Mehala A/p Gopalakrishnan
Muganthini A/p Kumaran (214956)
Mukhlisa Rasulova (218152)
Mohamad Fikri Azman (214650)
Muhammad Syukhri Shafee
Have two section of introduction
- Summary about Chechnya situation
- Brief about background of Chechen
Muhammad Syukhri bin Shafee
• This paper/slide will discuss about the
Chechnya people demanding their
independent state from Russian.
• But at the same time, Russian don’t allow this
state get independent because of several
Background of Chechen
• Chechnya is located in between Black Sea and
Caspian Sea in East European part.
• Become part of Russian empire after
conquered in 1861.
• Citizen in that place is named Chechens ethnic
or Vainakhs (which means"our people" in
Chechen) from Nakh people family. Vainakhs
people group also can found in
• Majority people whose lived in Chechen are
Muslim and they speak Nakh language and
at the same time can speak Russian language
• Chechen status now is autonomy state and
not become independent state until now.
• Natural resources had in Chechen are
Outline For This Paper
• Chechnya under Soviet Union and Russian?
• Why Russian did not give independent to
• Struggle of Chechen
CHENCNYA UNDER RUSIA AND
**LOST OF HOMELAND**
Mehala A/p Gopalakrishnan
• Ottoman and Safavid Empires fought for influence over the Caucasus
• The rivalry was between Sunni and Shia Islam and the regional conflict
of the two empires.
• Relations with Russia was seen as a possible balance to the Ottoman
and Safavid Empires, and a pro-Russian camp in Chechen
• In reality, the most favored empire from the beginning was the Ottoman
Empire, but that did not mean the Chechens were not wary of a
potential Ottoman attempt at conquering them.
• A positive hope toward Russia relations ended in the early 19th
centuries when tensions with the Cossacks escalated and Russia
began trying to conquer the Caucasus, starting with Georgia.
After this point, many Chechens sealed, forever, their
preference towards Istanbul against Estafan and
Moscow by converting to Islam in an attempt to win the
sympathy of the Ottomans
However, they were too late- the Ottoman Empire
was already well into its period of decline and
ottoman empire = not longer willing to assist
Muslims especially newly converted people, (viewed
as "less Muslim“)
Hence, the rivalry between Turkey and Persia became
abstract and meaningless as the threat of conquest by Russia
and being pushed out of their lands or even annihilated or
killed by the Cossacks grew
ARRIVAL OF THE COSSACKS
• The Cossacks, had settled in the lowlands just a bit off from the
Terek river. This area, the Nogais and the Chechens.
• The mountainous highlands of Chechnya were economically
dependent on the lowlands for food produce, and the lowlands of
Terek river were considered part of the Chechen lowlands.
• The Cossacks were much more assertive than the Nogais and they
soon replaced the Nogais as the regional rival.
• This marked the beginning of Russo-Chechen conflict, (Cossacks
are to be considered Russian)
• The Cossacks and Chechens would periodically raid each other's
villages, and seek to sabotage each other's crops.
• Nonetheless, the Chechen versus Cossack conflict
has continued to the modern day.
• The habit of raids done by the Chechens against
Cossacks, by the 20th century, become a cultural
• need fill the mouths of hungry children and to regain
lost lands played a role.
• The Chechen raiders, known as “Abreks” were the
focal point of this conflict.
• The Russian view on the “Abreks” is that they were
simple mountain bandits,.. they were depicted as
rapists and murderers by Russian authors
• The Chechen view is that they were heroes of valor,
much like Robin Hood.
• Russian Empire began spreading its influence into the
Caucasus mountains. The Chechens were actually first
drawn into conflict with Russia
• Russians incorporated a strategy of driving the Chechens
into the mountains, out of their lowland ( food source), thus
forcing them to either starve or surrender. Chechen
Lowlands lacked their historical.
LOST OF HOMELAND
Prehistorically, the Chechens lived in the
highlands of the North Caucasus region.
However, in the late Middle Ages the
Little Ice Age forced the Chechens to
migrate down from the hills into the
Since then there have been various
Chechen rebellions against
Muganthini A/p Kumaran
Under Soviet Union (1944) , Chechens together with several other peoples of the
Caucasus were ordered by the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to be deported in mass.
Stalin expelled the Chechens to Siberia and Kazakhstan on suspicion of
collaboration with Nazi Germany
At least one-quarter and perhaps half of the entire Chechen population perished
in the process and a severe blow was made to their culture and historical records.
The Chechens were allowed to return to their land after 1956 during deStalinization under Nikita Khrushchev
However, the Republic was restored but both boundaries and ethnic composition
of the territory significantly changed.
The territory was divided and many predominantly Russian migrants from other
parts of the Soviet Union, settled in the abandoned family homes of Cheche
This is the reason why
make attempts to
• Though "rehabilitated" in 1956
allowed the Chechens to return,
the survivors lost economic
resources and civil rights and,
under both Soviet and post-Soviet
governments, they have been the
objects of discrimination.
Russiafication is a form of
cultural assimilation process
during which non-Russian
communities give up their
culture and language in favor
of the Russian one.
The Russification policies
towards Chechens continued
after 1956. The major areas of
Russification are politics and
In politics, Russiafiction is
assigning Russian nationals to
positions in national
In culture, Russification is to
domination of the Russian
language in official business
(administrative language ) and
strong influence of the Russian
language on national idioms.
Analytically, it is helpful to
distinguish Russification, as a
process of changing one's
ethnic self-label or identity from
a non-Russian to Russian.
This makes the Chechnya
people to loss their culture and
REASONS FOR NOT GRANTING
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (1931-2007)
In December 1994, Yeltsin ordered the military invasion of Chechnya in an
attempt to restore Moscow's control over the republic. Nearly two years later
Yeltsin withdrew federal forces from the devastated Chechnya under a 1996
peace agreement brokered by Alexander Lebed, then Yeltsin's security chief. The
peace deal allowed Chechnya greater autonomy but not full independence.
Yeltsin’s Three Points
Fear of other republics following Chechen example;
Rich oil fields in the region;
Convenient access to Black Sea and Middle East.
The motivations of the Russian and Chechens in these
conflicts are complicated. Principally, Russia's stake in
Chechnya relates to the fear that if Chechnya becomes
independent, even more territories will break away
from Russia, leading to its disintegration. Economic
interests are another factor, as is a long standing
conflict between Russia and Chechnya.
When the Soviet Union broke up in the early
1990s several Republics gained their
independence. An independence movement started
in Chechnya but was opposed by Boris Yeltsin
Chechnya had not been an independent entity
within the Soviet Union – as the Baltic, Central
Asian, and other Caucasian States had – but was a
part of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist
Republic and hence did not have a right under the
Soviet constitution to secede;
Other ethnic groups inside Russia, such as the
Tatars, would join the Chechens and secede from the
Russian Federation if they were granted that right;
Chechnya was at a major chokepoint in the oilinfrastructure of the country and hence would hurt
the country's economy and control of oil resources.
The capital, Grozny, is an oil centre with pipelines
to the Caspian and Black seas.
Rich Natural Resources
The mountainous region has important oil deposits, as
well as natural gas, limestone, gypsum, sulfur, and other
minerals. Its mineral waters have made it a spa center.
Agriculture is concentrated in the Terek and Sunzha river
valleys. Oil, petrochemicals, oil-field equipment, foods,
wines, and fruit are produced. The population, which is
concentrated in the foothills, is predominantly Chechen, or
Nokhchi. The Chechen, like the neighboring Ingush, are
Sunni Muslim, and speak a Caucasian language.
An empire's fraying edge
• The creeping
destabilization of the
north Caucasus, and
what it means for the
future of Russia
• Initial Russian
Mohamad Fikri Azman
The Struggling of Chechen:
Nationalism & terrorism
Status of Chechnya
• Russia government have claim that the
conflict as a struggle against banditry and
• The Chechens, meanwhile, refer to their
war as a “struggle for national and political
liberation” and an Islamic holy war, or
War to War
• From Chechen War to Chechen War II
there are treaty between Russia
federation and Chechen.
• First war (1994-1996) - 1997 Peace
• However, the treaty only last short time –
they continued second war at 1999.
Conflict to Conflict
• Killing, assassination, bombing
continued to happen like there's was no
• Both (Russia & Chechen) use
legitimation towards another.
• Assassination of Chechen president
Struggling never ends
• After 9/11 World Trade Centre Tragedy –
US try to alienated with Russia to
proceed their “War against terrorist”.
• Legitimize action-
US vs Afghanistan
Russia vs Chechen
• Islamophobia - Islam/ muslim is
• Chechen fighters change their offensive style.
- from Guerrilla style to terrorist like style.
• To solve this kind of problem, Russian
Government need to let Chechnya get
• The Russian citizen in Moscow scared if the
same situation happen to them where the
group of Chechen take the normal people to
become hostage and demand for Chechnya