On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
By continuing to use LinkedIn’s SlideShare service, you agree to the revised terms, so please take a few minutes to review them.
Later on biological warfare began investigating defoliants based upon Galston's discoveries eventually producing the controversial toxic defoliant Agent Orange.
Concealment in dense terrain by defoliating trees and shrubbery where the enemy could hide .
Deny an enemy cover, protect troops from ambush or other undetected movement of the enemy.
Manufactures of Agent Orange (Foto source:wikimedia.org)
Agent orange used (source:wikimedia.org)
Toxicity of Agent Orange
Agent Orange and its components are toxic
2,4-D: relatively safe (LD 50 : 350 – 2000 ppm)
2,4,5-T: dangerous itself (LD 50 : 100 – 800 ppm)
TCDD: „perhaps the most toxic molecule ever synthesized by man“ (LD 50 : 0.6 – 5000 ppb)
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T: quick degradation
In atmosphere: 1 hour
On leaves: 6 – 10 hours
In leaves: bound, not available
In soil: long half-life (years), but bound to soil-surface
(Source: http://www.digitalefolien.de/biologie/pflanzen/aufbau/tnblattq1.gif ; http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/soil.jpg ) Herbicide application volatilization photodegradation Microbial decradation Wind and water movement
Effects on the environment
2 – 10 million ha (10 – 20 %)
About 43 million litres Agent Orange
Totally about 74 million litres of herbicides
(Source: Young (2009) )
Effects on the environment
Destroyed forests and mangroves
Remains in soils: relatively low, but hot-spots (up to 1000 ppb)
Accumulation in food-chain
Burning of surplus on sea
(Source: http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/media/life0803.jpg ) (Source: http://www.warlegacies.org/images/AV08agent_orange.jpg ) (Source: Young (2009) )
Dwernychuk, L. W., Hung, T. M., Boivin, T. G., Bruce, G. S., Dung, P. T., Son, L. K., Hatfield, C. T., Dung, N. T., Allan, J. A., Nhu, D. D., Thuc, P. V., Moats, D. J., Borton, L. (2006): The Agent Orange Issue in Viet Nam: A Manageable Problem. Paper presented at “Dioxin 2006”, Oslo, Norway: 1-4.
Schecter, A., Dai, L. C., Thuy, L. T., Quynh, H. T., Minh, D. Q., Cau, H.D., Phiet, P. H., Nguyen, N. T., Constable, J. D., Baughman, R. (1995): Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues. American Journal of Public Health 85: 516-522.
Schecter, A., Quynh, H. T., Pavuk, M., Päpke, O., Malisch, R., Constable, J. D. (2003): Food as a Source of Dioxine Exposure in the Residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 45: 781-788.
Stellman, J. M., Stellman, S. D., Christian, R., Weber, T., Tomasallo, C. (2003): The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam. Nature 422: 681-687.
Westing, A. H. (1971): Ecological Effects of Military Defoliation on Forests of South Vietnam. BioScience 21: 893-898.
Young, A. L., Giesy, J. P., Jones, P. D., Newton, M. (2004): Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Agent Orange and Its Associated Dioxin During the Vietnam War. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11: 359-370.
Young, A. L., (2009): The History, Use, Disposition and Environmental Fate of Agent Orange. Springer [1. edition]: 357 pages.
Thank you for paying attention! (Source: http://www.navytimes.com/xml/news/2009/05/ap_agent_orange_052909/052909_agent_orange_800.JPG )