• Save
Agent orange
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Agent orange

on

  • 1,531 views

With great respect who sent to war or who are victims due to AO.

With great respect who sent to war or who are victims due to AO.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,531
Views on SlideShare
1,531
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • 27.11.11

Agent orange Agent orange Presentation Transcript

  • Agent Orange Sandra Neubauer Saed Muhammad 18-11-2011
  • What is Agent Orange?
    • Code name of Herbicide
    • Agent Orange was a 50-50 mix of two chemicals, known conventionally as 2,4,D and 2,4,5,T.
    • Agent orange which contain high contamination of TCDD(Dioxin) produced accidently.
    • Principally effective against broad-leaf foliage, such as the dense jungle-like terrain found in Southeast Asia.
  • Molecular Composition 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- para -dioxin (Foto source:wikimedia.org)
  • Discovered
    • Arthur W. Galston
    • American botanist Galston during his Ph.d in 1943
    • focused on finding chemical means to make
    • soybeans flower and fruit earlier.
    • Later on biological warfare began investigating defoliants based upon Galston's discoveries eventually producing the controversial toxic defoliant Agent Orange.
  • Purpose
    • Concealment in dense terrain by defoliating trees and shrubbery where the enemy could hide .
    • Deny an enemy cover, protect troops from ambush or other undetected movement of the enemy.
  • Manufactures of Agent Orange (Foto source:wikimedia.org)
  • Agent orange used (source:wikimedia.org)
  • Toxicity of Agent Orange
    • Agent Orange and its components are toxic
    • 2,4-D: relatively safe (LD 50 : 350 – 2000 ppm)
    • 2,4,5-T: dangerous itself (LD 50 : 100 – 800 ppm)
    • TCDD: „perhaps the most toxic molecule ever synthesized by man“ (LD 50 : 0.6 – 5000 ppb)
  • Environmental behaviour
    • 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T: quick degradation
    • TCDD: half-life
      • In atmosphere: 1 hour
      • On leaves: 6 – 10 hours
      • In leaves: bound, not available
      • In soil: long half-life (years), but bound to soil-surface
    (Source: http://www.digitalefolien.de/biologie/pflanzen/aufbau/tnblattq1.gif ; http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/soil.jpg ) Herbicide application volatilization photodegradation Microbial decradation Wind and water movement
  • Effects on the environment
    • Sprayed:
    • 2 – 10 million ha (10 – 20 %)
    • About 43 million litres Agent Orange
    • Totally about 74 million litres of herbicides
    (Source: Young (2009) )
  • Effects on the environment
    • Related effects:
    • Damaged crops
    • Destroyed forests and mangroves
    • Diversity decreased
    • Remains in soils: relatively low, but hot-spots (up to 1000 ppb)
    • Accumulation in food-chain
    • Burning of surplus on sea
    (Source: http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/media/life0803.jpg ) (Source: http://www.warlegacies.org/images/AV08agent_orange.jpg ) (Source: Young (2009) )
  • Effects on human health
    • Exposure: during spraying + through food
    • Higher values of TCDD in blood (5 ppt <-> 2 ppt)
    •  severe health problems
        • Cleft palate
        • Skin diseases
        • Stillbirth
        • Deformed bodies
        • Mental disabilities
        • Cancer
    (Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/60/Agent-Orange-dioxin-skin-damage-Vietnam.jpg ) (Source: http://www.bv-picco.de/pics/hp01_01.jpg ) (Source: http://teetee199thlibagentorangearequiemforthemasses69.webs.com/AgentOrange.jpg )
  • References
    • Dwernychuk, L. W., Hung, T. M., Boivin, T. G., Bruce, G. S., Dung, P. T., Son, L. K., Hatfield, C. T., Dung, N. T., Allan, J. A., Nhu, D. D., Thuc, P. V., Moats, D. J., Borton, L. (2006): The Agent Orange Issue in Viet Nam: A Manageable Problem. Paper presented at “Dioxin 2006”, Oslo, Norway: 1-4.
    • Ganzel, B. (2007): The Vietnam War
    • Recalled: 14.11.2011
    • Available: http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/life_08.html
    • Gochfeld, M. (2001): Dioxin in Vietnam: The Ongoing Saga of Exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 43: 433-434.
    • Hall, W., (1989): The logic of a controversy: The case of Agent Orange in Australia. Social Sciences Medicine 29: 537-544.
    • Mammond, S.: War Legacies Project
    • Recalled: 17.11.2011
    • Available: http://www.warlegacies.org/AgentOrange.htm
    • Schecter, A., Dai, L. C., Thuy, L. T., Quynh, H. T., Minh, D. Q., Cau, H.D., Phiet, P. H., Nguyen, N. T., Constable, J. D., Baughman, R. (1995): Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues. American Journal of Public Health 85: 516-522.
    • Schecter, A., Quynh, H. T., Pavuk, M., Päpke, O., Malisch, R., Constable, J. D. (2003): Food as a Source of Dioxine Exposure in the Residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 45: 781-788.
    • Stellman, J. M., Stellman, S. D., Christian, R., Weber, T., Tomasallo, C. (2003): The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam. Nature 422: 681-687.
    • Westing, A. H. (1971): Ecological Effects of Military Defoliation on Forests of South Vietnam. BioScience 21: 893-898.
    • Young, A. L., Giesy, J. P., Jones, P. D., Newton, M. (2004): Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Agent Orange and Its Associated Dioxin During the Vietnam War. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11: 359-370.
    • Young, A. L., (2009): The History, Use, Disposition and Environmental Fate of Agent Orange. Springer [1. edition]: 357 pages.
  • Thank you for paying attention! (Source: http://www.navytimes.com/xml/news/2009/05/ap_agent_orange_052909/052909_agent_orange_800.JPG )