Agent orange


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  • 27.11.11
  • Agent orange

    1. 1. Agent Orange Sandra Neubauer Saed Muhammad 18-11-2011
    2. 2. What is Agent Orange? <ul><li>Code name of Herbicide </li></ul><ul><li>Agent Orange was a 50-50 mix of two chemicals, known conventionally as 2,4,D and 2,4,5,T. </li></ul><ul><li>Agent orange which contain high contamination of TCDD(Dioxin) produced accidently. </li></ul><ul><li>Principally effective against broad-leaf foliage, such as the dense jungle-like terrain found in Southeast Asia. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Molecular Composition 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- para -dioxin (Foto
    4. 4. Discovered <ul><li>Arthur W. Galston </li></ul><ul><li>American botanist Galston during his Ph.d in 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>focused on finding chemical means to make </li></ul><ul><li>soybeans flower and fruit earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Later on biological warfare began investigating defoliants based upon Galston's discoveries eventually producing the controversial toxic defoliant Agent Orange. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Purpose <ul><li>Concealment in dense terrain by defoliating trees and shrubbery where the enemy could hide . </li></ul><ul><li>Deny an enemy cover, protect troops from ambush or other undetected movement of the enemy. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Manufactures of Agent Orange (Foto
    7. 7. Agent orange used (
    8. 8. Toxicity of Agent Orange <ul><li>Agent Orange and its components are toxic </li></ul><ul><li>2,4-D: relatively safe (LD 50 : 350 – 2000 ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>2,4,5-T: dangerous itself (LD 50 : 100 – 800 ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>TCDD: „perhaps the most toxic molecule ever synthesized by man“ (LD 50 : 0.6 – 5000 ppb) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Environmental behaviour <ul><li>2,4-D and 2,4,5-T: quick degradation </li></ul><ul><li>TCDD: half-life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In atmosphere: 1 hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On leaves: 6 – 10 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In leaves: bound, not available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In soil: long half-life (years), but bound to soil-surface </li></ul></ul>(Source: ; ) Herbicide application volatilization photodegradation Microbial decradation Wind and water movement
    10. 10. Effects on the environment <ul><li>Sprayed: </li></ul><ul><li>2 – 10 million ha (10 – 20 %) </li></ul><ul><li>About 43 million litres Agent Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Totally about 74 million litres of herbicides </li></ul>(Source: Young (2009) )
    11. 11. Effects on the environment <ul><li>Related effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged crops </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed forests and mangroves </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity decreased </li></ul><ul><li>Remains in soils: relatively low, but hot-spots (up to 1000 ppb) </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulation in food-chain </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of surplus on sea </li></ul>(Source: ) (Source: ) (Source: Young (2009) )
    12. 12. Effects on human health <ul><li>Exposure: during spraying + through food </li></ul><ul><li>Higher values of TCDD in blood (5 ppt <-> 2 ppt) </li></ul><ul><li> severe health problems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleft palate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stillbirth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deformed bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental disabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul>(Source: ) (Source: ) (Source: )
    13. 13. References <ul><li>Dwernychuk, L. W., Hung, T. M., Boivin, T. G., Bruce, G. S., Dung, P. T., Son, L. K., Hatfield, C. T., Dung, N. T., Allan, J. A., Nhu, D. D., Thuc, P. V., Moats, D. J., Borton, L. (2006): The Agent Orange Issue in Viet Nam: A Manageable Problem. Paper presented at “Dioxin 2006”, Oslo, Norway: 1-4. </li></ul><ul><li>Ganzel, B. (2007): The Vietnam War </li></ul><ul><li>Recalled: 14.11.2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Available: </li></ul><ul><li>Gochfeld, M. (2001): Dioxin in Vietnam: The Ongoing Saga of Exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 43: 433-434. </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, W., (1989): The logic of a controversy: The case of Agent Orange in Australia. Social Sciences Medicine 29: 537-544. </li></ul><ul><li>Mammond, S.: War Legacies Project </li></ul><ul><li>Recalled: 17.11.2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Available: </li></ul><ul><li>Schecter, A., Dai, L. C., Thuy, L. T., Quynh, H. T., Minh, D. Q., Cau, H.D., Phiet, P. H., Nguyen, N. T., Constable, J. D., Baughman, R. (1995): Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues. American Journal of Public Health 85: 516-522. </li></ul><ul><li>Schecter, A., Quynh, H. T., Pavuk, M., Päpke, O., Malisch, R., Constable, J. D. (2003): Food as a Source of Dioxine Exposure in the Residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 45: 781-788. </li></ul><ul><li>Stellman, J. M., Stellman, S. D., Christian, R., Weber, T., Tomasallo, C. (2003): The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam. Nature 422: 681-687. </li></ul><ul><li>Westing, A. H. (1971): Ecological Effects of Military Defoliation on Forests of South Vietnam. BioScience 21: 893-898. </li></ul><ul><li>Young, A. L., Giesy, J. P., Jones, P. D., Newton, M. (2004): Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Agent Orange and Its Associated Dioxin During the Vietnam War. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11: 359-370. </li></ul><ul><li>Young, A. L., (2009): The History, Use, Disposition and Environmental Fate of Agent Orange. Springer [1. edition]: 357 pages. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Thank you for paying attention! (Source: )