How to Perform the Rituals of Hajj and Umrah by Shaikh Muhammad As-Salih Al-Uthaimeen In The Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Preface Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Universe. May peace and blessings beupon Muhammad, the last of the prophets and messengers, and upon hisfamily and esteemed companions. Hajj is one of the best forms of worshipand is one of the most sublime deeds because it is one of the pillars of Islamthat Allah sent Muhammad--may the peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim--with. A servants religion is incomplete without it. A form ofworship is only acceptable when the following is true.
• One devotes it to Allah alone, with a desire for the Hereafter. It cannot be done with the intention of being seen among people or for worldly gain.• One follows the Prophets example, in words and deeds. This cannot be accomplished except by gaining knowledge of the Sunnah.Forms of PilgrimageThere are three forms of Hajj: Tamattu- Ifraad - QiranTamattu: A pilgrim wears Ihram for Umrah only during the months ofHajj, which means when a pilgrim reaches Makkah, he/she makes Tawafand Sayi for Umrah. Then shaves or clips the hair. On the day ofTarwiya, which is the eighth of Dhul-Hijja, a pilgrim puts on his Ihram forHajj only and carries out all of its requirements.Ifraad: A pilgrim wears Ihram for Hajj only. When he reaches Makkah,he performs Tawaf for his arrival and Sayi for Hajj. He doesnt shave orclip- his hair as he doesnt disengage from Ihram. Instead, he remains inIhram till after he stones Jamrah Al-Aqaba on the Eid day. It is permissiblefor him to postpone his Sayi for Hajj until after his Tawaf for Hajj.Qiran: A pilgrim wears Ihram for both Umrah and Hajj or he wearsIhram first for Umrah, then makes intentions for Hajj before his Tawaf forHajj. The obligations on one performing Ifraad are the same as those onone performing Qiran, except that the latter must slaughter whereas theformer is not obligated to do so. The best of the three forms is Tamattu. Itis the form that the prophet-may the peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim encouraged his followers to perform.Even if a pilgrim makes intentions to perform Qiran or Ifraad he isallowed to change his intentions to Tamattu; he can do this even after hehas performed Tawaf and Sayi.When the Prophet -- may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him--performed Tawaf and Sayi during the year of the Farewell Hajj with hiscompanions, he ordered all those who hadnt brought sacrificial animals tochange their intentions for Hajj to intentions for Umrah. cut their hair, anddisengage from Ihram till Hajj. He said, " If I hadnt brought thesacrificial animal, Id have done what Ive ordered you to do."
The Umrah If a pilgrim wishes to be ritually pure for Umrah, he should shed hisclothing and bathe as he would after sexual defilement, if convenient. Heshould perfume his head and beard with the best oil he can find. There isno harm in what remains of it after Ihram. Bathing for Ihram is Sunnah for both men and women, includingmenstruating women and those experiencing postnatal bleeding. Afterbathing and preparing himself, a. pilgrim, other than those menstruating orexperiencing post- natal bleeding, prays the obligatory prayer, if it is time.Otherwise, he makes his intention by praying the two Sunnah Rakass whichare made each time Wudhu is performed. When he finishes his prayer he should say: "Here I am forUmrah--here I am, Oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have no partner.Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and dominion is yours, and you have nopartner." [Talbeeyah]. A man raises his voice when saying this and awoman says it so that only one beside her may hear her. One in Ihram should say the Talbeeyah as often as possible,especially when times and places change. For example: when descending orascending during travel or when day or night approach. He should also askAllah for His pleasure, for Heaven and seek refuge in Allahs mercy fromHellfire. One should say the Talbeeyah during Umrah, starting from the timehe puts on his Ihram till he starts Tawaf. During Hajj he should say itstarting from the time he puts on his Ihram till he starts to stone JamrahAl- Aqaba on the Eid day. When a pilgrim enters the Holy Mosque he puts forth his right footfirst and says: "In the name of Allah, may peace and blessings be upon theMessenger of Allah. Oh Allah, forgive me my sins and open to me thedoors of Your mercy. I seek refuge in Allah the Almighty and in HisEminent Face and in His Eternal Dominion from the accursed Satan." Heapproaches the Black Stone, touches it with his right hand and kisses it. Ifthis isnt possible, he should face the Black Stone and point to it. It is bestnot to push and shove, causing harm and being harmed by other people.When touching the Stone, a pilgrim should say the following: "In the nameof Allah, Allah is the greatest. Oh, Allah, with faith in you, belief in Yourbook, loyalty to you, compliance to the way of your ProphetMuhammad--may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him."
A pilgrim must walk, keeping the Kabah on his left. When hereaches the Rukn Al Yamani he should touch, but not kiss it, and say: " OurLord, grant us good in this life and good in the hereafter and save us fromthe punishment of the Hell-fire. Oh Allah, I beg of You for forgiveness andhealth in this life and in the Hereafter." Each time he passes the Black Stonehe should say: "Allah is the Greatest." During the remainder of his Tawaf he may say what he pleases ofsupplications, mentioning Allah, and recitation of Quran. This is becauseTawaf, Sayi, and Stoning the Jamrah have been devised for the purpose ofmentioning Allah. During this Tawaf it is necessary for a man to do twothings:• Al-ldhtebaa from the beginning of Tawaf until the end. Al-ldhtebaa means placing the middle of ones Reda under his right arm and the ends of it over his left shoulder. When he is finished performing Tawaf, he may return his Reda to its original state because the time for Idhtebaa is only during Tawaf.• Al-Raml during the first three circuits. Al-Raml means speeding up ones pace with small steps. A pilgrim should walk at a normal pace during his last four circuits. When he completes seven circuits of Tawaf, he approaches Maqam Ibrahim and recites: "And take ye the station of Abraham as a place of Prayer" Chapter 2, Verse 125 [2:125]. He prays two short Rakaas, as close as conveniently possible, behind Maqam Ibrahim. During the first Rakaa he recites Surah Al-Kafirun [Chapter 109] and during the second one Surah Al- lkhlas[Chapter 112]. When he completes the two Rakaas he should return to the Black Stone and touch it, if convenient. He goes out to the Mesaa and when he nears As-Safaa he recites: " Verily As- Safaa and Al-Marwah are among the shrines of Allah" [2:158]. He ascends As-Safaa until he is able to see the Kabah. Facing theKabah and raising his hands, he praises Allah and makes any supplicationshe chooses. The Prophet--may the peace and blessings of Allah be uponhim--prayed thus: "There is no Deity but Allah alone," three times,supplicating in between. He descends As-Safaa and heads for Al- Marwah at a normal paceuntil he reaches the green marker. He should then run fast until the nextgreen marker. He continues toward Al- Marwah at a normal pace. When hereaches it, he ascends it, faces the Qibla, raises his hands and repeats whathe said on As-Safaa. He descends Al-Marwah heading towards As-Safaa,
taking care to walk where walking is designated, and run where running isdesignated. He continues this procedure until he completes seven laps. Goingfrom As-Safaa to Al-Marwah is a lap and returning is another lap. Duringhis Sayi he may recite what he wills of supplications, recitation ofQuran, and mentioning Allah. In completion of Sayi he shaves his head. A woman clips her hairthe length of a finger tip. Shaving is preferable, except when Hajj is nearand there isnt sufficient time for hair to grow back. In this case its best toclip so that hair will remain for shaving during Hajj. With that, Umrah iscompleted. and a pilgrim is free to dress in other clothing, wear perfumeand engage in marital relations, etc.The Hajj In the forenoon of the eighth day of Dhul-Hijja, a pilgrim purifieshimself once again by bathing as he did before Umrah in the place in whichhe is staying, if convenient. He puts on his Ihram and says: " Here I am forHajj. Here I am, oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have no partner.Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and dominion is yours, and you have nopartners." If he fears that something will prevent him from completing his Hajjhe should make a condition when he makes his intentions, saying: " If I amprevented by any obstacle my place is wherever I am held up." If he has nosuch fear, he doesnt make this condition. A pilgrim goes to Mina and there prays Dhuhr, Asr, Magrib, Ishaand Fajr, shortening his four unit prayers so as to make them two unitseach, without combining them. When the sun rises, he goes to Arafah and there prays Dhuhr andAsr combined at the time of Dhuhr, making each one two units. He remainsin Namira Mosque until sunset if possible. He remembers Allah and makesas many supplications as possible while facing the Qibla. The Prophet--may the peace and blessing of Allah be uponhim--prayed thus: "There is no Deity but Allah alone. He has no partner.All dominion and praise are His and He is powerful over all things.
If he grows weary it is permissible for him to engage in beneficialconversation with his companions or reading what he can find of beneficialbooks, especially those concerning Allahs grace and abundant gifts. Thiswill strengthen his hope in Allah. He should then return to hissupplications and be sure to spend the end of the day deep in supplicationbecause the best of supplication is the supplication of the day of Arafah. At sunset he goes from Arafah to Muzdalifah and there praysMagrib, Isha, and Fajr. If he is tired or has little water, it is permissiblefor him to combine Magrib and Isha. If he fears that he will not reachMuzdalifah until after midnight, he should pray before he reaches it for itis not permissible to delay prayer until after midnight. He remains there, inMuzdalifah, making supplications and remembering Allah till just beforesunrise. If he is weak and cannot handle the crowd during Ar-Ramy, it ispermissible for him to go to Mina at the end of the night to stone theJamrah before the arrival of the crowd. Near sunrise, a pilgrim goes fromMuzdalifah to Mina. Upon reaching it he does the following:• He throws seven consecutive pebbles at Jamrah Al-Aqaba which is the closest monument to Makkah, saying Greatest," as he : "Allah is the throws each pebble.• He slaughters the sacrificial animal, eats some of it, and gives some to the poor. Slaughter is obligatory on the Mutamati and Qiran.• He shaves or clips his hair; shaving is preferable. A woman clips her hair the length of a finger-tip. These three should be done in the above order if convenient, butthere is norestriction if one precedes another. With that, one is allowed to come out of Ihram. He can wear otherclothing and do everything that was lawful before Ihram except engagingin marital relations. He goes to Makkah to perform Tawaf Al-lfadha andSayi, also for Hajj. It is Sunnah to put perfume on before going toMakkah. With the completion of this Tawaf and Sayi, a pilgrim is allowed todo everything that was lawful before Ihram, including engaging in marital
relations. After performing Tawaf and Sayi, he returns to Mina to spendthe nights of the eleventh and twelfth days there. He stones the three Jamrah in the afternoon of both the eleventh andtwelfth days. He starts with the first Jamrah, which is furthest fromMakkah, then the middle one, and lastly Jamrah Al-Aqaba. Each one shouldbe stoned with seven consecutive pebbles accompanied by Takbeer. Hestops after the first and middle Jamrah to make supplications facing theQibla. It is not permissible to stone before noon on these two days. It isbest to walk to the Jamrah, but riding is permissible. If he is in a hurry after stoning on the twelfth day, he leaves Minabefore sunset. But if he wishes to prolong his stay, which is best, he spendsthe night of the thirteenth in Mina and stones that afternoon in the samemanner as on the twelfth day. When he is ready to return to his country, he makes TawafAl-Wadaa, which is seven circuits around the Kabah. Menstruating womenand women experiencing postnatal discharge are not obligated to performTawaf Al -Wadaa.Visiting The Prophets Mosque1. A pilgrim goes to Madina before or after Hajj with the intention ofvisiting the Prophets mosque and praying in it. Prayer there is better thana thousand prayers elsewhere except in the Holy Mosque in Makkah.2. Upon reaching the mosque he prays two Rakaas of salutation orperforms any obligatory prayer that is due.3. He goes to the grave of the Prophet -may the peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him -- and he stands before it. He greets him saying the "May the peace, mercy, and blessings of Allah be upon you, oh Prophet.May Allah grant you a good reward on behalf of your people. " He takes astep or two to his right to position himself before Abu-Bakr and greets himsaying : "May the peace, mercy, and blessing of Allah be upon you. ohAbu-Bakr, Caliph of the Messenger of Allah. May Allah be pleased withyou and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammads people." Thenhe takes a step or two to his right to position himself before Umar andgreets him saying: " May the peace, mercy and blessings of Allah be uponyou, oh Umar, Prince of the believers. May Allah be pleased with you andgrant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammads people."
4. In a state of purity, he goes to pray in Qubaa Mosque.5. He goes to Al-Baqee to visit Uthmans grave-- may Allah be pleased withhim. He stands before it and greets him saying: "May the peace, mercy andblessing of Allah be upon you, oh Uthman--Prince of the believers. MayAllah be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf ofMuhammads people." He greets any other Muslims in Al-Baqee.6. He goes to Uhud and visits the grave of Hamza--may Allah be pleasedwith him--and the other martyrs there with him. He greets them and preysto Allah to grant them forgiveness, mercy, and pleasure.NotificationThe following is incumbent upon the Muhrim for Hajj or Umrah:1. That he be committed to Allahs religious obligations upon him such asprayer in its time (in congregation for men).2. That he avoids what Allah has prohibited such as obscenity, inequity, anddisobedience. if anyone undertakes Hajj therein. Let there be no obscenity,nor wickedness, nor wrangling during Hajj ~ [2:197].3. That he avoids harming the Muslims with words or actions within theMashair or elsewhere.4. That he avoids all of the restrictions of Ihram: a. He shouldnt cause the loss of any of his hair or nails. A prick by a thorn and the like is unobjectionable, even if there is bleeding. b. He shouldnt perfume himself, his clothing, his food or his drink after entering Ihram. He should also abstain from cleansing himself with scented soap. There is no harm in what remains of the effect of perfume used prior to Ihram. c. He shouldnt touch, kiss, etc. his spouse out of passion and, even worse, shouldnt have sexual intercourse. d. He shouldnt be wed or propose to a woman for himself or others.
e. He shouldnt wear gloves, although there is no harm in wrapping the hands in cloth. This ruling goes for both men and women.The following pertains specifically to men: a. He cannot cover his head with something that touches it, although there is no harm in the use of an umbrella, the roof of a car or tent for shade. There is also no harm in carrying his baggage atop his head. b. He cannot wear a shirt, turban, hooded cloak trousers, or shoes. Only if he is unable to obtain an Ezar or sandals can he wear trousers or shoes. c. He cannot wear anything with the same qualities of the above mentioned such as an Abea, Qubaa, hat, undershirt, etc. It is permissible for him to wear sandals, rings, glasses, a hearingaid. a watch, worn on his wrist or hung from his neck, or a speech aid. It ispermissible for him to cleanse himself with unscented cleansers and to washand scratch his head and body, even if some of his hair fallsunintentionally. In such a case there is no obligation on him because of it. A woman cannot wear a Niqab or Burqa. The Sunnah is for her touncover her face except if men not related to her might see her, in whichcase it is obligatory for her to cover her face during Ihram and otherwise. Allah is the giver of success. May His blessings be upon our ProphetMuhammad and all of his family and companions.By the needy before Allah, Muhammad As-Salih Al-Uthaimeen
GlossaryAbaya cloak-like, woolen wrap.Abu Bakr first Muslim Caliph.Al-Baqee a place in Madina.Al-ldhtebaa placing the middle of the Reda under the right arm and the ends ofit over the left shoulder during Tawaf.Al-lkhlas Chapter 112 of theQuran(Purity of Faith).Al-Kafirun Chapter 109 of the Quran ( Those who reject Faith).Al-Marwah name of the hillock where a Muslim begins Sayi.Al-Raml walking quickly but with small steps during the first three circuits of Tawaf.Arafah the most important stop during Hajj, located beyond Muzdalifah.Ar-Ramy The Stoning.As-Safaa name of the hillock where a Muslim ends his last lap of Sayi.Asr the afternoon prayer.Burqa a face veil like a Niqab.Dhul-Hijja the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.Dhuhr the noon prayer.Eid celebration for Muslims.Ezaar lower cloth of Ihram.Fajr dawn prayer.Hajj official Muslim pilgrimage to Makkah.Hamza one of the Prophets uncles and a martyr during the battle of Uhud.Ifraad isolated form of Hajj.Ihram the ceremonial state of making Hajj or the Hajj garments themselves.Isha night prayer.Jamrah Monument in Mina.Jamrah Al Aqaba-the monument closest to Makkah.Kabah the house of Allah in the Holy Mosque in Makkah.Magrib dusk prayer.Maqam Ibrahim the stepping stone of the prophet Abraham.Mesaa the stretch between As- Safaa and Al - Marwah.Mashair ceremonial shrines.
Mina one of the ceremonial shrines, a valley near Makkah.Muhammad the last of the prophets, the prophet of Islam.Muhrim a person in Ihram.Mutamati a pilgrim performing Hajj Tamattu.Muzdalifah one of the ceremonial shrines of Hajj, between Mina and Arafah.Namira mosque in Mina.Niqab a face veil revealing the eyes through slashesQiran a pilgrim performing Hajj Qiran.Qibla the direction Muslims face to pray.Qiraan Accompanied form of Hajj.Quba a mosque in Madina, used to be on the outskirts.Quran the Book of Allah.Rakaa a unit of prayer.Reda the upper cloth of Ihram.Rukn Al Yamani-the corner of the Kabah which faces Yemen.Sayi the walk made between As-Safaa and Al -Marwah.Sunnah way of the Prophet.Surah a chapter of the Quran.Takbeer saying "Allahu Akbar ("Allah is Greatest")Talbeeya the supplication a Muslim recites once he is in Ihram and has made his intention.Tamattu enjoyable form of Hajj.Tarwiyya the eighth of Dhul-Hijja.Tawaf circumambulation of the KabahTawaf Al-lfadha tawaf for Hajj.Tawaf Al-Wadaa farewell Tawaf.Uhud the name of a mountain in Medina and the site of the battle by this name.Umar the second Muslim Caliph and first Prince of the believers.Umrah-minor Hajj the combination of Tawaf and Sayi.Uthman the third Muslim Caliph and second Prince of the believers.Wudhu ablution.