How to generate clinical evidence ---muhammad saaiq

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How to generate clinical evidence ---muhammad saaiq

  1. 1. CLINICAL EVIDENCE: WHY AND HOW TO GENERATE IT Muhammad Saaiq, Department of Medical Education, PIMS, Islamabad.
  2. 2. What Constitutes Evidence and Evidence based medicine (EBM)
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Evidence 1 a Evidence obtained from Meta analysis of RCTs. 1 b Evidence obtained from at least one individual RCT. 1 c Evidence obtained from all on none case-series. 2 a Evidence obtained from Systematic Review of Cohort studies. 2 b Evidence obtained from a single cohort or a poor RCT. 2 c Outcomes research ecological studies. 3 a Systematic Review of Case controlled studies. 3 b Individual case controlled study. 4 Case series. ( including poor quality cohorts and case controls) 5 Evidence obtained from expert committee reports or opinions and / or clinical experiences of respected authorities without explicit critical appraisal.
  4. 4. SR CAT CAP
  5. 5. Paradigm Shift
  6. 6. Clinical Research Observational Experimental
  7. 7. Clinical Research Observational Experimental Case Series Controlled Trials Cross Sectional Non-Controlled Trials Case Controls Cohorts
  8. 8. Case Series Studies
  9. 9. Cross Sectional Studies
  10. 10. Cohorts and Case Control Studies
  11. 11. Clinical Trials/ Experimental Research
  12. 12. Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis
  13. 13. No Research Without “Search”
  14. 14. CONCLUSION & MESSAGE
  15. 15. Thank You

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