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A Role of Social Media

A Role of Social Media

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Communication and role of social media in pakistan's election 2013 Document Transcript

  • 1. Hamdard Institute of Management and SciencesPrinciples of Management(Final Term Report)“Communication is the fundamental management skill.Discuss the role of social media in the 2013 election inPakistan”Submitted to: Prepared by:Dr. Tariq Uz Zafar M. Assad Fahim Khan (313001)(MBA-1)
  • 2. What is CommunicationCommunication (from Latin "communis", meaning to share) is the activity of conveyinginformation through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals,signals, writing, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or agroup of person.One definition of communication is “any act by which one person gives to or receives fromanother person information about that persons needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, oraffective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventionalor unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur throughspoken or other modes.”Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver doesnt haveto be present or aware of the senders intent to communicate at the time of communication; thuscommunication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires thatthe communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communicationprocess is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.Human communicationHuman spoken and pictoral languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimesknown as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word"language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occursmost intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages usepatterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.Languages seem to share certain properties although many of these include exceptions. There isno defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto,programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted tothe properties shared by human languages. Communication is the flow or exchange ofinformation within people or a group of people.A variety of verbal and non-verbal means of communicating exists such as body language, eyecontact, sign language, haptic communication, chronemics, and media such as pictures, graphics,sound, and writing.Manipulative Communications was studied and reported by Bryenton in 2011. These areintentional and unintentional ways of manipulating words, gestures, etc. to "get what we want",by demeaning, discounting, attacking or ignoring instead of respectful interaction. Sarcasm,criticism, rudeness and swearing are examples.Nonverbal communicationNonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-wordmessages. Research shows that the majority of our communication is non verbal, also known as
  • 3. body language. In fact, 63-93% of communication is non-verbal.[citation needed]Some of non verbalcommunication includes chronemics, haptics, gesture, body language or posture; facialexpression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture,symbols, info graphics, and tone of voice as well as through an aggregate of the above.Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as para language. These include voice lessonquality, emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation andstress. Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatialarrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorialform.Written communication and its historical developmentOver time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuingprogression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and mediapsychology; an emerging field of study. Researchers divide the progression of writtencommunication into three revolutionary stages called "Information CommunicationRevolutions". During the first stage, written communication first emerged through the use ofpictographs. The pictogram were made in stone, hence written communication was not yetmobile.During the second stage, writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc. CommonThe third stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves andelectronic signals.Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt tocreate shared understanding. This process, which requires a vast repertoire of skills ininterpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, gestures, andevaluating enables collaboration and cooperation.Misunderstandings can be anticipated and solved through formulations, questions and answers,paraphrasing, examples, and stories of strategic talk. Written communication can be clarified byplanning follow-up talks on critical written communication as part of the every-day way of doingbusiness. A few minutes spent talking in the present will save valuable time later by avoidingmisunderstandings in advance. A frequent method for this purpose is reiterating what one heardin ones own words and asking the other person if that really was what was meant.Effective communicationEffective communication occurs when a desired effect is the result of intentional or unintentionalinformation sharing, which is interpreted between multiple entities and acted on in a desired way.This effect also ensures the message is not distorted during the communication process. Effectivecommunication should generate the desired effect and maintain the effect, with the potential toincrease the effect of the message. Therefore, effective communication serves the purpose forwhich it was planned or designed. Possible purposes might be to elicit change, generate action,
  • 4. create understanding, inform or communicate a certain idea or point of view. When the desiredeffect is not achieved, factors such as barriers to communication are explored, with the intentionbeing to discover how the communication has been ineffective.Communication ProcessHow to Improve Your Relationships With EffectiveCommunication Skills??Conflict in a relationship is virtually inevitable. In itself, conflict isn’t a problem; how it’shandled, however, can bring people together or tear them apart. Poor communication skills,disagreements and misunderstandings can be a source of anger and distance, or a springboard toa stronger relationship and happier future. Next time you’re dealing with conflict, keep these tipson effective communication skills in mind and you can create a more positive outcome.Heres How:1. Stay Focused: Sometimes it’s tempting to bring up past seemingly related conflicts whendealing with current ones. Unfortunately, this often clouds the issue and makes findingmutual understanding and a solution to the current issue less likely, and makes the wholediscussion more taxing and even confusing. Try not to bring up past hurts or other topics.Stay focused on the present, your feelings, understanding one another and finding asolution.
  • 5. 2. Listen Carefully: People often think they’re listening, but are really thinking about whatthey’re going to say next when the other person stops talking. Truly effectivecommunication goes both ways. While it might be difficult, try really listening to whatyour partner is saying. Don’t interrupt. Don’t get defensive. Just hear them and reflectback what they’re saying so they know you’ve heard. Then you’ll understand them betterand they’ll be more willing to listen to you.3. Try To See Their Point of View: In a conflict, most of us primarily want to feel heardand understood. We talk a lot about our point of view to get the other person to see thingsour way. Ironically, if we all do this all the time, there’s little focus on the other person’spoint of view, and nobody feels understood. Try to really see the other side, and then youcan better explain yours. (If you dont get it, ask more questions until you do.) Otherswill more likely be willing to listen if they feel heard.4. Respond to Criticism with Empathy: When someone comes at you with criticism, it’seasy to feel that they’re wrong, and get defensive. While criticism is hard to hear, andoften exaggerated or colored by the other person’s emotions, it’s important to listen forthe other person’s pain and respond with empathy for their feelings. Also, look for what’strue in what they’re saying; that can be valuable information for you.5. Own What’s Yours: Realize that personal responsibility is a strength, not a weakness.Effective communication involves admitting when you’re wrong. If you both share someresponsibility in a conflict (which is usually the case), look for and admit to what’s yours.It diffuses the situation, sets a good example, and shows maturity. It also often inspiresthe other person to respond in kind, leading you both closer to mutual understanding anda solution.6. Use “I” Messages: Rather than saying things like, “You really messed up here,” beginstatements with “I”, and make them about yourself and your feelings, like, “I feelfrustrated when this happens.” It’s less accusatory, sparks less defensiveness, and helpsthe other person understand your point of view rather than feeling attacked.7. Look for Compromise Instead of trying to ‘win’ the argument, look for solutions thatmeet everybody’s needs. Either through compromise, or a new solution that gives youboth what you want most, this focus is much more effective than one person getting whatthey want at the other’s expense. Healthy communication involves finding a resolutionthat both sides can be happy with.8. Take a Time-Out: Sometimes tempers get heated and it’s just too difficult to continue adiscussion without it becoming an argument or a fight. If you feel yourself or yourpartner starting to get too angry to be constructive, or showing some destructivecommunication patterns, it’s okay to take a break from the discussion until you both cooloff. Sometimes good communication means knowing when to take a break.9. Don’t Give Up: While taking a break from the discussion is sometimes a good idea,always come back to it. If you both approach the situation with a constructive attitude,mutual respect, and a willingness to see the other’s point of view or at least find asolution, you can make progress toward the goal of a resolution to the conflict. Unless it’stime to give up on the relationship, don’t give up on communication.10. Ask For Help If You Need It: If one or both of you has trouble staying respectful duringconflict, or if you’ve tried resolving conflict with your partner on your own and thesituation just doesn’t seem to be improving, you might benefit from a few sessions with atherapist. Couples counseling or family therapy can provide help with altercations and
  • 6. teach skills to resolve future conflict. If your partner doesn’t want to go, you can stilloften benefit from going alone.The Impact of Effective Communication in BusinessIn effective communication, a message that is distributed is understood by the recipient in theway that it was originally intended. This type of communication is vitally important to thesuccess of any business. When employees of a business stop communicating with one another, itcan lead to internal problems that may never be resolved. It is also critically important tocommunicate with business partners and suppliers.Miscommunicationo Miscommunication is one of the most common issues that businesses have. If youcan avoid miscommunication, your business activities will be much moreeffective. Miscommunication often occurs between different levels ofmanagement in a company. For example, if a member of senior managementissues a memo, it can sometimes be misinterpreted by other employees in thecompany. To prevent miscommunication, it is important to think about what youare saying and how other parties could interpret it. For example, after writing amemo, read it out loud so that you can slow down and think about what otherswill hear when they read it.Benefitso One of the benefits of effective business communication is that it can keeprelationships strong. When you rely on suppliers or business partners as part ofthe success for your business, you need to maintain a constant level ofcommunication. When you communicate effectively, you can avoid employees,clients and vendors making invalid assumptions that could harm your business.Another benefit of effective communication is that it can save time. Instead ofhaving to clarify everything, you can move on after receiving or issuing orders.Time Frameo When trying to improve communication within your business, it may take sometime to develop a system that works. Not all employees automatically know howto communicate with one another effectively. You may need to devote someresources to training seminars or classes to teach everyone how to communicatewell with each other. Once you institute policies and procedures, the process ofeffective communication will become easier.
  • 7. Eliminate Jargono When trying to communicate well with other members of a business, it isimportant to eliminate technical terms and jargon as much as possible. Manypeople get in the habit of trying to use large words and sound official whenmaking memos or other office communications. By eliminating this practice andwriting in the same way that you talk, you can communicate much moreeffectively with one another.Save Moneyo When you practice effective communication, it can also save your business alarge amount of money. In many cases, companies end up spending more becausethey did not communicate effectively the first time. For example, the marketingdepartment in a business might determine that they need a scanner and simplyorder one. Later they find out that the IT department had a scanner sitting unusedin a storage closet. If the two departments had communicated effectively, it couldhave saved the business some money.The Effects of Good Communication Skills for WritingPracticing good communication skills, such as clearly stated ideas and explanations, createspowerful writing. Writing appears sloppy when the author pens thoughts, accounts orexplanations vaguely. An essay, report, business proposal or novel that shows a writers strongcommunication builds trust between the author and the reader, and demands attention.Expositiono Expository writing explains a subject or topic. Strong proposals, letters, collegeessays, non-fiction and historical novels explain a subject, or proposition, in clear,unambiguous terms. Communicating a point of view in the piece of writing --without creating a biased stance -- helps an audience read the writing asexpository, not cajoling. Practicing clear explanations orally helps a writer applywell thought-out and streamline thinking into her work.Persuasiveo If you identify your point of view early on in a paper or proposal, readersunderstand your writing goal. For instance, if a writer states clearly in a filmproposal that the movie she wants to make emotionally touches on three crucialthemes affecting society today, the reader will more likely look forward to thethemes she outlines and read on: she has the opportunity to persuade. Without aclearly identified personality to the piece, a writer loses his readers.
  • 8. Clear Sentences and Phraseso A basic rule of communication is speaking in clear, audible sentences -- the samegoes for writing. An interlocutor that finds you difficult to understand and, thus,respond to, makes communication challenging. Good communication skills inwriting, like crafting concise, informative sentences, assures readers that you areserious about relaying information. For example, in a college application essay, ifyou write incomplete sentences or drift from idea to idea without finishing thethought, your reading audience loses trust in your writing, much like in aconversation with no foreseeable purpose but talking to fill the air.Personalismo Writing that communicates personally with an audience ensures readers that theyare part of the reading experience. For instance, in an essay, story or novel,include the reader by illustrating, not telling. Letting the reader imagine how acharacter responds to a situation through dialogue, or a gesture, without tellingreaders "She was sad" or "He felt happy to be alive." Instead of explaining theemotion or action, note that she averted her eyes or that he sprung from his bed,with a smile fresh on his lips.The Effects of Bad Communication in BusinessRegardless of your companys size and number of employees, good communication is essentialto productivity. Conversely, poor communication has several adverse effects, which can lead toconfusion in the workplace and lost business. Allen Websters book, "Applied Statistics forBusiness and Economics," identifies how crucial communication in the workplace is: "Withoutcommunication and the team effort it permits, the successful completion of any important projectcan be jeopardized."Decreased ProductivityHigh productivity is the goal of any business, as it is the component with which employeesaccomplish work-related tasks. Poor communication causes a breakdown in productivity. It maybe that the employer does not relate goals and duties properly, in which case the employee cantperform the task. Even if you communicate well with your employees, if they have poorcommunication among each other, productivity is affected. Having to go back over the originaltask takes away valuable time that could be devoted to other jobs.Low MoraleWhen employees receive information that is poorly communicated, or they lack the ability tocommunicate effectively themselves, they can suffer from low morale. Not understanding thetask leads to confusion, which can affect self-esteem, both of which contribute to the job eithernot being done or not being completed properly. Communication is a two-way street, meaning
  • 9. the information flows from the employer to the employee and back again. Providing anenvironment in which employees feel comfortable asking for clarification can increase employeeconfidence and communication.MistakesIf an employer has poor communication skills, chances are that the employee can misunderstandhis expected duties. Likewise, if employees lack good communication, they are less likely to askfor needed clarification or assistance. Poor communication leads to misunderstandings, whichoften leads to mistakes being made on the job. Its especially important to ensure your writtencommunication is clear as well. The written word can be just as easily misunderstood ormisconstrued as spoken directives.The Effects of Bad Communication in RelationshipsAccording to Anne Morrow Lindbergh in the "Book of Famous Quotes": "Good communicationis as stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after."A relationship needs maintenance to stay intact and both people must do their part, or badcommunication skills can be harmful.Diminished Intimacyo One of the worst punishments a person in jail can get is being put in isolation.This gives you an idea how important companionship is for human beings. Whentheres a lack of communication between a couple, a rift begins to form. Mensometimes fail to communicate their thoughts and plans to their wives becausethey feel that it takes away their independence. This causes wives to become upsetand wonder whether theres something wrong with themselves that causes theirspouse to hide things -- when, in fact, he just may be too lazy to talk.Giving the Wrong Messageo Communication doesnt just mean verbal communication. The way we speak andthe tone we use also conveys a message. If one partner is listening to the other butis not making eye contact, the other can assume that hes either not interested orholding a grudge over something in the past. Therefore, while listening, itsimportant to make eye contact and respond with either verbal or physical gesturessuch as nodding to let the other person know youre mentally there.Lack of Trusto Failure to communication can result in a lack of trust. A thing not told can laterappear to be a lie. If a wife makes plans to go out with co-workers but fails to tellher husband, he may later see her there or find out later, making an innocent thing
  • 10. look suspicious. Its best to talk to each other about your coming and goings. Evenfailure to show you care what your better half is up to can cause a lack of trust,making her wonder why youre not bothered whether shes around or not.Growing Aparto When different instances of communication failure build up, a couple start togrow apart. They begin to misunderstand each other, each with a false idea intheir minds about what the other is thinking. This leads to mistrust, lack ofintimacy and resentment for each other. Over time, if they dont talk out theirproblems, it can cause a couple to either blow up at each other in a fight orbecome so distanced that they no longer have any feelings of love or anger, justnumbness.History of Media in PakistanPrint is the oldest media of mass communication. Newspapers can reach greater massesof public. They allow readers to control exposure. This not only gives us the facts about an eventor issue but also explains and interprets them. In 1947, Pakistan inherited a weak press with verylittle law for controlling and regulating the pres. Very few news [après were published in thenewly born Pakistan. In East Pakistan and Baluchistan not a single newspaper waspublished. The NWFP had two daily papers. Newspapers owned by Muslims cameto Pakistan. These include Daily Azad and morning news (shifted to Dhaka), Dawn, jang andanjam (set up in Karachi)After independence, a number of newspapers were published but due tofinancial constraint and many other reasons, their publication did not continue i.e. Roshni,inqallqb, musalman. English press was not so healthy at the time ofindependence due to educational under development. Not a single daily newspapercould be published from the area of East Pakistan from 1947 till 1971.The first news agency ofPakistan was associated press of Pakistan (APP). It was established in 1947by an Eastern newstrust. It was a private agency from 1947 to 1961. Government took over its control on 5thJune 1961 by an ordinance called “Associated Press of Pakistan taking ordinance 1961”Otherthan APP, there are six more news agencies: Pakistan Press International(1968),Pakistan AgencyImportance of Media In Pakistan Media and Judiciary are two independent pillars to save the country fromsudden s l i p p a g e . J u d i c i a r y p u t d o w n n u m b e r o f g o o d d e c i s i o n si n h e r l i t t l e a g e o f independence which is only one year. Whereas mediais older then judiciary and it shows no positive alterations in peoples attitudetowards the ridiculous change.
  • 11.  Hence we can say that in Pakistan the responsibility of media is much more then anymedia in the world, because Pakistan needs a big change and only media is now, as muchpowerful. At present media is the only source which is easily accessible by all walks ofpeople through various electronic appliances i.e. TV, Radio,Internet, News Papers and now mobile phones also used by people to aware of eventsevery time . Media affects peoples perceptions and priorities their thinking about thepolitical contents . Media shapes the publics behavior about the issues and plays vitalrole in highlighting certain attributes of issues. Gatekeepers of the media i.e. (editors, news editors, and other journalists)they all play central role in shaping the media agenda which becomes publicagenda after sometime. Media of any country is reflection of that country. It shows that how personbehave and live in their country. The way of expressing news, way of talking ofpoliticians in political debates and discussion programs shows the behavior ofpeople of that country. Although medias responsibility is to spread true stories butmedia should be careful in this regard. They have to adopt such a way in which theycould aware public without impacting negatively their mind sets and makethem able to protest in a true manner which could result oriented.What is Social media??Social media refers to the means of interactions among people in which they create, share, andexchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks.[1]Andreas Kaplan andMichael Haenlein define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on theideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchangeof user-generated content."[2]Furthermore, social media depends on mobile and web-basedtechnologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communitiesshare, co-create , discuss, and modify user-generated content. It introduces substantial andpervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities and individuals.Social media differentiates from traditional/industrial media in many aspects such asquality,reach, frequency, usability, immediacy and permanence. There are many effects that stemfrom internet usage. According to Nielsen, internet users continue to spend more time with socialmedia sites than any other type of site. At the same time, the total time spent on social media inthe U.S. across PC and mobile devices increased by 37 percent to 121 billion minutes in July2012 compared to 88 billion minutes in July 2011. For content contributors, the benefits ofparticipating in social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to building reputation andbringing in career opportunities and monetary income, as discussed in Tang, Gu, and Whinston(2012).
  • 12. Much of the criticism of social media are about its exclusiveness as most sites do not allow thetransfer of information from one to another, disparity of information available, issues withtrustworthiness and reliability of information presented, concentration, ownership of mediacontent, and the meaning of interactions created by social media. However, it is also argued thatsocial media has positive effects such as allowing the democratization of the internet while alsoallowing individuals to advertise themselves and form friendships.Most people associate social media with positive outcomes, yet this is not always the case. Dueto the increase in social media websites, there seems to be a positive correlation between theusage of such media with cyber bullying, online sexual predators and the decrease in face-to-faceinteractions. Social media may expose children to images of alcohol, tobacco, and sexualbehaviors.The Importance of Social MediaIn a society where communication is constantly propelled by the newest and best socialnetworking website, it can seem impossible to find the value in the type of interactions promotedby Facebook and Twitter.Sure, everyone uses Facebook to keep in touch with his or her friends, but should legitimatejournalistic sources use Facebook to communicate with a new generation of readers?Can anything meaningful be communicated in the confined space of Twitters 140 characters?There was a point when my skepticism kept me from seeing beyond the petty superficiality thesesites are prone to promote.At the time of writing this, #ThingsLongerThanKimsMarriage was trending worldwide onTwitter, so its difficult to argue the site is the perfect defender of all noble causes.I originally joined Twitter to follow the whereabouts of my favorite redhead Conan OBrien afterhe left the air on NBC. I was entertained by his pithy statements and decided to fully dive intothe Twitter-sphere, following celebrities, tabloid gossip magazines and a few of my friends fromhome.Most of the time I was searching for mindless entertainment but at the same time I also wantedsomething a little more high-minded. I began to follow my local newspapers and TV stations. Istarted to follow CNN, The Economist and Politico and got breaking news alerts on thingshappening around the world.I was surprised to find out how much I didnt know, but I was relieved to have a source thatwould organize the myriad of important world events in a way that made sense to me. I could sitat a table in the dining hall with nothing but my phone and actually learn something.My personal knowledge gain, however, is trivial in comparison to some of the vast movementsthat have gained traction on the web and subsequently caused real change in the world.One of the most important revolutions in the world occurred during the Arab Spring uprisingsvia social networking. It is difficult to say how much social networking actually contributed tothe organization of citizens, but one thing is for sure: Twitter, Facebook and YouTube drewglobal attention to the struggle of individuals in autocratic regimes.These sites served as outlets for citizens to detail injustices occurring under various leaders.These injustices may have gone unreported otherwise.
  • 13. Thats not to say the media do a poor job of investigating these nations. The problem is that thereis very little access to information and national media outlets in these nations, which are oftencontrolled by the authoritarian figures.Twitter and Facebook allowed individuals to tell their story with no filter. YouTube served as away for them to record their protests and draw attention to their cause.They started a movement that changed the world and it was possible in part because of access tosocial media sites.Any reflection of social media would be incomplete without acknowledging how much it haschanged journalism.Social media has the power to democratize news coverage. The masses of people who useFacebook and Twitter create conversations that make the news. They are able to write aboutwhat they think is important and the changes they wish to see.Social media is also changing the way traditional news sources distribute their information.Many have argued that posting an article on the web inherently decreases its value. The piecethen becomes part of a trend rather than part of a smart and informed society.Transferring news from print newspapers to the web can also be dangerous for the future of thenewspaper business. Income for a traditional newspaper has plummeted leading to fewerresources.Moving journalism to the web, however, is not entirely negative. In fact, moving stories to amore open space like Twitter means interesting stories will be read more often than they wouldhave if they were buried deep in the middle of a newspaper.Online media have the ability to illustrate points in a way print journalism cannot. The web cancreate a virtual space in which every element of a story combines to give audiences a nuancedview of a story.Photo galleries combine information and images, supplementing a traditional article. Videosfrom important events are never seen in full length on television, but can be viewed in whole onthe web for everyone willing to search.Blogs are an entirely different beast. They create specialized forums for people looking forinformation about one distinct subject. Because they are so specified, they are able to write aboutall the relevant news in topics that dont usually get coverage in mainstream media.Electronic media also give journalists the ability to spread important information that might nothave enough details to fill out a traditional newspaper article. Instead of holding this informationuntil there is enough to fill a larger article or casting it aside as unusable, the Internet has becomea place where these small stories can live.The opportunity to provide users with information on breaking news when it happens is anunbelievable feat for journalism. Internet users have the ability to engage the public at themoment of importance rather than waiting till the newspaper is printed.Its incredibly difficult to predict the future of social media and journalism, but one thing iscertain — they will remain linked for the foreseeable future.Role of Social Media in PakistanMedia is a means of communication and media through web and mobile based technologieswhich are used to convert this communication into a form of dialogue among communities,organizations and individuals is known as Social media. Social media technologies take on many
  • 14. different forms including magazines, Internet forums, weblogs, social blogs, micro bloggingwikis, social networks, pod-casts photographs or pictures, video, rating and social bookmarking.Social media is strongly influencing Pakistan’s international relations. Anybody with a basicknowledge of internet and other media tools can reach out and interact with the global audiencesany time. Social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Orkut have taken over the worldby storm. Marketers in Pakistan want to tap into these technologies to gain advantages. Socialnetworks act as a customer relationship management (CRM) tool for various companies andbrands. To get into this business creativity is the key here. If you have got something far moreexciting and creative then it will help you spread your brand name and publicize it.Social media has provided a wide platform for the exchange of opinions between individuals anddifferent communities from one corner of the world to another. The exchange of views andopinions is more convenient than ever before and due to this the world has become a globalvillage having no cultural boundaries. The usual Social media optimization (SMO) methodsinclude distributing internet content widely across the social media sites and inviting the opinionand thoughts of individuals. Social media can serve as a great setback for the development ofPakistan’s industry and business worldwide. As compared to traditional media the audience canparticipate any time they wish. Users can express their views by submitting their comments tovarious forums and blogs. Hence this can contribute a lot to the popularity of a brand or businessin and outside Pakistan. To achieve business goals social marketing sites are being encouragedby the companies to promote products and influence communities by their services.
  • 15. Considering the technology and the power of social media it can shape the future of Pakistantaking it to the higher levels internationally. Social networking sites are not only limited toPakistan but these websites allows young Pakistanis to connect with young people all across theworld which helps in maintaining relationships with other countries. When utilized for businesssocial media accelerates business process and helps in generating income. It also provides ease tocustomers due to which overall the industry grows. Through this people get a chance to observeour traditional lifestyle and activities closely which helps to heal differences between Pakistanand other countries. Currently social media tools particularly networking sites such as Facebookand Twitter are being utilized extensively to build the popularity growth of the youth icon ImranKhan and his political party, Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf. Social media empowers youngsters andensures socio-political transformation in our country. If the content of social networking sites isused in the proper way then through social media Pakistan can flourish to new level of heights.The role of social media in changing future of PakistanSome inventions are so immense in their effect that they cast their shadow over the whole fabricof society, making escape inconceivable for any segment rather all units of society have toreorient themselves to make living under the new umbrella.Social media has spun the social life at 360 degree so subtly that it has integrated to people’sliving rooms, bedrooms and even bathrooms – countless display pictures taken in front of thebathroom mirrors demonstrate the obsession induced by this medium.Presence of social media is not as vibrant in Pakistan as it is in those countries where Internet is acommon utility but its merger with cellular services made it possible to the people living even inthe remotest areas to access social networking sites.One does not need to be a sociologist, anthropologists or psychologists to surmise the effects ofan excessively-used commodity – whether negative or positive.There are certainly trail blazers who set the tone for others but once the path is shown, there is noway back. Social networks were initially launched to help people get interacted and stayconnected but they have. After getting friends, got into relationships, following their favouritecelebrities or playing games with people sitting poles apart, users seek more. They are longingfor identity, reform, change, prosperity, popularity, promotion and fame and social networks canmake this happen for them.The glaring precedence of using social media to activate a movement was seen at the turn of2011 when Wael Ghonim, a computer engineer, engineered protests via his Facebook page, kick-starting the demise of decades-long regime of usurper Hosni Mubarak. He called for peoplethrough his page to protest against the dictator. The protest turned out to be too spirited to becontrolled by Mubarak and caused his downfall. The TIMES magazine hounded Ghonim byplacing him at the top of its 100 most influential people of the year.Pakistan has an estimated population of 180 million out of which 50 per cent is below 20 and 60per cent is below 30. So evidently the country is relying on its youth to excel in economy,bringing stability and surfacing leadership.The country is battling with problems like incapable leadership, corrupt bureaucracy andpowerful elite which wield unquestionable authority. The influential people do whatever theywant.But the social media is breaking these trends by offering a platform to the people to challenge the
  • 16. forces of status quo and their authority. The case of Shahzeb Khan can be taken as the casestudy.Twenty-year-old Shahzeb Khan, from Karachi, was allegedly shot dead by two boys from feudalfamilies on December 25 but police were reluctant to register a case against the nominatedperpetrators.The people took this injustice to micro blogging site, Twitter, and expressed their discontentagainst the system that shelters big fish and tramples less powerful. The tweeters demanded thechief justice of Pakistan take suo moto action against the killers.Raising voice through the social media, protesters refused to give up to the discriminatorysystem and their stated goal was to keep on protesting with such a vehement on the social mediathat news media and authorities would be forced to take notice and they successfully did it.The protest got viral soon and the news media had to play up the issue. The CJP responded totheir defiance by calling up the Sindh police IG and ordered the authorities to arrest the killers in24 hours and seize their family assets.The social media can be a catalyst in elimination of a discriminatory, unjust system andunquestionable authority of the ruling elite, prompting people to seek political transformation. Inanother social media campaign few weeks back, host of TV actors and producers voiced againstthe invasion of Turkish soaps on Pakistani channels and they launched their crusade viaYouTube and Facebook, urging users through a video message to support their cause.Advertisement, campaigning, promotion and moulding or forming public opinion is all aboutcommunication and inducing one’s message into the minds of recipients. While watching TV,reading newspaper and Internet surfing, the ads we encounter are imposed on us whether wewant them or not.Contrarily, on the social media no video or other sort of message can grab our focus unless wewant it, thus gratifying our thrust for desired content instead of receiving unwanted message.Outreach of social media cannot be denied in the currents age and its spectrum is sprawling overevery realm of life including the most common, important and human aspect of individual aswell as social life, like politics, economy, justice, entertainment and relationships – all gettingintegrated with the social media.Politicians will be overlooked and overshadowed, if they do not come on the common platformto get connected with their electorates. Even naive business houses will not be in position toignore the vitality of the social media that is rendering the biggest springboard to disseminatetheir message. Celebrities’ will be gauged with the volume of Likes on their Facebook pages,followers on Tweeter and stardom will descend on those who will have maximum hits onYouTube. On individual level, the social media inculcated a sense of being important to theconsumers. One can have indefinite admirers for his passion that otherwise was concealed orstruck in a dead alley.It gives excitement of knowing round-the-clock updates about the people we admire, adore, love,care for and follow.It can be summarized that the social media will be the stage on which all actors will have toperform, sooner or later, to build the image for themselves of a vigilant and active component ofsociety.
  • 17. Social Media And Politics In PakistanReff: By uElect Staff / 3 March 2012New communication technologies—especially social media via the Internet— have becomeimportant resources for the mobilization of collective action and the subsequent creation,organization, and implementation of social movements around the world. The development ofsocial media created opportunities for Web-fueled social movements, or cyber activism, tochange the landscape of collective action. Cyber activism is a growing field of scholarly inquiry,though it is not yet well understood, and it is largely lacking a clear, cohesive direction.In addition to supporting political and social movements in more conventional ways—byproviding opportunities for political expression, symbolic identification for collective actors, andinformation exchange—new communication technologies may serve a novel instrumentalfunction.There is little doubt that social media played a significant role in the revolutions that have struckthe Arab world since late December 2010. In the case of Egypt, activists had been engaged since2009 in online discussions and debates on sociopolitical conditions, which eventually developedinto a full-force revolution. What these activists were doing—in terms of debating, organizing,and planning—is not new in itself, but the means employed to communicate with each other andexecute the revolution represents an important new resource for collective action. Social mediaintroduced a novel resource that provided swiftness in receiving and disseminating information;helped to build and strengthen ties among activists; and increased interaction among protestersand between protesters and the rest of the world. Information about the events that led to theprotests was spread largely through social media technologies, and the encouragement andsympathy offered via social media channels inspired and boosted Egyptian protesters, who werelinked not only to each other, but also to Tunisian protesters, Egyptians abroad, and the outsideworld.If one opts for a research I am sure the words CHANGE, REVOLUTION, YOUTH andSOCIAL MEDIA would be beyond any doubt the frequently exploited ones in the politicalrhetoric and contemporary media in both print and electronic versions in Pakistan. So it isnothing but the E-form of what has been happening all around the world. The uprising in theArab World, Twitter Revolution of Iran and the Occupy Wall Street are examples of the majormovements that were floated as an idea on the social media outlets, discussed, criticized,promoted and then implemented as full-fledged movements where some ended up with expectedoutcomes and others failed. But the most important point that is to be noted is the use of socialmedia in an objective way can bring desired outcomes.Following these trends in cyber activism a group of IT professionals and Researchers inGovernance, Public Policy and Development sector have developed a project of E-governancenamed as uElect Pakistan. It is an endeavor to use Information and Communication Technology(ICT) for the exchange of communication between citizens in individual capacity as well as inorganized social and political associations like political parties, civil society, communities etc.
  • 18. As electoral process is the only key to a substantial and righteous change in Pakistan, uElectPakistan attempts to play a vital role in enhancing the importance of this whole process under theprinciples of good governance with the use of best possibly available modern technology.uElect Pakistan is meant to work in three phases. First and the most important phase has alreadybegun. This is the pre-election phase where a number of political parties with different agendumare already in the ground to contest for the upcoming elections. uElect Pakistan will get thefuture agenda of these parties through the rally speeches, press-releases and news reports fromPakistani media and make it public . Being an independent body uElect will simply put forwardthe plans of the leadership of these parties categorizing it into the indicators of good governance.In brief these indicators will include Provision of Fundamental Rights, Education, Health,Justice, Religious Freedom, Tolerance, Equality,Democracy, primacy of Rule of Law,Employment, Accountability and Transparency, Rights for Women and Minorities, NationalIntegration, Grass root level development, a viable Economic and Public Policy, deferent andequivalent Foreign policy etc.The first phase will also include the dissection and critical analysis of manifestos of all thecontesting political parties in comparison with the aforementioned indicators of goodgovernance.Hence, this will pave a path for the public to make their choice in voting for that particular partywhich vows to fulfill their needs and caters their problems.The second phase of uElect is during the elections. It is to ensure the free and fair status if theelections once again through the party reports of polling , reports from media and uElectPakistan’s own reporters from all over the Country. uElect Pakistan will attempt earnestly toavoid rigging and fraudulent manipulation of polling.The third phase of uElect will be after the electoral process completes. It will initially work as areminder for the elected parties and their candidates of their promises with the public. It will holdthem accountable to the public in case of their failure in turning their vows into policies.In short uElect Pakistan is a newer form of social media that will initially work as anindependent and neutral campaign for the best parties to come forward through the electoralprocess and bring about the long desired substantial and righteous change through viable options.Later it will hold the leadership accountable to the public with a comparison of their pre-electionvows and post-election performance and policy. By creating a healthy debate among variousstakeholders, Uelect will ensure the party politics is based on policy matters and not mererhetoric and blame games. Specific technology tools and application and partnership withlikeminded individuals and organizations, Uelect will generate a broader policy paradigm andguiding principles for all political stakeholders.
  • 19. Did Social Media Play Crucial Role in 2013 Election ofPakistan?Social Media, a term, a name, you must be aware of it. We listen about Social Media almostdaily, in news, from friends, from family members. A Very important question is here, is SocialMedia going to do “something” in the Upcoming General Elections of Pakistan?Let’s see first, which form of Social Media are common here in Pakistan?Yes! Facebook is on top, and Twitter on number 2.We have to see that which Political Parties are using Social Media Officially?Almost all the Political Parties have their Official Presence on the Social Media. We will discussthese two forms of social media here, i.e Facebook and Twitter, because these are the twocommon forms of Social Media being used in Pakistan.There are words, that show you that there will be no change with Social Media in the comingelection, or Social media is not going to play any crucial role in the upcoming election, Let’shave a look; The Pakistan’s literacy rate is very low. Large chunk of Pakistani population lives in rural areas and the votes are given on thebasis or “Baradri system”. Due to low literacy rate and the people living in rural areas they don’t have access to theSocial Media. In villages again the votes will be casted on biradryism and ancestors affiliation with theparties. Social media is unable to show the menifestos of parties and is marely working on blamegame and the language which is used on social media to spread one’s agenda is sounethical and vulgar which could not bring a positive change.But in my view, Social Media is going to play a very important role in the upcoming elections.Let me give you the example of Imran Khan first!I still remember the time before Imran Khan’s Rally in Lahore, when the local media was givinglittle importance to Imran Khan’s statements, his tours etc. But the Social media team of ImranKhan was updating their voters and supporters via Social Media, and if we view PTI’s currentstats of Social Media, only of Facebook, they have around 2 Million Likes on their FacebookPages and around 0.5 Million on their Twitter profiles.So the story begins, PTI was among the pioneer Political Party, which was using Social mediamore effectively. The reason behind this was very simple, their mostly supporters were young
  • 20. and Social Media addictive. Their Social Media team was comprising of the best social mediaguys, like Dr.Awab Alvi. The Dentist, but a social media master.PTI was gaining a good response from the youth of Pakistan on their Social Media Profiles. Theykept updated their social media audience about all the recent happenings of PTI. Then ImranKhan announced a rally in Lahore, at Minar-e-Pakistan.This was the first test of Imran Khan, and he passed that with extra-ordinary grades. No one wasexpecting a huge rally like that, but We saw, that was one of the biggest rally in the history ofPakistan at Minar-e-Pakistan.Now look! Sorry to say, Traditional Media was not giving the actual coverage to Imran Khanbefore that rally, but People gathered there, and huge people, and I had seen people coming fromthe Waziristan to participate in that rally.One of the major factor behind that rally was the Social Media, yes! That was the Social Mediawho kept alive Imran Khan in news, in discussions, at different forums.You may not agree, but I think it was the Shahbaz Sharif, the Chief Minister of the Punjab, whowas in fact inspired from Imran Khan and then he launched his Twitter and FacebookProfiles(Though those profiles have also gained much popularity and he is one of the mostpopular politicians of Pakistan on Social Media)According to latest report, Facebook has achieved another milestone, and that is, it hascompleted it’s 8 Million Users in Pakistan.Now don’t you think, that these 8 Million, educated people are going to make a big difference inthe Up coming elections? I am not talking about Twitter and other Social Media forms at themoment?Don’t you think that the Political Party having more audience on their Facebook Pages is goingto be more successful?Don’t you think this is the best and Cheap way as compared to the Local Media(Which increasesit’s advertisement rates by 10X in Election Days), to spread your words in your supporters beforeor during the elections?There are daily online Polls on Social networking sites regarding the popularity of differentPolitical Leaders/Parties which give you a general Idea about the upcoming results of theElections(Though Election itself is a Final Result).PTI has taken a lead again at Social Media, by issuing their Code of Conduct of SocialMedia. Their were allegations that the PTI Supporters use abusive language on social mediaagainst all their opponents. But by Launching their Social Media Code of Conduct, they havegiven an answer in advance to all of the opponents who were going to raise their fingers in futuretowards PTI regarding Social Media Blame Game!
  • 21. In Current Scenario it seems that only the PTI, PML-N, Pervez Musharraf, these guys are seriousto use Social Media in the Up coming Elections. The sense of Social media is still in developingphase here in Pakistan. It will take time, but the future is very bright(If we don’t see a Ban onFacebook or Twitter in Coming Future – As this practice had been done in Past, in 2010.)The People Of Pakistan, Elections And The Role Of SocialMedia : 11th May 2013–A Day To RememberElections in Pakistan have never created such a hype! Former “vote kon dalay” and “choro yaar,chutti manao, sojao” statements suddenly turned into aaangootha chalao, mulk bachao andPakistan ko vote do. The birthdays and wedding days seemed less anticipated before the day of11th may.The most awaited day was welcomed with energetic and buoyant smiles that indicated optimism.These smiles portrayed profound confidence that the prosperity of Pakistan was just 9 hoursaway. Just a few hours, and there would be a change: old politicians, who had been gifting ourstate to their successors would never be seen again, and the Pakistan that every Pakistani dreamsof, will emerge.The enthusiasm was so much, that queues started assembling outside the polling stations by8am. The volunteers were shocked as never had such many people come to cast vote! Thanks tothe immense energy of the youngsters; this time, and for the first time, it was them, whomotivated everyone to vote. Creating forums, groups and campaigning on social media turnedout to be highly successful. From 90 year olds, who had literally never voted to the newly-turned 18 year olds, everyone actively participated, got out of their houses and casted vote. Thecampaign took a height when a number of reputed restaurants announced free gifts to those whowill cast vote.Election services were never this managed as they were this time. Overseas Pakistanis regrettedbeing away. They had their eyes stuck on the Pakistani channels to know the current situationand the results as soon as they were announced.The phrase “United We Stand” was truly observed today, when the students galvanized and setpeople in motion. Of course, rigging was observed at many polling stations, but hey, this time, itwas the” Pakistanis” who were in action.Posts on social media and reporting the TV reporters immediately made the higher authoritiestake action, and voting at the polling at stations like NA 250 was resumed with a new zeal. Thepassion was remarkable – the patriots went to cast vote for the second time!Sixty six years ago, people got united for their autonomy, rebelled for their freedom and rose forthe sovereignty: the struggle and unity gave us Pakistan, and today, this Pakistan will witness thehistory. This, my people, will be the independence day.
  • 22. Role of social media in election 2013By Imran Hussain - Mar 4th, 2013Pakistani Nation will get yet another chance to elect their representatives in Election 2013.In the next two months, we will see election campaign in full swing with political partiesreiterating their “change” and “inqalaab” mantra. Slogan of Change is popular even insuccessful and prosperous societies around the world. President of USA; Barack Obamawon his election on the slogan of change. Unfortunately, we have been changing the facesbut not giving the chance to those who could change the system in Pakistan. What haschanged after holding various elections in Pakistan? The current democratically electedgovernment completed it’s tenure of 5 years but not even 5 basic problems of the commonman was addressed. Why our democracy has failed to deliver when democracies in GreatBritain, USA and India have flourished.Answer is simple; we are electing wrong people for the right job. Our electronic media is toobusy in the competition of breaking news that media is losing focus on important national issuesin the much happening country. The media rightly trying not to take sides of any political partybut forgot about distinguishing the thin line between the right and wrong sides. The unbiased
  • 23. attitude of our print and electronic media has made them shy to clearly point out the honest,educated and patriotic leadership for Pakistan.. Why our media can’t boycott members ofparliament convicted of corruption charges and fake degrees ? You have to become biased in thelarger interest of Pakistan.Is this not the duty of investigative journalism to expose in public the owners of Raiwind Mehaland recently build “ Bilawal House “ in Lahore. Where the political parties led the Nation with “roti, kapra aur makaan “ , “ qarz utaro, mulk sanwaro “ or “ parha likha Punjab “ slogans andschemes ?There is debate going on about the implementation of Article 62 & 63. Analysts are questioningthat which institution will have the authority to decide about the honesty of the candidate or he/she has not been convicted for a crime involving moral turpitude or for giving false evidence. Iagree that no institution can do this except the institution comprised of 180 million people “Nation of Pakistan “. People are the best judge to scrutinize the candidates of theirconstituencies. These candidates are living in our cities and towns and we can easily judge withtheir background, life style, history of changing loyalties and contribution towards the societythat how sincere they are with the oppressed class.We might not compete with the advancements in the 21stcentury but we cannot deny that we areliving in the 21stcentury. If we see the world from the Pakistani angle, we realize that rest of theworld invented some kind of time machine which carried them to the world of future. We did notbuy the tickets of this time machine and now our Nation is stranded in the 19thcentury with nopower, gas, education, economic growth and employment. Or should I say that when the rest ofthe world was planning to invent the machine to conquer the world, we were selling its tickets inblack.We have to stand up and start our national struggle to meet the objectives and goals of Pakistanisociety. The recent revolution in Middle East called “Arab Spring “ is the success model for ourNation. Social Media played vital and decisive role in spreading the message of revolutionaround the Middle East. The power of social media was witnessed by the world when massivecampaigns were run on Twitter, FaceBook and You Tube.The revolutionaries from Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Yemen and Bahrain decided to use the moderntools of cyber world to demolish the inhumane tools being used by the oppressors. The selfimmolation of Mohamed Bouazizi was the event which started this fire in Tunisia and thenorganized campaigns on social media ignited the flames of revolution in the Middle East. It wasa highly organized campaign on social media which gathered millions of people in thesecountries who were ready to topple their corrupt governments.We do not want to bring revolution with the power of bullet in Pakistan but we want to seepeaceful revolution which would be durable and sustainable for the country. In upcomingelections, we could use the power of ballot to bring this revolution. The youth of Pakistan coulduse social media to educate and provide awareness to the common people of their right to vote.They could expose the cruel faces of our feudal lords, industrialists, religious extremists andcorrupt ruling elite.
  • 24. Our youth has to understand that now we don’t have any excuse on how to spread the ideologyand philosophy of truth after the vibrant presence of social media. Newspapers and TV channelsmight not give us the space and time to educate the people but social media is giving us equaland fair opportunity to spread the message of revolution. We have the freedom of speech now inPakistan through social media which allows us to address our domestic and internationalaudience at the same time.Educated, honest and Middle class leadership is the need of our domestic audience forprogressive and prosper Pakistan where as the same phenomenon would make the region stableand peaceful for international stake holders.ConclusionElections 2013 are over and result are coming in butwhat many people are forgetting about is the role ofsocial media in the elections. Although the social mediahas not affected the result of the elections but it hasdefinitely helped people understand their national. Theturnaround of the voters reached around 63% whichwithout social media wouldn’t be possible.Political parties, activists and general public used socialnetworks such as Facebook and Twitter to encourageeach other and convince people to come out on May 11and cast their votes. By many political workers,journalists and lobbies the election has not been muchfree and fair compared to other areas of the country butsocial media played it part. Even now the social media isnow proving to be a platform to collect evidences.What is conclusive here is that the social media cannot change the result of the election but itdefinitely has the potential to change the mindset of people and bring an action to place.