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With great respect who sent to war or who are victims due to AO.

With great respect who sent to war or who are victims due to AO.

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  • 27.11.11


  • 1. Agent Orange Sandra Neubauer Saed Muhammad 18-11-2011
  • 2. What is Agent Orange?
    • Code name of Herbicide
    • Agent Orange was a 50-50 mix of two chemicals, known conventionally as 2,4,D and 2,4,5,T.
    • Agent orange which contain high contamination of TCDD(Dioxin) produced accidently.
    • Principally effective against broad-leaf foliage, such as the dense jungle-like terrain found in Southeast Asia.
  • 3. Molecular Composition 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- para -dioxin (Foto
  • 4. Discovered
    • Arthur W. Galston
    • American botanist Galston during his Ph.d in 1943
    • focused on finding chemical means to make
    • soybeans flower and fruit earlier.
    • Later on biological warfare began investigating defoliants based upon Galston's discoveries eventually producing the controversial toxic defoliant Agent Orange.
  • 5. Purpose
    • Concealment in dense terrain by defoliating trees and shrubbery where the enemy could hide .
    • Deny an enemy cover, protect troops from ambush or other undetected movement of the enemy.
  • 6. Manufactures of Agent Orange (Foto
  • 7. Agent orange used (
  • 8. Toxicity of Agent Orange
    • Agent Orange and its components are toxic
    • 2,4-D: relatively safe (LD 50 : 350 – 2000 ppm)
    • 2,4,5-T: dangerous itself (LD 50 : 100 – 800 ppm)
    • TCDD: „perhaps the most toxic molecule ever synthesized by man“ (LD 50 : 0.6 – 5000 ppb)
  • 9. Environmental behaviour
    • 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T: quick degradation
    • TCDD: half-life
      • In atmosphere: 1 hour
      • On leaves: 6 – 10 hours
      • In leaves: bound, not available
      • In soil: long half-life (years), but bound to soil-surface
    (Source: ; ) Herbicide application volatilization photodegradation Microbial decradation Wind and water movement
  • 10. Effects on the environment
    • Sprayed:
    • 2 – 10 million ha (10 – 20 %)
    • About 43 million litres Agent Orange
    • Totally about 74 million litres of herbicides
    (Source: Young (2009) )
  • 11. Effects on the environment
    • Related effects:
    • Damaged crops
    • Destroyed forests and mangroves
    • Diversity decreased
    • Remains in soils: relatively low, but hot-spots (up to 1000 ppb)
    • Accumulation in food-chain
    • Burning of surplus on sea
    (Source: ) (Source: ) (Source: Young (2009) )
  • 12. Effects on human health
    • Exposure: during spraying + through food
    • Higher values of TCDD in blood (5 ppt <-> 2 ppt)
    •  severe health problems
        • Cleft palate
        • Skin diseases
        • Stillbirth
        • Deformed bodies
        • Mental disabilities
        • Cancer
    (Source: ) (Source: ) (Source: )
  • 13. References
    • Dwernychuk, L. W., Hung, T. M., Boivin, T. G., Bruce, G. S., Dung, P. T., Son, L. K., Hatfield, C. T., Dung, N. T., Allan, J. A., Nhu, D. D., Thuc, P. V., Moats, D. J., Borton, L. (2006): The Agent Orange Issue in Viet Nam: A Manageable Problem. Paper presented at “Dioxin 2006”, Oslo, Norway: 1-4.
    • Ganzel, B. (2007): The Vietnam War
    • Recalled: 14.11.2011
    • Available:
    • Gochfeld, M. (2001): Dioxin in Vietnam: The Ongoing Saga of Exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 43: 433-434.
    • Hall, W., (1989): The logic of a controversy: The case of Agent Orange in Australia. Social Sciences Medicine 29: 537-544.
    • Mammond, S.: War Legacies Project
    • Recalled: 17.11.2011
    • Available:
    • Schecter, A., Dai, L. C., Thuy, L. T., Quynh, H. T., Minh, D. Q., Cau, H.D., Phiet, P. H., Nguyen, N. T., Constable, J. D., Baughman, R. (1995): Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues. American Journal of Public Health 85: 516-522.
    • Schecter, A., Quynh, H. T., Pavuk, M., Päpke, O., Malisch, R., Constable, J. D. (2003): Food as a Source of Dioxine Exposure in the Residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 45: 781-788.
    • Stellman, J. M., Stellman, S. D., Christian, R., Weber, T., Tomasallo, C. (2003): The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam. Nature 422: 681-687.
    • Westing, A. H. (1971): Ecological Effects of Military Defoliation on Forests of South Vietnam. BioScience 21: 893-898.
    • Young, A. L., Giesy, J. P., Jones, P. D., Newton, M. (2004): Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Agent Orange and Its Associated Dioxin During the Vietnam War. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11: 359-370.
    • Young, A. L., (2009): The History, Use, Disposition and Environmental Fate of Agent Orange. Springer [1. edition]: 357 pages.
  • 14. Thank you for paying attention! (Source: )