Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Chechnya : Hisotry and Struggle to Get Freedom

721

Published on

To know more about Chechnya and the conflict this territory with Federation of Russian? Let's read this slide.

To know more about Chechnya and the conflict this territory with Federation of Russian? Let's read this slide.

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
721
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chechnya Group member: Mehala A/p Gopalakrishnan (214972) Muganthini A/p Kumaran (214956) Mukhlisa Rasulova (218152) Mohamad Fikri Azman (214650) Muhammad Syukhri Shafee (214783)
  • 2. Introduction Have two section of introduction - Summary about Chechnya situation - Brief about background of Chechen people Muhammad Syukhri bin Shafee
  • 3. Summary • This paper/slide will discuss about the Chechnya people demanding their independent state from Russian. • But at the same time, Russian don’t allow this state get independent because of several reason.
  • 4. Background of Chechen • Chechnya is located in between Black Sea and Caspian Sea in East European part.
  • 5. • Become part of Russian empire after conquered in 1861. • Citizen in that place is named Chechens ethnic or Vainakhs (which means"our people" in Chechen) from Nakh people family. Vainakhs people group also can found in Ingushetia state.
  • 6. • Majority people whose lived in Chechen are Muslim and they speak Nakh language and at the same time can speak Russian language • Chechen status now is autonomy state and not become independent state until now. • Natural resources had in Chechen are
  • 7. Outline For This Paper • Introduction • Chechnya under Soviet Union and Russian? • Why Russian did not give independent to Chechen? • Struggle of Chechen • Conclusion
  • 8. CHENCNYA UNDER RUSIA AND SOVIET UNION **HISTORY CONFLICT** **LOST OF HOMELAND** ***ASSIMILATION POLICY*** Mehala A/p Gopalakrishnan
  • 9. TURCO-PERSION-RUSION CONFLICT • Ottoman and Safavid Empires fought for influence over the Caucasus • The rivalry was between Sunni and Shia Islam and the regional conflict of the two empires. • Relations with Russia was seen as a possible balance to the Ottoman and Safavid Empires, and a pro-Russian camp in Chechen • In reality, the most favored empire from the beginning was the Ottoman Empire, but that did not mean the Chechens were not wary of a potential Ottoman attempt at conquering them. • A positive hope toward Russia relations ended in the early 19th centuries when tensions with the Cossacks escalated and Russia began trying to conquer the Caucasus, starting with Georgia.
  • 10. After this point, many Chechens sealed, forever, their preference towards Istanbul against Estafan and Moscow by converting to Islam in an attempt to win the sympathy of the Ottomans However, they were too late- the Ottoman Empire was already well into its period of decline and collapse, ottoman empire = not longer willing to assist Muslims especially newly converted people, (viewed as "less Muslim“) Hence, the rivalry between Turkey and Persia became abstract and meaningless as the threat of conquest by Russia and being pushed out of their lands or even annihilated or killed by the Cossacks grew
  • 11. ARRIVAL OF THE COSSACKS • The Cossacks, had settled in the lowlands just a bit off from the Terek river. This area, the Nogais and the Chechens. • The mountainous highlands of Chechnya were economically dependent on the lowlands for food produce, and the lowlands of Terek river were considered part of the Chechen lowlands. • The Cossacks were much more assertive than the Nogais and they soon replaced the Nogais as the regional rival. • This marked the beginning of Russo-Chechen conflict, (Cossacks are to be considered Russian) • The Cossacks and Chechens would periodically raid each other's villages, and seek to sabotage each other's crops.
  • 12. • Nonetheless, the Chechen versus Cossack conflict has continued to the modern day. • The habit of raids done by the Chechens against Cossacks, by the 20th century, become a cultural tradition • need fill the mouths of hungry children and to regain lost lands played a role. • The Chechen raiders, known as “Abreks” were the focal point of this conflict. • The Russian view on the “Abreks” is that they were simple mountain bandits,.. they were depicted as rapists and murderers by Russian authors • The Chechen view is that they were heroes of valor, much like Robin Hood.
  • 13. RUSSIAN EMPIRE • Russian Empire began spreading its influence into the Caucasus mountains. The Chechens were actually first drawn into conflict with Russia • Russians incorporated a strategy of driving the Chechens into the mountains, out of their lowland ( food source), thus forcing them to either starve or surrender. Chechen Lowlands lacked their historical.
  • 14. LOST OF HOMELAND Prehistorically, the Chechens lived in the highlands of the North Caucasus region. However, in the late Middle Ages the Little Ice Age forced the Chechens to migrate down from the hills into the lowlands. Since then there have been various Chechen rebellions against Russian/Soviet power. Muganthini A/p Kumaran
  • 15.  Under Soviet Union (1944) , Chechens together with several other peoples of the Caucasus were ordered by the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to be deported in mass. Stalin expelled the Chechens to Siberia and Kazakhstan on suspicion of collaboration with Nazi Germany  At least one-quarter and perhaps half of the entire Chechen population perished in the process and a severe blow was made to their culture and historical records.  The Chechens were allowed to return to their land after 1956 during deStalinization under Nikita Khrushchev  However, the Republic was restored but both boundaries and ethnic composition of the territory significantly changed.  The territory was divided and many predominantly Russian migrants from other parts of the Soviet Union, settled in the abandoned family homes of Cheche
  • 16. This is the reason why Chechnya people make attempts to regain independence • Though "rehabilitated" in 1956 allowed the Chechens to return, the survivors lost economic resources and civil rights and, under both Soviet and post-Soviet governments, they have been the objects of discrimination.
  • 17. ASSIMILATION POLICY Russiafication is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. The Russification policies towards Chechens continued after 1956. The major areas of Russification are politics and culture In politics, Russiafiction is assigning Russian nationals to leading administrative positions in national institutions. In culture, Russification is to domination of the Russian language in official business (administrative language ) and strong influence of the Russian language on national idioms. Analytically, it is helpful to distinguish Russification, as a process of changing one's ethnic self-label or identity from a non-Russian to Russian. This makes the Chechnya people to loss their culture and ethnic background.
  • 18. REASONS FOR NOT GRANTING CHECHNYA WITH INDEPENDENCE Economic Political reasons •ECONOMIC •POLITICAL Mukhlisa Rasulova
  • 19. Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (1931-2007) In December 1994, Yeltsin ordered the military invasion of Chechnya in an attempt to restore Moscow's control over the republic. Nearly two years later Yeltsin withdrew federal forces from the devastated Chechnya under a 1996 peace agreement brokered by Alexander Lebed, then Yeltsin's security chief. The peace deal allowed Chechnya greater autonomy but not full independence.
  • 20. Yeltsin’s Three Points  Fear of other republics following Chechen example;  Rich oil fields in the region;  Convenient access to Black Sea and Middle East.  The motivations of the Russian and Chechens in these conflicts are complicated. Principally, Russia's stake in Chechnya relates to the fear that if Chechnya becomes independent, even more territories will break away from Russia, leading to its disintegration. Economic interests are another factor, as is a long standing conflict between Russia and Chechnya.
  • 21. Reasons When the Soviet Union broke up in the early 1990s several Republics gained their independence. An independence movement started in Chechnya but was opposed by Boris Yeltsin who argued: Chechnya had not been an independent entity within the Soviet Union – as the Baltic, Central Asian, and other Caucasian States had – but was a part of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic and hence did not have a right under the Soviet constitution to secede;
  • 22. Reasons Other ethnic groups inside Russia, such as the Tatars, would join the Chechens and secede from the Russian Federation if they were granted that right; and Chechnya was at a major chokepoint in the oilinfrastructure of the country and hence would hurt the country's economy and control of oil resources. The capital, Grozny, is an oil centre with pipelines to the Caspian and Black seas.
  • 23. Rich Natural Resources The mountainous region has important oil deposits, as well as natural gas, limestone, gypsum, sulfur, and other minerals. Its mineral waters have made it a spa center. Agriculture is concentrated in the Terek and Sunzha river valleys. Oil, petrochemicals, oil-field equipment, foods, wines, and fruit are produced. The population, which is concentrated in the foothills, is predominantly Chechen, or Nokhchi. The Chechen, like the neighboring Ingush, are Sunni Muslim, and speak a Caucasian language.
  • 24. An empire's fraying edge • The creeping destabilization of the north Caucasus, and what it means for the future of Russia • Initial Russian Deployment into Chechnya
  • 25. Mohamad Fikri Azman The Struggling of Chechen: Nationalism & terrorism
  • 26. Status of Chechnya • Russia government have claim that the conflict as a struggle against banditry and terrorism. • The Chechens, meanwhile, refer to their war as a “struggle for national and political liberation” and an Islamic holy war, or jihad.
  • 27. War to War • From Chechen War to Chechen War II there are treaty between Russia federation and Chechen. • First war (1994-1996) - 1997 Peace Treaty. • However, the treaty only last short time – they continued second war at 1999.
  • 28. Conflict to Conflict • Killing, assassination, bombing continued to happen like there's was no solutions. • Both (Russia & Chechen) use legitimation towards another. • Assassination of Chechen president
  • 29. Struggling never ends • After 9/11 World Trade Centre Tragedy – US try to alienated with Russia to proceed their “War against terrorist”. • Legitimize action- US vs Afghanistan Russia vs Chechen • Islamophobia - Islam/ muslim is TERRORIST • Chechen fighters change their offensive style. - from Guerrilla style to terrorist like style.
  • 30. Conclusion • To solve this kind of problem, Russian Government need to let Chechnya get independent. • The Russian citizen in Moscow scared if the same situation happen to them where the group of Chechen take the normal people to become hostage and demand for Chechnya independent.

×