Made from lime,sand and serabut.
Lime from limestone was burned to the
temperature of 9000 C to 12000 C.
Lime that made from the first process is
called calcium oxide(quick line),which power
to absorb water strongly.
Thus,this lime can not be directly used for
It is easy to make and cheap.
The raw material used is cement and sand.
The cement used for this work is portland
cement and white cement is sometimes used for
River sand used to make plaster ceiling must be
smaller sized than the river sand used to make
plaster walls and plaster floors.
Sand and water used for mortar must be clean
and not contained other materials and chemicals.
For cement mortar,sometimes lime is added to
facilitate plastering work.
The ratio of the mortar used to make plaster
ceiling is 1:2.
This type of plaster are made from cement
It produced by grumbling using rough
cast‟,which a type of hand tool.
The surface is rough which suitable for the
ceiling surface of the external side of the
In order to make this plaster,cement and
sand used was 1:4.
This plaster is made from a mixture of lime
It is found in layer form.
This layer is usually huge in size which make
it suitable for any ceiling situation.
It have good sound insulation and air proof
but tend to broken or crack.
Ceiling finishes is made of wood strip size
Most of the wood used is grade C wood which
is arranged in a longitudinal ways.
The wood strips is arranged at a distance of
13mm depending on the situation.
This finishing usually used for verandah and
Soft board is a piece of chips or other
materials called “lignocellulose” that glued
with a synthetic resin or organic adhesive.
This product also know as a chip board or
board of flax(papan rami).
Softboard is manufactured in a pieces
form(kepingan)of one layer or more.
One layer of board form have high density
than board contains more layers.
Its length is 1.8m,2.4m,2.7m and 3.0 and the
width is 600mm,900mm and 1.2m
Softboard is widely used in furniture
manufacturing such as cadinet, cupboard
and speaker box.
In housing industry, softboard is used for
ceiling, wall partition and panelling.
Softboard have high strength and weight
ratio, dowel and screw characteristic, smooth
surface and easily painted.
It can also changed a noise to a low frequency
Disadvantages of soft board is that it is easily
Made from thin pieces of wood known as
Always used an odd number of layers and the
number of layers is varies according to
thickness of plywood sheets to be produced.
Each layer may consist of one or two
„vinir‟.These layers is glued to each other.
The opposite direction of the grain givens a
high strength of plywood .(Arah ira yang
bertentangan memberikan papan lapis
kekutan yang tinggi).
Types of wood used to make plywood is lime,
keruing, mengkulang, meranti and mersawa.
Other forign wood species used for making
plywood are doughlas fir from canada and
brich from finland
These are TWO types of plywood which are
external types and interior types.
These types of plywood is based on the moisture resistance
which are external plywood is more good moisture resistanse
compared to the internal plywood.
Are made from high grade timber and glued with waterproof glue.
Is suitable used for moisture content not more than 18% and the
structure that not
exposed to the weather, otherwise EXTERNAL
PLYWOOD will be used.
The advantages and disadvantages of wooden
ceiling are following:
Advantages of wooden ceiling:
It provides decorative and artistic look to a room.
Provides better insulation.
It is popular and offer a warm feeling to any
It is stylish in design.
Disadvantages of wooden ceiling:
Its very expensive.
It is more prone to termite attack.
It has weak physical structure.
It is difficult to clean properly.
Hanging type metal