal or another railway or another road •Bridge is a structure corresponding to the heaviest responsibility in carrying a free flow of transport and is the most significant component of a transportation system in case of communication over spacings/gaps for whatever reason such as aquatic obstacles, valleys and gorges etc.
  10. 10. Bridge is the KEY ELEMENT in a Transportation System
  11. 11. History • Primitive Peoples: – Logs – Slabs of Rocks – Intertwined Vines or Ropes • Roman Empire—First Great Bridge Builders – Timber Truss Bridges – Masonry Arch Bridges • Europeans – Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use • Nineteenth Century— – Modern Long Bridges – Moveable Bridges
  12. 12. Rock Bridges
  13. 13. Wadi Rum Rock Bridge
  14. 14. Rope Bridges
  15. 15. Log Bridges
  16. 16. LOG BRIDGE Members of a Denver and Salt Lake Railroad Company (D&SL) survey crew pose on a log bridge over the Colorado River in Gore Canyon (Grand County), Colorado.
  17. 17. View of a settlement in (probably) Utah; shows a log bridge, a stream, and houses. People sit on a porch; a United States flag waves from a pole.
  18. 18. U.S. Army soldiers from the Ohio Engineers, building a small log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois
  19. 19. LOG BRIDGE View of hot springs site enclosed by stone and wooden frame buildings, Hot Sulphur Springs, CO
  20. 20. Covered Bridges
  21. 21. COVERED BRIDGE • Bridges. Old covered bridge, Jackson River, Va.
  22. 22. Structure of covered bridge. Wallingford, Vermont
  23. 23. Covered Bridge, Glen Canyon, Santa Cruz County, CA
  24. 24. CONSTRUCTION • Must carry own weight and weight of traffic – – – – Must withstand force of high winds Must consider effects of contraction and/or Expansion due to temperature changes Most common materials • Wood—temporary • Steel—for long, strong spans • Reinforced concrete—attractive designs but difficult to work with on large bridges • Prestressed concrete—stronger than reinforced, cheaper than steel
  25. 25. TYPES OF BRIDGES • Fixed • Moveable • Other
  26. 26. Beam or Girder Bridges
  27. 27. FIXED • Beam or Girder – Two parallel beams w/ flooring supported by piers – Span can be supported by trestle – Used for hwy over/underpasses or small stream crossings – Example—Covered Bridge
  28. 28. Cars on a suspension bridge over a river, possibly in Colorado.
  29. 29. enz_bridge.jpg
  30. 30. Millennium Bridge, London
  31. 31. ostruz.jpg www.prevodi-vertalingen.com/.../ ostruz.html
  32. 32. Truss Bridges
  33. 33. FIXED • Truss – Beam bridge strengthed by trusses (structural spts joined to form triangles with tie rods) – Lighter than ordinary beam sections of equal length – Useful for longer bridges
  34. 34. Timber Truss Bridge
  35. 35. Continuous Truss Bridges
  36. 36. View west of an iron truss bridge crossing the Colorado River on the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Montrose line at Grand Junction, Colorado; people and horses are on a sand bar.
  37. 37. View of the bridge crossing the White River at Meeker, CO
  38. 38. White Water Creek Bridge, Spanning White Water Creek, Bernard vicinity, Dubuque County, IA
  39. 39. Truss Bridge View of a trestle bridge that crosses Arastra Gulch near Silverton (San Juan County), Colorado.
  40. 40. Jefferson Barracks Bridge Location: Mississippi River, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri
  41. 41. Simple Truss Bridges
  42. 42. FAI 24 Bridge Over the Ohio River Paducah, Kentucky www.modjeski.com/projects/ servproj/paducah.htm
  43. 43. gcdranet.homelinux.com/davehonan/ bridges/il.html Cairo
  44. 44. Ohio River ferry and railroad bridge, Metropolis, IL
  45. 45. Arch Bridges
  46. 46. FIXED • Arch – One or more arches – Masonry, reinforced concrete or steel – Roadway on toop of arches or suspended by cables – Spans can be longer than beam or truss
  47. 47. Aquaduct
  48. 48. Old stone bridge at Bull Run Battlefield. Manassas, Virginia.
  49. 49. Stone bridge in Rock Creek Park.
  50. 50. Stone bridge, Elizabeth Park, Hartford, Ct..
  51. 51. Old Stone Bridge, Boonton, N.J..
  52. 52. Stone Bridge at Bowling Green, Gallatin vicinity, Sumner County, TN
  53. 53. Segovia, Spain
  54. 54. Franklin Park, Ellicott Bridge, Emerald Necklace, Boston, MA
  55. 55. Pont du Gard
  56. 56. Arch bridge, Bellows Falls, Vt..
  57. 57. Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Is, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ
  58. 58. Kill van Kull Bridge
  59. 59. [Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge), New York].
  60. 60. [Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge), New York].
  61. 61. Steel Arch Bridge, Niagara.
  62. 62. History of Bridge Development Natural Bridges 700 A.D. Asia Great Stone Bridge in China Clapper Bridge Tree trunk Stone Low Bridge Shallow Arch Strength of Materials Roman Arch Bridge The Arch Natural Cement 100 B.C. Romans Mathematical Theories Development of Metal 1300 A.D. Renaissance
  63. 63. History of Bridge Development 1800 A.D. 1900 A.D. Truss Bridges Mechanics of Design First Cast-Iron Bridge Coalbrookdale, England Britannia Tubular Bridge Wrought Iron 1850 A.D. 2000 A.D. Prestressed Concrete Steel Suspension Bridges Use of Steel for the suspending cables 1920 A.D.
  64. 64. Basic Concepts Span - the distance between two bridge supports, whether they are columns, towers or the wall of a canyon. Force - any action that tends to maintain or alter the position of a structure Compression - a force which acts to compress or shorten the thing it is acting on. Tension - a force which acts to expand or lengthen the thing it is acting on. Compression Tension
  65. 65. Basic Concepts Beam - a rigid, usually horizontal, structural element Beam Pier Pier - a vertical supporting structure, such as a pillar Cantilever - a projecting structure supported only at one end, like a shelf bracket or a diving board Load - weight distribution throughout a structure
  66. 66. Basic Concepts Truss - a rigid frame composed of short, straight pieces joined to form a series of triangles or other stable shapes Stable - (adj.) ability to resist collapse and deformation; stability (n.) characteristic of a structure that is able to carry a realistic load without collapsing or deforming significantly Deform - to change shape
  67. 67. Basic Concepts Buckling is what happens when the force of compression overcomes an object's ability to handle compression. A mode of failure characterized generally by an unstable lateral deflection due to compressive action on the structural element involved. Snapping is what happens when tension overcomes an object's ability to handle tension. To dissipate forces is to spread them out over a greater area, so that no one spot has to bear the brunt of the concentrated force. To transfer forces is to move the forces from an area of weakness to an area of strength, an area designed to handle the forces.
  68. 68. • Bridge Definition • Bridge type • Aesthetics in bridge design • Factors considered in deciding bridge types • Bridge components
  69. 69. It Controls the Capacity of the System If the width of a bridge is insufficient to carry the number of lanes required to handle the traffic volume, the bridge will be a constriction to the flow of traffic. If the strength of a bridge is deficient and unable to carry heavy trucks, load limits will be posted and truck traffic will be rerouted. The bridge controls both the volume and weight of the traffic carried by the transportation system.
  70. 70. Highest Cost per Mile of the System Bridges are expensive. The typical cost per mile of a bridge is many times that of the approach roads to the bridge.`  Since, bridge is the key element in a transportation system, balance must be achieved between handling future traffic volume and loads and the cost of heavier and wider bridge structure. 
  71. 71. If the Bridge Fails, the System Fails The importance of a Bridge can be visualized by considering the comparison between the two main components of a highway system i.e. a road and bridge itself. EXAMPLE: Suppose in a road there occurs deterioration and ultimately a crack, thus making a sort of inconvenience but it wont result in stopping of the flow of traffic as traffic can pass or otherwise a bypass can be provided. The traffic no doubt will pass with a slower speed but in case of a bridge its flow is completely stopped incase of the failure of the bridge, that is the reason its often called “If the bridge fails the structure fails” as the function of the structure could no longer be served at all.
  72. 72. Classification of Bridges Material Usage Steel Concrete Wood Hybrid Stone/Brick Pedestrian Highway Railroad Span Structural Form Short Medium Long Slab Girder Truss Arch Suspension Cable-Stayed Structural Arrangement
  73. 73. Discussion on Classification According To STRUCTURAL FORM Distinctive Features of Girder Bridge Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge Distinctive Features of Cable-Stayed Bridges
  74. 74. Distinctive Features of Girder Bridges •Widely constructed •Usually used for Short and Medium spans •Carry load in Shear and Flexural bending •Efficient distribution of material is not possible •Stability concerns limits the stresses and associated economy •Economical and long lasting solution for vast majority of bridges •Decks and girder usually act together to support the entire load in highway bridges
  75. 75. Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge •Arch action reduces bending moments ( that is Tensile Stresses ) •Economical as compared to equivalent straight simply supported Girder or Truss bridge •Suitable site is a Valley with arch foundations on a DRY ROCK SLOPES •Conventional curved arch rib has high Fabrication and Erection costs •Erection easiest for Cantilever Arch and most difficult for Tied Arch •Arch is predominantly a Compression member. Buckling must be worked to the detail so as to avoid reductions in allowable stresses.
  76. 76. Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge •Classic arch form tends to favor Concrete as a construction material •Conventional arch has two moment resistant components : The deck and the Arch Rib. •Near the crown of the arch and the region where Spandrel Columns are short, undesirable B.M. can occur. By using Pin ended columns it can be avoided •Space beneath the arch is less and hence danger for collision with the Rib, specially on a highway •Curved shaped is always very pleasing and arch is the most successful and beautiful structure
  77. 77. Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge •The primary member forces are axial loads •The open web system permits the use of a greater overall depth than for an equivalent solid web girder, hence reduced deflections and rigid structure •Both these factors lead to Economy in material and a reduced dead weight •These advantages are achieved at the expense of increased fabrication and maintenance costs •Other bridge types have rendered the truss bridge types less likely to be used due to its high maintenance and fabrication costs. •The truss is instead being used widely as the stiffening structure for the suspension bridges due to its acceptable aerodynamic behavior since the wind gusts can pass through the truss as is not with the case in girder, arch bridges.
  78. 78. Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge •It’s a light weight structure it can be assembled member by member using lifting equipment of small capacity. •Rarely aesthetically pleasing complexity of member intersections if viewed from oblique direction •In large span structures poor aesthetic appearance of the truss bridge is compensated with the large scale of the structure. For moderate spans its best to provide a simple and regular structure
  79. 79. Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge •Major element is a flexible cable, shaped and supported in such a way that it transfers the loads to the towers and anchorage •This cable is commonly constructed from High Strength wires, either spun in situ or formed from component, spirally formed wire ropes. In either case allowable stresses are high of the order of 600 MPA •The deck is hung from the cable by Hangers constructed of high strength ropes in tension •As in the long spans the Self-weight of the structures becomes significant, so the use of high strength steel in tension, primarily in cables and secondarily in hangers leads to an economical structure. •The economy of the cable must be balanced against the cost of the associated anchorage and towers. The anchorage cost may be high where foundation material is poor
  80. 80. Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge •The main cable is stiffened either by a pair of stiffening trusses or by a system of girders at deck level. •This stiffening system serves to (a) control aerodynamic movements and (b) limit local angle changes in the deck. It may be unnecessary in cases where the dead load is great. •The complete structure can be erected without intermediate staging from the ground •The main structure is elegant and neatly expresses its function. •It is the only alternative for spans over 600m, and it is generally regarded as competitive for spans down to 300m. However, shorter spans have also been built, including some very attractive pedestrian bridges •The height of the main towers can be a disadvantage in some areas; for example, within the approach road for an AIRPORT
  81. 81. Distinctive Features of Cable-stayed Bridge •The use of high strength cables in tension leads to economy in material, weight, and cost.. •As compared with the stiffened suspension bridge, the cables are straight rather than curved. As a result, the stiffness is greater •The cables are anchored to the deck and cause compressive forces in the deck. For economical design, the deck must participate in carrying these forces •All individual cables are shorter than full length of the superstructure. They are normally constructed of individual wire ropes, supplied complete with end fittings, prestretched and not spun. •There is a great freedom of choice in selecting the structural arrangement •Less efficient under Dead Load but more efficient in support Live Load. It is economical over 100-350m, some designer would extend the upper bound as high as 800m
  82. 82. Distinctive Features of Cable-stayed Bridge •Aerodynamic stability has not been found to be a problem in structures erected to date •When the cables are arranged in the single plane, at the longitudinal center line of the deck, the appearance of the structure is simplified and avoids cable intersections when the bridge is viewed obliquely
  83. 83. Discussion on Classification According To SPAN Small Span Bridges (up to 15m) Medium Span Bridges (up to 50m) Large Span Bridges (50-150m) Extra Large ( Long ) Span Bridges (over 150m)
  84. 84. Small Span Bridges (up to 15m) Culvert Bridge Slab Bridges T-Beam Bridge Wood Beam Bridge Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Pre-cast Concrete I-Beam Bridge Rolled Steel Beam Bridge
  85. 85. Medium Span Bridges (up to 50m) Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam & Pre-cast Concrete IBeam Composite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge Composite Steel Plate Girder Bridge Cast-in-place RCC Box Girder Bridge Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned Concrete Box Girder Composite Steel Box Girder
  86. 86. Large Span Bridges (50 to 150m) Composite Steel Plate Girder Bridge Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned concrete Box Girder Post-Tensioned Concrete Segmental Construction Concrete Arch and Steel Arch
  87. 87. Extra Large (Long) Span Bridges (Over 150m) Cable Stayed Bridge Suspension Bridge
  88. 88. Discussion on Classification According To Structural Arrangement The classification of the bridge types can also be according to the location of the main structure elements relative to the surface on which the user travels, as follows: •Main Structure Below the Deck Line •Main Structure Above the Deck Line •Main Structure coincides with the Deck Line
  89. 89. Main Structure Below the Deck Line Masonry Arch Concrete Arch Arch Bridge Inclined Leg Frame Arch Rigid Frame Arch Steel Truss-Arch Truss-Arch Bridge Steel Deck Truss
  90. 90. Main Structure Above the Deck Line Suspension Bridges Cable Stayed Bridges Through-Truss Bridge
  91. 91. Main Structure Coincides with the Deck Line Slab (solid and voided) T-Beam (cast-in-place) I-beam (pre-cast or pre-stressed Girder Bridge Wide-flange beam (composite & noncomposite Concrete Box (cast-in-place, segmental & prestressed Steel Plate Girder (straight & haunched) Steel box (Orthotropic deck)
  92. 92. CLASSIFICATION GIVEN BY R.S.RAKSHIT
  93. 93. YOUR TASK PREPARE A COMPARISON SHEET
  94. 94. FACTORS CONSIDERED IN DECIDING BRIDGE TYPE In general all the factors are related to economy, safety and aesthetics. •Geometric Conditions of the Site •Subsurface Conditions of the Site •Functional Requirements •Aesthetics •Economics and Ease of Maintenance •Construction and Erection Consideration •Legal Considerations
  95. 95. Geometric Conditions of the Site •The type of bridge selected will always depend on the horizontal and vertical alignment of the highway route and on the clearances above and below the roadway •For Example: if the roadway is on a curve, continuous box girders and slabs are a good choice because they have a pleasing appearance, can readily be built on a curve, and have a relatively high torsion resistance •Relatively high bridges with larger spans over navigable waterways will require a different bridge type than one with medium spans crossing a flood plain •The site geometry will also dictate how traffic can be handled during construction, which is an important safety issue and must be considered early in the planning stage
  96. 96. Subsurface conditions of the soil •The foundation soils at a site will determine whether abutments and piers can be founded on spread footings, driven piles, or drilled shafts •If the subsurface investigation indicates that creep settlement is going to be a problem, the bridge type selected must be one that can accommodate differential settlement over time •Drainage conditions on the surface and below ground must be understood because they influence the magnitude of earth pressures, movement of embankments, and stability of cuts or fills •For Example: An inclined leg frame bridge requires strong foundation material that can resist both horizontal and vertical thrust. If it is not present, then another bridge type is more appropriate.
  97. 97. Subsurface conditions of the soil •The potential for seismic activity at a site should also be a part of the subsurface investigation. If seismicity is high, the substructure details will change, affecting the superstructure loads as well •All of these conditions influence the choice of substructure components which in turn influence the choice of superstructure
  98. 98. Functional Requirements •Bridge must function to carry present and future volumes of traffic. •Decisions must be made on the number of lanes of traffic, inclusion of sidewalks and/or bike paths, whether width of the bridge deck should include medians, drainage of the surface waters, snow removal, and future wearing surface. •For Example: In the case of stream and flood plain crossings, the bridge must continue to function during periods of high water and not impose a severe constriction or obstruction to the flow of water or debris. •Satisfaction of these functional requirements will recommend some bridge types over others. •For Example: if future widening and replacement of bridge decks is a concern, multiple girder bridge types are preferred over concrete segmental box girders.
  99. 99. Economic and ease of maintenance •The initial cost and maintenance cost over the life of the bridge govern when comparing the economics of different bridge types. •A general rule is that the bridge with the minimum number of spans, fewest deck joints, and widest spacing of girders will be the most economical. •For Example: (1) By reducing the number of spans in a bridge layout by one span, the construction cost of one pier is eliminated. (2) Deck joints are a high maintenance cost item, so minimizing their number will reduce the life cycle cost of the bridge. (3) When using the empirical design of bridge decks in the AASHTO (1994) LRFD Specifications, the same reinforcement is used for deck spans up to 4.1m. Therefore, there is little cost increase in the deck for wider spacing for girders and fewer girders means less cost although at the “expense” of deeper sections.
  100. 100. Economic and ease of maintenance •Generally, concrete structures require less maintenance than steel structure. The cost and hazard of maintenance painting of steel structures should be considered in type selection studies. •One effective way to reduce the overall project cost is to allow contractors to propose an alternative design or designs.
  101. 101. Construction and Erection Considerations •The length of the time required to construct a bridge is important and will vary with the bridge type. •Generally, larger the prefabricated or pre-cast members shorter the construction time. However, the larger the members, the more difficult they are to transport and lift into place. •The availability of skilled labor and specified materials will also influence the choice of a particular bridge type. •For Example: if there are no pre-cast plants for pre-stressed girders within easy transport but there is a steel fabrication plant nearby that could make the steel structure more economical. •The only way to determine which bridge type is more economical is to bid alternative designs.
  102. 102. Legal Considerations •Regulations are beyond the control of an engineer, but they are real and must be considered. Examples of certain regulations are as follows: •Permits Over Navigable Waterways •National Environmental policy Act •Department of Transportation Act •National historic preservation Act •Clean Air Act •Noise Control Act
  103. 103. Legal Considerations •Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act •The Endangered Species Act •Water Bank Act •Wild and Scenic Rivers Act •In addition to the environmental laws and acts defining national policies, local and regional politics are also of concern
  104. 104. Discussion on Bridge Components •Common bridge components •Components of a Girder bridge (Beam Bridge) •Components of a Suspension Bridge
  105. 105. General Bridge Components Bridge Bearings: These are supports on a bridge pier, which carry the weight of the bridge and control the movements at the bridge supports, including the temperature expansion and contraction. They may be metal rockers, rollers or slides or merely rubber or laminated rubber ( Rubber with steel plates glued into it). Bridge Dampers & Isolators: Bridge dampers are devices that absorb energy generated by earthquake waves and lateral load Bridge Pier: A wide column or short wall of masonry or plain or reinforced concrete for carrying loads as a support for a bridge, but in any case it is founded on firm ground below the river mud
  106. 106. General Bridge Components Bridge Cap: The highest part of a bridge pier on which the bridge bearings or rollers are seated. It may be of stone, brick or plain or reinforced concrete. Bridge Deck: The load bearing floor of a bridge which carries and spreads the loads to the main beams. It is either of reinforced concrete., pre-stressed concrete, welded steel etc. Abutment: A support of an arch or bridge etc which may carry a horizontal force as well as weight. Expansion Joints : These are provided to accommodate the translations due to possible shrinkage and expansions due to temperature changes.
  107. 107. Components of a Girder bridge (Beam Bridge)
  108. 108. Components of a Suspension Bridge • • • • • • Anchor Block: Just looking at the figure we can compare it as a dead man having no function of its own other than its weight. Suspension girder: It is a girder built into a suspension bridge to distribute the loads uniformly among the suspenders and thus to reduce the local deflections under concentrated loads. Suspenders: a vertical hanger in a suspension bridge by which the road is carried on the cables Tower: Towers transfers compression forces to the foundation through piers. Saddles: A steel block over the towers of a suspension bridge which acts as a bearing surface for the cable passing over it. Cables: Members that take tensile forces and transmit it through saddles to towers and rest of the forces to anchorage block.
  109. 109. • •    BRIDGE SPECIFICATIONS Meaning of bridge specifications. Need of bridge specifications. History Development Lack of specification and usage of proper codes and safety factors -------reason of failure of a structure (bridge)  Use and check of safety factors case study of wasserwork bridge for the check of present working capacity.  Assignment: Main reason of failure for some bridge/bridges
  110. 110. BRIDGE SPECIFICATION • Basically the word specification stands in general for a collection of work description upon which there is a mutual agreement of the most experienced group of people based upon their practical and theoretical knowledge • Bridge specification: Applying the above mentioned definition, context to bridge makes it self explanatory.
  111. 111. Bridge Cap and Damper
  112. 112. ARCH BRIDGE
  113. 113. ARCH BRIDGE
  114. 114. ARCH BRIDGE
  115. 115. ARCH BRIDGE
  116. 116. GIRDER BRIDGE
  117. 117. GIRDER BRIDGE
  118. 118. GIRDER BRIDGE
  119. 119. GIRDER BRIDGE
  120. 120. Totally Precast Concrete Bridges FORWARD
  121. 121. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Is it possible to design an “Instant Bridge?” Almost! There are many ways to put a bridge together quickly with precast concrete products. BACK FORWARD
  122. 122. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES The speed and variety of precast prestressed products and methods give designers many options. Consider these advantages of an all-precast bridge… BACK FORWARD
  123. 123. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Benefits to Owner Agencies:  Reduction in the duration of work zones  Reduced traffic handling costs  Reduced accident exposure risks  Less inconvenience to the traveling public  Fewer motorist complaints BACK Fast construction benefits owner agencies by reducing the duration of the work zone. Fast construction reduces traffic handling costs and accident exposure risks. There’s less inconvenience to the traveling public, fewer delays, and fewer motorist complaints. According to a report by the Texas Transportation Institute, costs incurred by drivers passing through a work zone (along with engineering costs) can be $10,000 to $20,000 per day. A recent Federal report indicates user costs of $50,000 per day for work zones in urban areas. FORWARD
  124. 124. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Benefits to Contractors:  Reduced exposure to hazards  More work -- less time Contractors benefit from reduced exposure to traffic hazards. More work can be accomplished in less time, with fewer weather delays. Costs are lower for forms, skilled field labor, scaffolding and shoring, and cranes.  Fewer weather delays  Lower costs  Less skilled labor BACK FORWARD
  125. 125. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES After foundations have been completed, scheduling can be controlled by a single contractor working with a familiar material. Scheduling Control BACK FORWARD
  126. 126. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Precast concrete structural elements should always be plant produced under carefully controlled conditions…by plants that are Certified by PCI. Plant-produced Elements BACK FORWARD
  127. 127. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES … so all structural elements benefit from the excellent quality and corrosion resistance of prestressed concrete. Quality and Corrosion Resistance BACK FORWARD
  128. 128. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Fully-cured precast concrete structural elements can be stockpiled in advance of need… Stockpiled in Advance BACK FORWARD
  129. 129. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES …and can be scheduled for “just-in-time” delivery and erection… Immediate Delivery and Erection BACK FORWARD
  130. 130. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES There’s no curing time required at the jobsite, as with cast-in-place concrete. Bridge piers can be erected in a day, and beams can follow immediately. No Curing Time BACK FORWARD
  131. 131. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES The following photos illustrate the many products and construction methods that enable very rapid project completion. In addition to the often-used superstructure elements of girders and deck slabs, substructure components such as these piers can also be precast. BACK FORWARD
  132. 132. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Precast concrete piles are quite popular in much of the country. They come in different sizes and shapes, ranging from 10-inch square piles to 66-inch diameter hollow cylinder piles. BACK FORWARD
  133. 133. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Pile caps also can be precast concrete, reducing exposure, forming and curing in the field. BACK FORWARD
  134. 134. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Piers can be made of precast concrete pieces quickly assembled in the field. BACK FORWARD
  135. 135. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Abutments can also be made of precast. BACK FORWARD
  136. 136. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES The Sucker Creek Bridge in Hague, New York, consists of precast concrete box beams supported on precast concrete abutments assembled into a jointless, rigid frame. Sucker Creek Bridge in Hague BACK FORWARD
  137. 137. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES In San Juan, Puerto Rico, the totally precast concrete Baldorioty de Castro Avenue bridges were built in recordsetting time, attractively, and economically. Puerto Rico MAIN BACK FORWARD
  138. 138. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Each of four bridges, ranging in length from 700 to 900 feet, was erected in about 24 hours. This was well within the owner’s construction allowance of 72 hours per bridge, a condition established to minimize disruption to one of the city’s highly traveled corridors. Puerto Rico A totally precast bridge BACK FORWARD
  139. 139. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES In addition to speed, the bridges also met the city’s budgetary needs. The four box-beam bridges were constructed for $2 million less than the next lowest bid for another material. Puerto Rico BACK FORWARD
  140. 140. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Totally precast bridge systems may be the only viable solution in harsh field conditions. The Confederation Bridge connecting Canada’s Prince Edward Island to mainland New Brunswick is such an example. The bridge spanned the eightmile-wide Northumberland strait, which experiences severe winters and is covered with ice floes for five months of the year. Confederation Bridge New Brunswick, Canada BACK FORWARD
  141. 141. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Even in such harsh conditions, precast concrete was able to meet the owner’s requirements of a 100-year service life, a 3½-year construction period, and attractiveness. Confederation Bridge BACK FORWARD
  142. 142. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES It just makes economic sense to evaluate conversion of cast-in-place to precast concrete. This was done for the Edison Bridge in Florida. Precast piers and beams were spliced to produce tall pier bents. Edison Bridge Florida BACK FORWARD
  143. 143. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES The state of Texas has constructed several bridges with segmental precast concrete piers. The attractive piers and pier caps are hollow members. Some are made of highperformance concrete. Such segments may be matchcast, similar to segmental box girder bridges, or separated by a thin mortar bed, much like giant masonry units. Texas - Precast Piers BACK FORWARD
  144. 144. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES In Houston, the Louetta Road Overpass utilized precast concrete match-cast piers, as well as precast, prestressed U-beams and stay-in-place deck panels. Louetta Road Bridge Texas BACK FORWARD
  145. 145. TOTALLY PRECAST BRIDGES -- CASE STUDIES Another famous bridge is the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay in Florida. The piles, piers and pier caps were constructed of precast concrete elements connected together with post-tensioning threadbars. Sunshine Skyway Bridge Florida BACK FORWARD
  146. 146. Truss Basics – Overview Truss Bridges A metal truss bridge is a bridge whose main structure comes from a triangular framework of structural steel or iron.
  147. 147. Truss Basics – Forms of Metal Iron and Steel Due to their variety of designs, there is a system that is used to classify metal truss bridges by design.
  148. 148. Truss Basics – Pony / Through Truss Basics If the trusses run beside the deck, with no cross bracing above the deck, it is called a pony truss bridge. Pony Truss Through Truss If cross-bracing is present above the deck of the bridge, then the bridge is referred to as a “through truss.”
  149. 149. Truss Basics – Deck Truss Basics Deck Truss Trusses may run under the deck: these are called simply Deck truss bridges.
  150. 150. Truss Bridge Parts Truss Bridge Parts The different parts of a truss bridge are all named. Some of the parts: Hip Vertical (Only the Top / Upper Chord Vertical (Member) verticals that meet the Diagonal (Member) top of the end post) End Post Floor beam Bottom / Lower Chord Each space Portal Bracing between vertical members and end Sway Bracing posts is one panel. This bridge has six Lateral Bracing panels. Connections
  151. 151. Truss Bridge Forces Truss Bridge Forces Compression Tension The chords and members of a truss bridge experience strain in the form of tension (stretching apart) and compression (squeezing together). Engineers often picked different types of materials and designs for the different parts of a bridge based on these forces. An example is shown above.
  152. 152. Truss Connections Truss Bridge Connections The pieces of the framework of a truss bridge are held together by connections. Most connections on historic bridges are either riveted or pinned.
  153. 153. Truss Connections Pinned Pinned Connections Pin Pinned connections can be identified by the bolt-like object called a pin going through the loops of the members. They tend to show up on bridges from the first half of the truss bridge era.
  154. 154. Truss Connections Riveted Riveted Connections Riveted connections are identified by a “gusset plate” which diagonals and vertical members are riveted to, and no pin is present. These connections tend to show up in the second half of the truss bridge era.
  155. 155. Truss Configurations Pratt Overview: One of the two most common configurations, it tends to occupy the earlier half of the truss bridge era, but was used throughout. Originally developed by Thomas and Caleb Pratt in 1844. Appearance: Diagonal members angle toward the center and bottom of bridge.
  156. 156. Truss Configurations Pratt – Additional Notes The Pratt may have additional diagonal members, sometimes of a smaller size, that do not follow the standard pattern to form an “X” shape on panels toward the center.
  157. 157. Truss Configurations Whipple Overview: The Whipple truss is also known as the doubleintersection Pratt truss. It was patented by Squire Whipple in 1847 as a stronger version of the Pratt truss. Appearance: Similar to the Pratt truss, but the diagonals pass through one vertical member before reaching the bottom chord. They tend to show up on longer spans built in the first half of the truss era, and with pinned connections.
  158. 158. Truss Configurations Baltimore Overview: The Baltimore railroad designed a truss configuration that eventually found use on both railroads and highways. It is a Pratt truss with additional members added for additional strength. Appearance: Characterized by a Pratt configuration with extra smaller members branching off of the diagonals.
  159. 159. Truss Configurations Parker Overview: Charles H. Parker modified the Pratt design to create what became known as the Parker truss configuration. This design allowed one to use less materials to get the a similar load capacity. The downside was the more complex design. Appearance: Characterized by an arch-shaped (polygonal) top chord, with diagonals that follow the Pratt configuration.
  160. 160. Truss Configurations Pennsylvania Overview: Sometimes called the Petit truss. Designed by the Pennsylvania railroad, this configuration combines the engineering ideas behind the Baltimore with those of the Parker or Camelback. Appearance: Features an arch-shaped (polygonal) top chord with a diagonal arrangement like the Baltimore.
  161. 161. Truss Configurations Warren Overview: The other most common truss configuration, this design tended to be used in the second half of the truss bridge era, and with riveted connections. Originally developed in 1848 by James Warren and Willoughby Monzoni. Appearance: Alternating diagonal members form a repeating “V” shape. A true Warren does not have vertical members.
  162. 162. Truss Configurations Warren: With Verticals Most Warren truss bridges do in fact feature vertical members. They may be referenced simply as “warren with verticals” truss bridges. Vertical members may occur at each connection, or every other connection.
  163. 163. Truss Configurations Double-Intersection Warren Overview: Often called simply the Double Warren, this is an uncommon truss configuration. Bridges with this configuration often have riveted connections. Appearance: Looks like two Warren trusses offset and superimposed on each other, forming a repeating “X” shape.
  164. 164. Truss Configurations Lenticular Overview: One of the rarest bridge designs in the country. Patented by the Berlin Iron Bridge Company of East Berlin, CT Appearance: Both the top chord and bottom chord have an arched appearance, forming a distinctive oval or eye-like shape.
  165. 165. Truss bridge
  166. 166. Truss Bridge
  167. 167. Truss Bridge
  168. 168. Truss Bridge
  169. 169. Truss Bridge
  170. 170. Truss Bridge
  171. 171. Curved Cable Stayed Bridge This is an innovative curved cable stayed bridge. It is designed to provide maximum support around turns where a whole new bridge would need to be built.
  172. 172. Waldo Hancock Bridge This the is new Waldo Hancock Bridge. It replaced the old one in the background due to corrosion. This is one of the only suspension bridges in the country that has an observation tower in the top. I have been up in the tower and would strongly suggest seeing it for yourself.
  173. 173. Suspension Bridge Design
  174. 174. What you need to know A suspension bridge is a type of bridge where the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. Suspension bridges are efficient at holding up a large amount of wait over a long span. A suspension bridge usually has two towers that hold up the horizontal cables. From these main horizontal cables hang vertical cables that are attached to the deck of the bridge. A suspension bridge must with stand forces of tension on its cables and
  175. 175. Famous Suspension Bridges The Akashi-Kaikyo bridge in Japan The longest bridge in the world at 6529 feet long. The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco
  176. 176. Verrazano-Narrows Bridge The VerrazanoNarrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the U.S. It is 4,260 feet long. It is a double decked bridge in New York City.
  177. 177. Suspension Bridge
  178. 178. Suspension Bridge
  179. 179. Suspension Bridge
  180. 180. Movable Bridges • They span waterways • Closed bridge to carry traffic •Open to allow marine traffic to travel under • Usually powered by electric motors •In the past they were powered by steam engines • There are three main types: 1.Bascule 2.Vertical lift 3. Swing
  181. 181. Bascule Bridge or Drawbridge •Used for short distances •Have two movable spans the rise upward, opening in the middle •When open the weight is supported by the stationary section of the bridge
  182. 182. Vertical-lift Bridge • Used for longer distances • Straight bridge, held between two towers • Lifted by steel ropes, attached to counterweights -as the counterweights go down the bridge goes up and vise-versa. • Operate in an elevator like fashion
  183. 183. Swing Bridges • Mounted on a central pier • The central pier allows the bridge to rotate to the side • Uncommonly used because the central pier is located in the area where boats like to travel
  184. 184. http://www.brokk.com/images/jpg/sando.jpg
  185. 185. Sydney, Australia
  186. 186. Arches can also be set above the deck as on the Sydney harbour bridge in Australia. This allows much more space beneath for ships to pass under. www.bardaglea.org.uk/.../ bridge-types-arch.html
  187. 187. Blue Water Bridges are a major international crossing over the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron Blue Water Bridge
  188. 188. Eads Bridge, St. Louis
  189. 189. Port Mann Bridge, Coquitlam-Surrey BC This graceful steel arch, once the third-longest of its kind in the world, carries the Trans-Canada highway across the Fraser River. In 2002 its capacity was increased with the addition of an eastbound high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane, bringing the total to five www.balsabridge.com/ bridge-van.htm
  190. 190. Cantilever Bridges
  191. 191. FIXED • Cantilever • Double-ended brackets supporting a center span • Shore end of each cantilever firmly anchored • Center supported by pier
  192. 192. Quebec Bridge
  193. 193. Quebec Bridge
  194. 194. Quebec Bridge
  195. 195. Quebec Bridge
  196. 196. Quebec Bridge
  197. 197. Quebec Bridge
  198. 198. Quebec Bridge On June 15, 1907 an inspecting engineer noted that two girders of the anchor was misaligned by a quarter of an inch. Cooper called this a "not serious" problem. In the inspection report in August, 1907, it was noted that the girders had moved out alignment a bit more and "appeared bent". Although this condition was a bit more concerning, the work continued.
  199. 199. Scotland's Firth of Forth A period museum photo shows cranes atop the massive structure. The bridge was constructed from 1882-1890, 2.5 KM (1.5 miles) across Scotland's Firth of Forth. Note reflection of photographer from glass frame. http://www.pre-engineering.com/resources/forth/forthbridge.htm
  200. 200. http://www.brantacan.co.uk/cantilever.htm
  201. 201. Lewis and Clark Bridge (Longview-Rainier Bridge) across the Columbia River.
  202. 202. [Queensboro Bridge, Roosevelt Island, New York, N.Y.].
  203. 203. Astoria bridge
  204. 204. Suspension Bridges
  205. 205. FIXED • Suspension – Roadway hangs from vertical cables supported by overhead cables strung between two or more towers – Longest spans – Costly – Difficult to design – Highly susceptible to winds and swaying – Cables can be up to three feet in diameter
  206. 206. Tanana River suspension bridge. http://tapseis.anl.gov/guide/photo/Tanana_Bridge.html
  207. 207. Tsing Ma Bridge, Hong Kong
  208. 208. Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan
  209. 209. Brooklyn Bridge
  210. 210. The 3rd Carquinez Strait Bridge will replace the original bridge that was built in 1927.
  211. 211. Ambassador Bridge
  212. 212. Ambassador Bridge
  213. 213. Golden Gate Bridge
  214. 214. Golden Gate Structures
  215. 215. When it opened in 1964, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge was the world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber Bridge in England.
  216. 216. Verrazano
  217. 217. Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing, Tacoma, Washington, 1940 On the morning of November 7, 1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisted violently in 42-mile-perhour winds and collapsed into the cold waters of the Puget Sound. The disaster -- which luckily took no human lives -- shook the engineering community and forever changed the way bridges were built around the world. Roadway of Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisting violently in a windstorm, Tacoma, Washington, 1940
  218. 218. Cable-Stayed Bridges
  219. 219. FIXED • Cable-Stayed • Suspended by cables that run directly down to roadway from central towers • Less costly than suspension • Quickly constructable • Spans must be limited in length
  220. 220. Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida
  221. 221. Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida
  222. 222. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  223. 223. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  224. 224. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  225. 225. Dames Port Florida
  226. 226. Dames Port Florida
  227. 227. Dames Port Florida
  228. 228. Swing Bridges
  229. 229. MOVEABLE • Swing • Central span turned 90 degrees on pivot pier placed in middle of waterway • Double swing possible
  230. 230. Catalog Advertisement
  231. 231. Moveable Bridge
  232. 232. BRIDGE ACROSS SHATT-AL-ARAB, IRAQ
  233. 233. Detail of south truss showing truss configuration and connections HAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
  234. 234. Detail of south truss showing truss configuration and connections HAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
  235. 235. Coleman Bridge, Spanning Phelps Brook, on Windsor Bush Road, at th, Windsor, Berkshire County, MA
  236. 236. Bascule Bridges
  237. 237. MOVEABLE • Bascule – One or two sections not supported by piers – Balanced on one end by counterweights – Section jackknifes up to allow passage of ships – Most common type of highway drawbridge
  238. 238. View of an elevated train crossing the Van Buren Street Railroad Bridge which spanned the Chicago River from the Loop to the Near West Side community area in Chicago, Illinois.
  239. 239. View of a bascule bridge over the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois.
  240. 240. Haarlem old lifting bridge. Lifting bridges are moveable bridges which enable boats to pass. They vary from simple wooden designs such as many seen in the Netherlands to large steel structures which carry heavy roads such as the bascule bridge in Docklands.
  241. 241. Erie Street Bridge, a bascule bridge, with the two leaves in raised position
  242. 242. Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge
  243. 243. Erie Avenue Bridge Newberry Bridge
  244. 244. Vertical Lift Bridges
  245. 245. MOVEABLE • Vertical Lift – Central span extends between two towers – Balanced by counterweights – Variation of this type is bridge over Shatt-alarab River in Iraq—Roadway sinks into water to allow ships to pass over it
  246. 246. Vertical lift Baltimore (Pratt) through-truss railroad bridge
  247. 247. Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts
  248. 248. Leamington Lift Bridge, Scotland
  249. 249. Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
  250. 250. Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
  251. 251. GUIABA RIVER AT PORTO ALEGRE, BRAZIL
  252. 252. The vertical lift bridge that carries US-41 across the Portage Canal.
  253. 253. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  254. 254. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  255. 255. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  256. 256. Bailey Bridges
  257. 257. OTHER • Bailey – Small truss bridge made in sections – Assembled on shore – Pushed out from shore to cover span – Transportable to new sites
  258. 258. Bailey Tank destroyer advances along a mountain road, Italy
  259. 259. Pontoon Bridges
  260. 260. OTHER • Pontoon – Floats on water – Can be disassembled and moved to new site – Supported by pontoons or barges
  261. 261. The U.S. Army's Sava River bridge is taken apart at nightfall and put together in the morning
  262. 262. View of James River Pontoon Bridge, from south side, above Jones' Landing.
  263. 263. Pontoon bridges, North Anna, constructed by the 50th N.Y.V. Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864
  264. 264. Broadway Landing, Va. Pontoon bridge across the Appomattox
  265. 265. Evergreen Floating Bridge
  266. 266. Evergreen Bridge. The official name of the bridge is the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge at Evergreen Point, after a popular former governor who was in office when the bridge opened.
  267. 267. Combined Bridges
  268. 268. [Stony Brook glen, Shawmut Bridge, Dansville, N.Y.].
  269. 269. Knie_bridge
  270. 270. Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
  271. 271. Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
  272. 272. Old Alton Bridge
  273. 273. Name that Bridge Give the type for each.
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