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Nexus 0803 - new times magazine

  1. 1. NEXUS NEW TIMES MAGAZINE Volume 8, Number 3 APRIL – MAY 2001 PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560, Australia Website: www.nexusmagazine.comLETTERS TO THE EDITOR.............................................4 EARTH EXPANSION: THE DEFINITIVE PROOF..........53GLOBAL NEWS.............................................................6 By James Maxlow. Information obtained from News they dont want you to read, including an studying ocean rock strata and the distribution of alleged NSA override of an Antarctic scientific ancient flora and fauna confirms that the Earth has mi ssion, and signs of a high-level cover- u p been expanding in size throughout its history. surrounding the tragic Port Arthur Massacre. THE DEEP DWELLERS—Part 2....................................59MAD COW DISEASE: GLOBALISED DISASTER.........1 1 By Wm Michael Mott. Modern-day reports of By Dr Lynette Dumble. Org a n o p h o s p h a t e mysterious subterranean creatures and humanoids pesticides and animal protein–enriched feeds are have much in common with descriptions preserved blamed for the BSE outbreaks which have now in ancient art, legends and religions the world over. spread from the UK into Europe and far beyond. THE TWILIGHT ZONE................................................65THE GATS: IN WHOSE SERVICE?..............................17 The WingMakers story continues to intrigue, but the By Ruth Caplan. The General Agreement on Trade slow release of new data and corroborating evidence in Services, if given the nod, will have devastating is frustrating. J. Harmon Grahn summarises the story effects on local economies and communities, so far, with his reasoned outsiders perspective on serving only the TNCs in their pursuit of profit. the machinations of the secretive Labyrinth Group.HYDRODOLLARS: WATER PRIVATISATION.............25 REVIEWS—Books........................................................71 By Susan Bryce. The global push by UN agencies, "Goodbye America!" by Michael Rowbotham governments and corporations to privatise water "Captive State: Corporate Takeover of Britain" by George Monbiot supply/distribution is already being felt by those "Unearthly Disclosure" by Timothy Good who are most affected by water shortages and are "The Perpetual Prisoner Machine" by Joel Dyer "Bluebird: Creation of Multiple Personality..." by Colin A. Ross, MD least able to pay for a resource that was once free. "The Secret Scroll" by Andrew SinclairTHE HURRICANE ANDREW COVER-UP....................33 "You Cant Tell The People" by Georgina Bruni By k.t. Frankovich. The authorities abject failure "Awakening the Healer Within" by Howard F. Batie, DM "Abductions and Aliens" by Chris Rutkowski to exercise their duty of care before, during and "The Atlantis Blueprint" by Rand Flem-Ath and Colin Wilson after hurricane Andrew, the worst natural disaster "Snitch Culture" by Jim Redden in US history, beggars belief, according to the "The Cosmos of Soul" by Patricia Cori damning revelations of this blessed survivor. "Jerry Garcias Tour of the Afterlife" by KarunaBREAST CANCER: DETECTION OR DECEPTION?.....41 "The Lost Tomb of Viracocha" by Maurice Cotterell "The Dance of the Dragon" by Paul Broadhurst and Hamish Miller By Sherrill Sellman. The rise in breast cancer incidence is related to the increasing levels of REVIEWS—Video........................................................78 "The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity" with Peter Lindemann toxins in our environment as well as the prolific use of X-ray mammography in tumour detection. REVIEWS—Music........................................................79 "Gypsy Caravan" by various artistsSCIENCE NEWS..........................................................47 "Tarantata: Dance of the Ancient Spider" by Alessandra Belloni Tony Cuthbert theorises on how inertia can be "Journey with the Sun" by Paul Winter and The Earth Band overcome to achieve propulsion at the speed of light "Gagaku and Beyond" by Tokyo Gakuso and Tadaaki Ohno and beyond, and Robert Adams sets the record "WingMakers: Chambers 11–17" books straight on who really invented the transistor. NEXUS BOOKS, VIDEOS, ADS, SUBS...................88–95APRIL – MAY 2001 NEXUS • 1
  2. 2. EditorialNEXUS MAGAZINE Volume 8, Number 3 APRIL – MAY 2001 W elcome to yet another jam-packed edition of NEXUS Magazine. Events seem to be stepping up around the world, as you will see reflected within the contents of this issue. First up, though, is to let you know that our annual NEXUS Conference will be PUBLISHED BY held on the weekend of September 15–16 at the Gazebo Hotel, Elizabeth Bay, Sydney. NEXUS Magazine Pty Ltd, ABN 80 003 611 434 Well publish a list of confirmed speakers in the next issue. If you are interested in com- EDITOR ing along, please drop us a line, send an e-mail (, etc. to let Duncan M. Roads us know. CO-EDITOR Several articles this edition are worthy of far more attention than the media are giving Catherine Simons them. Foremost amongst them is the GATS, the General Agreement on Trade in Services, ASSISTANT EDITOR/SUB-EDITOR which in my opinion is more insidious and threatening than the MAI. It is yet another Ruth Parnell corporate-driven attempt to privatise all services ranging from health, transport, prisons EDITORS ASSISTANT Richard Giles and water supply. In fact, we are so concerned about what is happening regarding the pri- OFFICE ADMINISTRATOR vatisation of water that we commissioned an article specifically on this topic. Im sure Janine Carmichael there are already many readers who are aware of the effects of water privatisation on their CONTRIBUTORS THIS ISSUE community in terms of deteriorating water quality with simultaneous price increases. Lynette Dumble, PhD, MSc; Ruth Caplan; The article on the hurricane Andrew cover-up is also a must-read. You may wonder Susan Bryce; k.t. Frankovich; what on Earth could be covered up after a hurricane, but I guarantee you will be shocked Sherrill Sellman; Anthony Cuthbert; when you read this. While well never know the true death toll (the "official" toll is any- Robert Adams, DSc; James Maxlow; Wm Michael Mott; J. Harmon Grahn where between 15 and 59 people, but the true figure is in the many thousands), I couldnt CARTOONS help but wonder about the coincidental Florida link in the recent US election. You see, Phil Somerville the uncounted thousands of dead were from South Dade County—part of the same area of COVER GRAPHIC Florida where the outcome of the US election was decided. Interestingly, I have seen John Cook, claims on the Internet that thousands of people were trucked into the Dade County area to PRINTING vote for Bush. Warwick Daily News, Queensland, Australia But theres more. It really chilled me to discover that at a time of global media attention AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION on hurricane Andrews aftermath, such a massive cover-up has occurred. It was stunning- Newsagents Direct Distribution ly simple; the authorities just roped off a huge area and would not let people in or out. HEAD OFFICE – All Correspondence The survivors inside that area were not rescued; they were left to fend for themselves in an PO Box 30, Mapleton, Qld 4560, Australia area that had become radioactive and overrun by primates which had escaped from a near- Tel: (07) 5442 9280; Fax: (07) 5442 9381 by secret research lab. The "rescuers" simply came in and removed thousands of bodies E-mail: and body parts and disposed of them. No food, water or medical attention was given to Web page: these survivors. This is an unbelievable account, told by one of the few who lived to tell NEW ZEALAND OFFICE of the horror and betrayal. RD 2, Kaeo, Northland We are pleased to have a contribution from Sherrill Sellman once again, this time about Tel: +64 (0)9 405 1963; Fax: +64 (0)9 405 1964 breast cancer. At last, some experts are now saying that mammograms are a likely cause E-mail: of many cases of breast cancer. Readers may recall Sherrills groundbreaking articles on USA OFFICE - 2940 E. Colfax, #131, Denver CO 80206 HRT, the Pill, oestrogen/progesterone imbalances, etc. North American readers take note Tel: 303 321 5006; Fax: 603 754 4744 that Sherrill is currently touring the USA to spread the word on womens health issues and E-mail: promote her book, Hormone Heresy. UK OFFICE - 55 Queens Rd, East Grinstead, West Another intriguing topic is the expanding Earth scenario, the only one to fit all the Sussex, RH19 1BG. Tel: +44 (0)1342 322854; emerging scientific data. Your interest in this subject has prompted us to run a follow-up Fax: +44 (0)1342 324574 to the first article which appeared in NEXUS 7/06. E-mail: Armageddon watchers are commenting in Internet chat groups about the growing num- EUROPE OFFICE - PO Box 372, 8250 AJ Dronten, ber of "plagues" affecting the world. Foremost on many minds at present are mad cow The Netherlands. Tel: +31 (0)321 380558; disease and its human variant, vCJD, and also foot-and-mouth disease. Lynette Dumble Fax: +31 (0)321 318892 contacted us recently to offer an update on the BSE situation around the globe. Clearly, STATEMENT OF PURPOSE there are still many concerns over what we are not being told.NEXUS recognises that humanity is undergoing amassive transformation. With this in mind, NEXUS On the other hand, foot-and-mouth disease is relatively harmless to animals (they canseeks to provide hard-to-get information so as to recover if given the time)—about as serious as a bad cold is to humans. Are you as sur-assist people through these changes. NEXUS is not prised as I was by this? I saw a London Times article about it and checked further. Surelinked to any religious, philosophical or political enough, the foot-and-mouth disaster is a profit-driven disaster. There is no significantideology or organisation. biological threat to animals or humans. See the item in Global News for yourselves. PERMISSION-TO-REPRODUCE POLICYWhile reproduction and dissemination of the infor- Moving into the world of cosmic conspiracies, Twilight Zone this issue has an interest-mation in NEXUS is actively encouraged, anyone ing review of the WingMakers story and materials—and, yes, more information has beencaught making a buck out of it, without our express released. Intriguing stuff!permission, will be in trouble when we catch them! Duncan WARRANTY AND INDEMNITYAdvertisers upon and by lodging material with the Publisher for publication or authorising or approving of the publication of any material INDEMNIFY thePublisher and its servants and agents against all liability claims or proceedings whatsoever arising from the publication and without limiting the generality of theforegoing to indemnify each of them in relation to defamation, slander of title, breach of copyright, infringement of trademarks or names of publication titles, unfaircompetition or trade practices, royalties or violation of rights or privacy AND WARRANT that the material complies with all relevant laws and regulations and thatits publication will not give rise to any rights against or liabilities in the Publisher, its servants or agents and in particular that nothing therein is capable of beingmisleading or deceptive or otherwise in breach of the Part V of the Trade Practices Act 1974. All expressions of opinion are published on the basis that they arenot to be regarded as expressing the opinion of the Publisher or its servants or agents. Editorial advice is not specific and readers are advised to seek professionalhelp for individual problems. © NEXUS New Times 20012 • NEXUS APRIL – MAY 2001
  3. 3. APRIL – MAY 2001 NEXUS • 3
  4. 4. Letters to the Editor ...An Early Vatican Conspiracy Western Orthodox Church in feel any improvement and left after when the metal is melted. In order Dear Mr Roads: I have just fin- North America. As an American one week, uncertain if they would to ensure that this slag rises to theished reading your issue vol. 7, no. and a member of families of over return. I met one lady in a surface and can be removed, fluxes5, and have found it as interesting 300 years in America, I would wheelchair who had come to the are sometimes added. One ofand informative as others Ive had much appreciate a mention of the Casa de Dom Inácio regularly for these fluxes is fluorspar, and thisthe opportunity to read. difference between the American three months, even though she can considerably reduce the tem- Your editorial and following arti- and the European branches of our noticed no improvements. She perature at which the slag becomescle on Sai Baba should (but proba- Order. We are interested not in was preparing to return to France, fluid.bly wont) cure the insanity of the Vatican conspiracies but in private with no plans to return to Brazil in Perhaps the ancients crusheduseless wealthy of their seeming and individual charitable work. the future. I feel it is important to down fluorspar, made a paint of itneed to find strength and stability Regards, D.J. Stevens-Allen, share these stories also, in order to and painted the outside surface ofin nitwit "holy men" instead of in PhD, KCMSJ, Thessaloniki, paint a complete picture of the the forts. Then, when they setthemselves! Greece situation. their fires, a glaze could form on In passing, I should like to make I met many wonderful people at the stonework at a much lowera comment or two on the article, Healing Experiences in Brazil the Casa de Dom Inácio and was temperature. After all, these"Holy Smoke and Mirrors: The Dear NEXUS: Inspired by the generally very impressed with the ancient people may have had a rea-Vatican Conspiracy". From other articles you have carried about the warm, friendly, helpful attitude of son for glazing their fortificationsmaterial Ive read, and from healer João Teixeira da Faria, who the staff and volunteers of the which no longer exists. Perhaps itnumerous conversations with peo- works at the Casa de Dom Inácio Casa. I also enjoyed very much prevented rodents or other wildple I believe to be well-informed, I in Abadiânia, I recently travelled taking showers in the nearby animals from climbing the walls athave some reason to believe Mr to Brazil to see him. "spirit-cleansing" waterfall. night. Just an idea. Is there anyGuyatt is perfectly correct. I found João to be a genuinely Overall, I feel very uplifted by possibility of David Hatcher While many Christians will won- talented healer. During my spiritu- the whole experience, and I thank Childress checking this one out?der how the Vatican, which pre- al operation, João was not present NEXUS Magazine for carrying the Keep up the good work.tends to leadership of world in the room where I was seated. articles about Casa de Dom Inácio. Sincerely, Archie Jamieson, StChristianity, could be so misled, it Still, I felt many intense sensations Also, thanks to the people who Catharines, Ontario, Canadamay be helpful to recall that the in the areas of my body which created the website full of practicalRoman Catholic Church is not, in needed work. Nobody was touch- information on visiting the Casa: EM Pulses Pose Risks to Aircraftfact, a Christian organisation. The ing me, yet the sensations were so Dear Mr Roads: Your report,Saint Peter it claims as its founder strong I could not keep from mak- library/factual/casa/casaindex. "Aircraft crashes blamed on mili-was not the Apostle Peter, named ing audible noises. Others in the html. tary jet pulses" (Global News,by Jesus, but the magician Simon room must have had similar expe- Sincerely, Conan Mishler, 8/01) is a little garbled, probablyPeter (or Pethor), mentioned by riences, since I was not the only Oregon, USA because it is a British newspaperSaint Paul and who attempted to one making noises. account of an American professorsbuy the ability to perform the mira- On the days following my opera- Antigravity and Vitrified Forts views which appeared in the Newcles (marvels) that Christians were tion, I would go and sit and medi- Dear Duncan: I always enjoy York Times Review of Books. It isable to perform in imitation of tate in the "current room" with oth- reading NEXUS from cover to always better to read the original.Jesus. ers. I could feel a lot of healing cover, but 7/05 had two items Details of Harvard professor Simon Pethor (or Simon the was going on there, also. which really caught my attention. Elaine Scarrys investigation intoInterpreter) was a priest of the Now that Im back from my two- The first is "How I Control the possible effect of military-Babylonian religion (essentially, week adventure in Brazil, I do Gravitation", in the Science News origin electromagnetic pulses onSatanism) and, after being rejected notice an improvement in my con- section. It reminded me of a previ- civilian aircraft electronic systemsby St Paul, went to Rome, where dition, but it has not been resolved ous article under a very different can be found at www.nybooks.he took on the claim of being completely. Maybe if I had stayed type of heading, so I looked up my com. Professor Scarry wasChristian and a devout follower of longer it could have been healed old issues. It was in 4/01 and was interviewed in November 2000 onJesus. He succeeded in deceiving completely. called "The Poltergeist Machine". ABC Radio Nationals Late Nightmany of the very elect, and found- I spoke with many people there It described how objects moved on L i v e. Perhaps that interview ised the false Christianity that is also in Abadiânia who had been com- their own when subjected to a par- also on the ABCs website.mentioned in the New Testament pletely healed of some very serious ticular field. Professor Scarry refers to theepistles. disorders. Some had come back to I really believe that the inventor possible danger of civilian aircraft Satanists, however ignorantly so, contribute to the healing of others had discovered how to overcome entering active military exercisewould have no trouble in associat- by sitting and meditating in the gravity, or antigravity if you pre- zones, where there is high outputing with such organisations as the current room. fer, but had not learned how to of pulses from a wide variety ofMafia and the CIA. Nor would Others had come to do volunteer control it. After all, some unex- military radars, etc.murder and generalised duplicity work for the Casa. One lady had pected and unpleasant things hap- It is interesting to note thatpose problems for them. come back simply to show people pened before we learned to control Professor Scarry reports incidents I note that Mr Guyatt mentions the printed results of her latest X-rays. Could we have a follow- of US military aircraft being tem-the Order of St John of Jerusalem medical evaluation, which showed up sometime on developments porarily disabled, with externalas a part of the conspiracy. As a no trace of what her doctor had with "The Poltergeist Machine"? electromagnetic pulses being sus-Knight Commander and Baron of previously called "incurable can- The second item which interested pected as a possible cause.the American branch of that Order, cer". me was the account of the number Please also note that contrary towhich functions under a charter However, many of the people of vitrified forts in Scotland. the Observer report, the P3 is not agranted by the late King Peter II of who had been healed of serious Numerous theories were explored, fighter; it is a multi-engined, pro-Yugoslavia, I would like to empha- diseases had spent months, or even but I would like to suggest another. peller-driven, anti-submarine war-sise the fact that, to my knowledge, years, coming to see João regularly In metal-melting industries, non- fare aircraft.we have nothing to do with the before their healing was complete. metallic material adhering to the Yours sincerely, Peter L. Young,Vatican, being attached to the I also met some people who didnt cold metal becomes a liquid slag Warrnambool, Victoria, Australia4 • NEXUS APRIL – MAY 2001
  5. 5. ... more Letters to the Editor NB: Please keep letters to approx. 200 to 250 words in length. Ed.Orthodox Healing Hypocrisy worldwide underground Theres more to this... I received the Davos conference, on the Dear Duncan: The recent item economies. The underground Tao a few years ago and the inevitability of what they are creat-in NEXUS 7/06 Global News, economies have already started in Taoists are strict vegetarians but ing. Kok says "theres no point in"Doctors, the third leading cause preparation for the cashless global do not eat garlic or onions! They fighting technology", while admit-of death in the USA", reads like a economy. The people already related this typical Chinese story ting that all businesses will bejoke or a mistake, but no doubt it is involved in the underground econ- that goes something like this: forced into it, emphasising thattrue. Then we have to assume that omy are well aware that a cashless A novice was in an isolated people will be expected to submitthese figures are essentially the economy will mean a "Big Brother monastery high in the mountains obediently. I hope people are notsame in all developed countries, police state", because all of your where food was frugal and condi- looking to a horrid, greedy littlewith millions, not thousands, killed purchases will be able to be traced. tions cold and harsh. This particu- city-state like Singapore as a futureworldwide, and all this caused by But how will the globalists deal lar fellow was getting jacked off ideal. Koks words emphasise theour very scientific(?) orthodox with dissenters? with always being hungry, as he typical way of instituting change.healing(?) profession. Do you believe that the gun con- had always been a meat-eater and Kok also cant be aware that Is there going to be a Royal fiscation from private citizens in the diet was not satisfying him; so he went to the local village, caught mobile phones have health haz-Commission somewhere soon, to Australia in the 1990s was part of ards.bring the many offenders to jus- the globalist agenda? a local stray dog, took it back totice? Probably not, because, as the monastery and killed it. As he I hate the future that Kok and You have a fine magazine witheveryone knows, the whole system was preparing to cook it, he got an Roux envisage and which the eye-opening information; it isis so interlinked with every other splendid. Im looking forward to attack of the guilts and buried it. Davos conference is already build-branch of medical science that it the next issue. As spring came, the head poobah ing: "You cannot stop it" but, aswould be an endless round of each called him and accused him of we see with the police crackdown Sincerely yours, Michael Leon,one blaming the other, and the New York, USA bringing meat to eat into the at Davos, this means, "We will notexpense would be enough to bank- monastery. When he denied it, he let you stop it".rupt a nation. took him to the spot he had buried Brian Souter, Lyons, ACT, The Truth of the Inner Earth? the dog and garlic had spouted But let us assume that an Australiaunorthodox system of healing— When there are myths, there is where the carcass had been buried.naturopathy, homoeopathy, herbal- some foundation of truth in them. By the way, the Taoist saliva is "The Deep Dwellers" may have Child Abuse and The Systemism, etc.—caused perhaps up to 50 incredibly alkaline. Make of it that foundation of truth (8/02). It what you will. Hi! My name is Maddissondeaths per year. There would be McCall and I have been readingan immediate Royal Commission, is interesting that so many cultures It is also interesting in the articlethe system of healing outlawed, around the world believe that there that mention is made that if you your great magazine for a numberand the practitioners found guilty are people who live inside Earth. consume garlic it affects your of years. You guys are doing a ter-and imprisoned for long periods of The Sumerian accounts of the reflex times and energy levels. Its rific job, drawing the publicstime. "great below" are absolutely mysti- interesting to note that the coun- attention to injustice. So, we have the classic case of fying, and I wish we could get tries that are renowned for garlic But, there is one area of injusticethe pot calling the kettle black, or, more answers. Are there subter- consumption—Greece, Italy, that I have not seen addressed into be more specific, an extremely ranean caves below with people etc.—also shut down in the after- your magazine, and that is the areahypocritical system of healing, living in them? Is the Earth hol- noon for siesta! of child abuse via the Departmentallowed by law to continue its fatal low? These are questions that we Great magazine; keep up the of Human Services. There areactivities—a truly unbelievable need answers to. good work. I love your confer- hundreds of horror stories thatstate of affairs which, unfortunate- Right here in California, people ences and book reviews (thanks, have never been brought to thely, is also true. claim that Mt Shasta is hollow and Ruth). I would like to see an arti- publics attention. P. ODwyer, Salisbury North, filled with caves. Legend has it cle on paramagnetic rock dust. I myself have been involved in aSouth Australia that little people have been seen to Sincerely, Theo Zervos, very sad case concerning my come out of the caves to purchase grand-daughter. For a year and aDissent in a Cashless Economy items on the surface world with half, my family and I have been Dear Duncan: Ive always found bags of gold. The sounds of large Questioning Global Change battling The System and hittingNEXUS Magazine to be unique, machinery are heard from the cliff- Dear Editor: I saw in your sides, and the sounds originate brick walls. My story is too longand I read my first issue two years Global News the piece about to go into right now, but I wouldago. I finally took the plunge and from within the caves. Of course, Singapore going "e-commerce" this is all legend, but is there any be happy to have the opportunitytook out a one-year subscription (8/02). I wonder what your and of discussing our case with you.for myself and my family. foundation of truth? Only time your readers responses are to this. will tell. There are laws that are destroying Let me say that your editorial in I found it worrying. Am I alone in innocent childrens lives and weNEXUS 8/02 and the article enti- Most sincerely, Jose Causing, dreading this mix of economy and Vallejo, California, USA, need to take action now!tled "Singapore to Phase-in high-tech (e-conomy?)? I need to find a way to contactCashless Economy" in the Global It seems one more move to create a society modelled on the efficient, other people who have experiencedNews section are more reasons tobelieve that our world is being The Tao of Garlic parsimonious mindset of the injustice at the hands of child pro-controlled and manipulated by per- Hello Duncan: The garlic men- accountant, that I understand to be tection workers. There are manysonages with a globalist agenda. tion is very interesting and coinci- the soul of commerce-oriented, individuals out there who feel as IBut the question is: when will this dental. I, too, have recently read perfectly planned city-states like do, but we need help to go about itglobal government come about? the excerpt from the Bob Beck Singapore—where, though the the right way. Will you pleaseWill it be in 10 years, 15 years or article. I also read the same infer- economy underwrites pollution, it help us? My telephone number is20 years? ence in a very old book I picked up is a crime to litter; an Asian (03) 5460 5592 and e-mail Whether globalists know it or a while ago (when I finish moving Switzerland., a cashless society on a world- house, Ill find the book again and Low Siang Koks words remind With thanks, Maddisson McCall,wide scale will open the doors to reference it). me of remarks by Michael Roux at Maryborough, Victoria, AustraliaAPRIL – MAY 2001 NEXUS • 5
  6. 6. SCIENTIFIC MISSIONS AT "Estimates for filtered light at the ANTARCTIC LAKE lake surface indicate something like OVERRIDDEN BY NSA? continuous first morning light dur-The first item below is allegedly a ing Antarcticas summer months.Jet Propulsion Laboratory press Thermograph imaging proposes anrelease (ref. 01-24), but we are amazing 50-degree average waterunable to confirm its authenticity. temperature with hot spots near 65If anyone has further details, please degrees. This can only be attributedcontact us. The second item comes to subsurface geothermal heatvia Ed. sources. At 300 miles long and 50"I n a brief announcement today [21 February], NASA and theJPL terminated all further study of miles wide, the encapsulated atmos- phere should have the ability to cleanse itself through interactionLake Vostok in S. Antarctica. with the lake and possibly plant life. "In an apparent slip of confiden- "Also proposed as a possible routetiality, spokeswoman Debra for atmospheric interaction with theShingteller alluded to national lakes environment are what aresecurity issues allowing the NSA being labeled geothermal boils.[US National Security Agency] to These are thousands of bubbles inassume full control of what had the ice sheet, located in the some 200been an international effort to sq. miles of ice dunes discovered byexplore a huge under-ice lake near the letter written to an editor of S c i e n t i f i c the late Russian scientist Ivan Toskovoi,Russian Vostok research station. American (who has requested anonymity). who was stationed at Vostok research base "Ms Shingteller was immediately led The linked photo [see cyberspaceorbit until his disappearance in March 2000.away from the podium, and an aide website] was released by NASA in January The surveyed bubbles range from a few toresponded to the many further questions 2001, seemingly by mistake. It is no several hundred feet in diameter.with the same answer—"the project has longer available from the official archive. "Quite possibly just as exciting as all ofbeen halted due to environmental issues" "Approximately 300 miles from the the data related so far, is the discoveryand no further releases were pending. South Pole there is a lake, a very large through magnetic imaging that there is an "The large crowd of press corps were lake. It is Lake Vostok. It is also located extremely powerful source of magneticleft clamoring as the officials left the stage. over 3⁄4 mile beneath the continental ice energy located at the north end of theMs Shingteller has not responded to sheet. The best photos of Lake Vostok are lakes shoreline. As of this writing, no onerepeated attempts at contact." from space, where the outline is clearly has suggested an explanation for the mag- visible. Current ice-penetrating radar stud- netic anomaly.T he above is a report from an official JPL PR rep who attended theannouncement. The following is part of a ies indicate that the water is up to 2,000 feet deep in places, and has an over-arch- ing dome up to 1⁄2 mile high. "As recently as February 2000, at least two international teams were planning sep- arate probes of the lake. Both consisted of fairly similar robotic sensors that would have been lowered through shafts (to be drilled). The teams, based at Cambridge University, London [sic.], were sponsored by the UK and US governments and backed by NASA technology. "For reasons not clear, both programs have been shelved indefinitely, with NASA going so far as to deny any involve- ment, and both governments citing envi- ronmental concerns. An independent source that visited Norways research base some 150 miles to the East stated that a large amount of new equipment and per- sonnel have been arriving at Russias Vostok station over the last six months. This is interesting, considering Russias current financial situation. "A final note is a verified dispatch out of Casey Station (AU). The pair of women adventurers who were attempting to ski across the continent last month and were6 • NEXUS APRIL – MAY 2001
  7. 7. ... GL BAL NEWS ...extracted by plane during the last leg of formal studies of Pepcid in infants, the US Borough of Harrows refusal to permit antheir trip, did not request the intervention. Federal Government has given Merck a Orange phone mast in a residential area in "Over the protests of the Australian crew half-year of extra protection from generics. Stanmore, said: "There is justification forat Casey, the two were airlifted via an And the gains are even greater for some the councils view that residents anxietyextraordinary 48-hour flight by a USN of the other companies rushing to take about the health effects of the appealSpecial Forces team out of American advantage of a 1997 law meant to encour- installations materially contributes to theSamoa. age paediatric trials of adult medicines. general loss of amenity." "According to the dispatch, the women That law, by giving drug makers an Planning Minister Nick Raynsford wrotewere insistent on reporting something incentive to test on children, is producing to councils last summer, advising them tounusual they had seen. The latest news important new prescribing information for ignore health issues when determiningreports have the pair resting in seclusion." paediatricians, the Food and Drug mast applications if they met international(Sources: Various websites, including Administration says. Labels have been radiation and changed on 14 drugs to reflect new data. But Alan Meyer, legal advocate to Some paediatricians are delighted with the group Mast Action UK, said the decisions results and are lobbying to extend the law would give authorities a reason to ignore MOBILE PHONE RADIATION past its scheduled expiration at years end. Raynsfords advice, which he believes vio- LINKED TO EYE CANCER But a close look at the law shows that it lates the Human Rights Act.M obile phones have been linked to human cancer in a scientific studyfor the first time. The research, which sug- is also producing an unintended conse- quence: a drug-industry financial bonanza. (Source: Wall Street Journal , NY, 5 Feb "The Inspectorate, unlike Raynsford, is doing what the law requires. It is respect- ing the European Convention on Humangests there is a threefold increase in eye 2001, Rights article 8, right to respect for familycancers among people who regularly use life, and article 6, right to a fair and properthe device, was carried out by a team from PHONE TOWERS ARE NOW A hearing," Meyer said.the University of Essen, in Germany. HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE RTPI spokesman David Rose said: The team investigated a form of eye can-cer called uveal melanoma, in whichtumours form in the layer that makes up I n the UK, two landmark decisions by the Planning Inspectorate have endorsed decisions by planning authorities to refuse "These decisions will put new pressure on authorities to refuse masts. But its barmy to leave them to judge the safety of eachthe iris and base of the retina. The results the installation of phone masts on the individual mast. The government needs towere published in the journal grounds of public fears about health haz- assess if they are safe."Epidemiology. ards. The Inspectorate has thrown out two (Source: The Journal of the Royal Town Dr Andreas Stang, who led the research, separate appeals by phone companies Planning Institute, UK, 16 February 2001)said he had examined 118 people with against refusals based on public concernuveal melanoma and obtained details about about health risks. It is the first time DRUG TRIALS IN AUSTRALIAtheir use of digital mobile phones. This inspectors have ruled that anxiety about LACK PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITYwas compared with a control group of 475people without the disease. The mechanism by which the radiation the possible adverse health effects of masts is a material consideration. An inspector, upholding the London T housands of Australian patients are being used as guinea pigs in drug trials for global pharmaceutical companiesmight cause cancer is uncertain, but it isknown that the watery content of the eyeassists the absorption of radiation.(Source: The Times, London, 14 Jan 2001) PAEDIATRICIANS TEST ADULT DRUGS ON CHILDRENM ary Robinson, a Philadelphia X-ray technologist, received US$300 and a$50 Toys R Us gift certificate as an incen-tive to enrol her seven-month-old daughterin a drug trial to treat a form of indigestionbabies can get. Merck & Co., the maker ofthe medicine, also received an incentive:about US$290 million. Thats the estimat-ed revenue Merck will pocket from the sixmonths of additional marketing exclusivityit has won. Mercks drug, Pepcid, was slated to loseits patent protection last October, openingthe way to low-priced generic competition.But, as a reward for conducting the firstAPRIL – MAY 2001 NEXUS • 7
  8. 8. ... GL BAL NEWS ...without explicit laws to protect their rights. have arisen over similar trials in Europe THE ECONOMIC RATIONALISM Intellectually disabled men and women, and the USA, and because of the relative OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASEincapable of giving consent on their ownbehalf, are being included in the trialswhich are largely aimed at getting new cheapness and ease of getting approval. (Source: The Sydney Morning Herald , 13 February 2001, A bigail Wood, a vet and researcher for the Wellcome Trust at the University of Manchester, says that foot-and-mouthdrugs to the US and European markets. disease "is as serious to animals as a bad Pharmaceutical companies are paying TRACK AND CONTROL YOUR cold is to human beings" and asks, "So whyprivate doctors up to A$6,000 for every CAR WITH GPS & THE INTERNET the concern?"patient they recruit, but patients dont haveto be told of the financial arrangement. The number of drug trials being conduct- H ouston-based Immobiliser Inc. is introducing the worlds first over-the- counter wireless vehicle tracking and "Foot-and-mouth has gained a grip on this nation—and fear of the disease seems as powerful as the disease itself. Weed in Australia has risen 20-fold since control system using both the Internet and recognise foot-and-mouth not by its symp-1990, and many never result in approval Global Positioning System (GPS) toms, but by what we do to control it: thefor the drug being trialled. Some trials are technology. restrictions on movement, the slaughter ofabandoned after reports of side-effects and The new product, called GPS Vision, animals, the burning of carcasses. Fromdeaths, either here or overseas, or because will allow vehicle owners from anywhere the panic and the headlines, you wouldthe drug simply does not work. in the world to be able to track and control imagine that this is a most dreadful disease. A Sydney Morning Herald investigation their vehicle over the Internet. It has the Yet foot-and-mouth very rarely kills thefound that the Therapeutic Goods power to track and control a vehicle with animals that catch it. They almost alwaysAdministration (TGA) was obliged to just the click of a mouse. Car owners recover, and in a couple of weeks at that. Itreview directly only two of the 1,712 clini- receive the vehicles street address location, almost never gets passed on to humans, andcal trials done in Australia last year. digital mapping, car speed and direction in when it does it is a mild infection only. Trials have included experiments on seconds via the Internet. The meat from animals that have had it isdementia patients, the testing of hormone Doors can be remotely unlocked or fit to eat. In clinical terms, foot-and-mouthcreams on menopausal women, and the locked, the engine can be turned on or off, is about as serious, to animals or to people,administration of new vaccines in children. and you can even be notified via pager/cell- as a bad cold. Professor John Simes, director of the phone if your car alarm is activated—all "Why, then, the concern? And why theNational Health and Medical Research from anywhere in the world. The next time policy of wholesale slaughter? The con-Councils clinical trial centre, says the lack your car is stolen, you can dial it up on cern, of course, is economic. This is aof a publicly accessible central trials regis- your cellphone, obtain its location, relay financial issue, not an animal welfare issueter in Australia means that there is no accu- this info to the police, then turn off the car nor a human health one. No one abroadrate way of knowing what trials are being engine, lock the doors and wait. will take our meat if it might be infecteddone and by whom. (Source: Wireless Developer Network, 5 with foot-and-mouth. And that worldwide Global pharmaceutical companies have February 2001, exclusion zone stems from British policiesrushed to Australia at a time when debates news/2001/35/news5.html) of the past. It was we who, in the late 19th century, decided that foot-and-mouth should not be lived with, but should be eliminated, shut out through the c o r d o n s a n i t a i r e; it was we, in the 1950s, who encouraged first the Continent, then the rest of the world, into following suit. Now it is we who must live with the results of that policy. "Foot-and-mouth disease does reduce the productivity of an animal: its milk yield, its rate of putting on of flesh. There are no figures for how much it reduces these things; part of the reason for that is that no one since the 1920s in Britain has seen the disease take its full course. Any animal infected with it has been immediately slaughtered. That reduction in productivi- ty, that fear of small economic loss, is what lies behind the elimination policy—and the huge economic costs that are now being incurred. "It need not have been like that. The animal control policy was the result of economics rather than biology. Under8 • NEXUS APRIL – MAY 2001
  9. 9. ... GL BAL NEWS ...conditions of world trade now, it is a THE PORT ARTHUR MASSACRE: SIGNS OF A CONSPIRACY?decision almost impossible to reverse." The debate over whether the tragic Port Arthur Massacre was part of a conspiracy to(Source: The Times, London, 1 March 2001. usher-in Federal gun laws in Australia has taken a dramatic turn. Prior to going toThe author, Abigail Woods, is currently a print with this issue in early March, we made contact with Andrew MacGregor,Wellcome Trust–funded MSc student at the researcher and collator of information scheduled for public release in late March. It isCentre for the History of Science, Technology important to note that this entire information release effort has been instigated byand Medicine at Manchester University, UK. several survivors—in particular, Wendy Scurr, who was working at the InformationShe qualified as a vet in 1996.) Centre that day. It was Wendy Scurr who phoned the police and ambulance emergency numbers and held the phone out the door so that the disbelieving police officer could SPIDER SILK FROM GOAT MILK: hear for himself the gunfire and chaos. It is clear from examining MacGregors A GENETIC NIGHTMARE research (a sampling of which follows) that many unanswered questions remain regarding the actual events at Port Arthur, Tasmania, on Sunday 28 April 1996. Ed.I n a concrete bunker on a mothballed Air Force base in Plattsburgh, New York,two Nigerian dwarf goats named Mille and M ost Australians are only vaguely aware of the events that occurred at Port Arthur that fateful Sunday. We have been told that a gunman armed with a Colt AR15Muscade joyfully munch grass and slurp semi-automatic rifle fired 29 rounds inside the Broad Arrow Café at Port Arthur, killingwater. Oddly, they are protected from 20 and wounding another 12 of the approximately 60 people inside the café. It is alsointruders by security guards and razor wire. stated that the killer fired 17 shots, killing 12 and wounding another five victims in the Only 20 weeks old, these sister beasts first 15 seconds. The gunman then changed magazines and left the café, still firing thewarrant tight security because their milk is Colt AR15 until he changed firearms to a Belgian FN assault rifle and continued hishighly prized by the US military. Their assault, killing four and wounding five at the Port Arthur Historic Site carpark area.70,000-gene chromosomes have been The gunman then drove towards the tollbooth, where he murdered Mrs Mikac and hermanipulated to include a gene from the orb two children, and then, at the tollbooth, stole a BMW after murdering the four occupantsweaver, a small spider that spins the and shooting at other cars and their occupants who came upon the scene.worlds toughest natural material. The gunman then drove a short distance to the Port Arthur Service Station/GeneralResearchers are "growing" the spiders silk Store and kidnapped Glen Pears and murdered his companion, Zoe Hall. The gunmaninside Mille and Muscades mammary then drove north along the Arthur Highway and parked the BMW just off the highway,glands. outside the entrance to Seascape Cottage. These strands of silk, just three microns The BMW was next reportedly seen by John Rooke, who saw the vehicle divergethick, are three times as tough as DuPonts across the Arthur Highway and park outside the Seascape Cottage, and then saw thebulletproof Kevlar. A woven cable as thick gunman start shooting at passing traffic. The gunman shot at six different vehicles asas your thumb can bear the weight of a they passed the Seascape driveway, seriously wounding two persons, Linda White andjumbo jet. Once perfected, the silk will be Carol Williams (the wife of a Canadian Embassy official), with others receiving lesserused for featherweight ballistic vests, med- injuries, mainly from broken glass, before withdrawing to the Seascape Cottage to pre-ical sutures and artificial ligaments. pare for the coming police siege. The goats represent a new avenue in the The following morning, Martin Bryant was arrested naked, after he had fled from acontroversial field of transgenics, the sci- fiery Seascape Cottage unarmed, dressed in black and with his clothes alight. After heence of splicing one species genes onto the had fled the burning building, he vanished from view for a time while he removed hisgenome of another. By injecting the orb burning clothing. This supposed gunman had left his armoury behind.weaver gene into the father of Mille and A total of 35 died and 22 were injured during the entire incident, including atMuscade, Nexia Biotechnologies bred she- Seascape Cottage. However, Wendy Scurr and some of the survivors tell a very differ-goats whose mammary glands are able to ent story and raise other questions:produce the complex proteins that make up • Who lured the only two local policemen on duty to a remote location on the pretextspider silk. Their milk looks and tastes like of finding a heroin cache? It was not Martin Bryant.the real thing, but once its proteins are fil- • Why was the shootout considered a terrorist attack? It was at 1715 hours that thetered and purified into a fine white powder, Tasmania Police phoned the Victoria Police, requesting immediate assistance for a ter- rorist attack. On the basis that the Tasmania Police had established that there was morethey can be spun into tough thread. than one shooter, the National Crisis Centre was notified at 1719 hours. Jeffrey Turner, the molecular geneticist • Why was ASIO present in a State jurisdiction for a "crazed gunman"? ASIObehind the goat gambit and CEO of the showed no presence at the Hoddle Street and Queen Street massacres in Melbourne.publicly held Nexia Biotechnologies, got • Why was the Tasmania Police held back from attending the site for six hours? Allthe idea while teaching at McGill this, while local volunteers there were assisting the wounded and stricken.University in Montreal in 1992, after learn- • Above all, why does the official version continually differ significantly from theing that scientists had isolated three spider statements, the video evidence and eyewitness testimony?genes that code for silk proteins. "It was a purely serendipitous find. The (Source: Extracted/edited from Andrew MacGregors CD-ROM research compilation, Deceit and Terrorism: The Massacre at Port Arthur . Andrew MacGregor served in thesilk gland of spiders and the milk gland of Victoria Police for 17 years and was awarded the National Service Medal in 1985. He hasgoats are almost identical. Teats equal no involvement with firearms or firearms organisations. The CD-ROM is available fromspinnerets." 2012 Unlimited, PO Box 157, North Hobart, Tasmania 7002, Australia, telephone 041 988(Source: Forbes Global, 19 February 2001, 2012 [Aust. only], website – MAY 2001 NEXUS • 9
  10. 10. 10 • NEXUS APRIL – MAY 2001
  11. 11. BACKGROUND TO THE CRISIS S ince the 1996 admission 1 that British cattle suffering from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad cow disease") had introduced the agent of an invariably fatal brain illness (a variant of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, referred to as vCJD) into the human food chain, BSE has subsequently spread to cattle in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and perhaps Sweden. The report from the government-convened Lord Phillips Inquiry 2 into BSE in Britain Britains deception claims that contaminated animal feed the size of a peppercorn can transmit BSE to cattle. To date, almost 200,000 cattle are known to have contracted BSE. Most cases have been and delayed action in Britain, where the number exceeds 180,000. Another five million cattle, aged less than 30 months and without physical signs of BSE, have been slaughtered in preemptive over the BSE/CJD measures to safeguard public health. Since the initial 10 cases of vCJD were linked to BSE-infected beef in 1996, the disease infection path have claimed a further 90 human lives by February 2001, the vast majority of victims being created animal and permanent or temporary residents of Britain. Estimates of the anticipated number of human deaths as a result of BSE in cattle vary considerably, but, since the Lord Phillips human health crises Inquiry, the Blair Administration has warned that, over time, the figure could reach 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 3 —a big jump from the previous estimate of 136,000 vCJD deaths. The which are affecting November 2000 announcement gave notice that UK authorities are working with the "worst case scenario" of one in every 250 people in Britain dying from the disease. much of Europe and When questioned, microbiologist Dr Stephen Dealler explained that the revised figure was based on a "guesstimate" that the average Briton had probably eaten BSE-infected are now spreading meat on 50 occasions, but he also admitted this: "At the moment, the number of cases of CJD we are seeing are doubling every year. If they double for a long time, then the num- to the rest of the bers are in millions; if they double for just a few years, then the numbers are in thousands. world. At the moment, it is very difficult to know." Unlike scrapie—the sheep equivalent of brain illnesses like BSE in cattle and CJD in humans which has been around for more than two centuries—BSE was unheard of until 1986, a decade after British cattle began to be fed the protein-rich remains of scrapie- infected sheep to accelerate their growth, and, coincidentally, four years after Britain com- menced to expose cattle to organophosphate pesticides. Human spongiform encephalopathy, or CJD, is also a disease of the 20th century, unknown until two German physicians, Creutzfeldt and Jakob, independently reported the first cases in the 1920s. The agent of spongiform encephalopathies incubates in animals and humans for a pro- longed period of time before outward signs of the infection become obvious: in cattle, after five years, on average; and in human cases of CJD resulting from human pituitary by Lynette J. Dumble, PhD, MSc growth and infertility hormone injections or contaminated surgical materials, after as few © 2001 as two to as many as 40 years. By the time symptoms appear, the agent of BSE/CJD has already turned the brain into International Co-ordinator the sponge-like mass which led this group of diseases to be classified as spongiform slow Global Sisterhood Network virus disorders in the first instance. BSE-symptomatic cattle are left confused and E-mail: trembling, deprived of their own feet to stand on, a furnace their tragic fate. CJD- Website: symptomatic humans also suffer gait problems, and over varying periods of time—in some cases, weeks; in others, months and sometimes years—are progressively robbed of their every means communication, the ability to hear, see and speak. Gone, too, is theirAPRIL – MAY 2001 NEXUS • 11
  12. 12. understanding of written and spoken native language and, with Among them were African antelopes and domesticated and cap-this, every scrap of dignity. tive wild cats. In contrast to sporadic CJD, which has a natural incidence ofless than one per million and generally claims victims who are in • Organophosphate Pesticidestheir sixties and seventies, BSE-related CJD was initially antici- But first, the "organophosphate theory" of how it might have allpated to be a disease which claimed the lives of much younger began. Three years before the first case of BSE was reported invictims: teenagers and those in their 20s and 30s. Like the many Kent, British authorities ordered the compulsory spraying of cattleother postulates responsible for clouding the BSE catastrophe with the organophosphate pesticide phosmet, in order to combat awith uncertainty, this theory fell apart in late 1999 with the vCJD plague of warble fly. Manufactured by Zeneca, a subdivision ofdeath of a 74-year-old man, and led to questions of whether the the British chemical giant ICI, and originally developed by theCJD-like symptoms of Alzheimers disease, which account for Nazis, phosmet is a neurological toxin. Related to the infamousmisdiagnosis in 10 per cent of sporadic CJD sufferers, might also birth-defect drug thalidomide, phosmet was used exclusively inlead, or have already lead, to vCJD escaping recognition in the Britain between 1982 and 1990.elderly. In 1996, Mark Purdey, an organic farmer from Somerset in A BSE-infected food chain amounts to far more than the T-bone England, suggested that organophosphate pesticides such as phos-and rump steak, roast sirloin and hamburger which frequent the met might be behind Britains BSE and vCJD crises.4 His largelymenus of todays predominantly meat-eating society. Taken neglected, but nonetheless plausible, theory argues that the expo-together, these are the tip of an iceberg that has laid bare the vast sure of the bovine embryo to high doses of lipophilic formulationsarray of bovine-based products which have come to be part and of organophosphates might have acted to trigger the deformationparcel of everyday lives. Coming quickly to mind are milk, cream, of cattle prion protein and hence the onset of the BSE. Certainlycheese, medical vaccines, health supplements and confectionery the timing, distribution and dynamics of phosmet usage in Britaincontaining gelatin. tie in with the outbreak of BSE. Equally, the public health implications of BSE extend much In Europe, the agrichemical division of Switzerlands Sandozfurther than the consumption of leaked tonnes of another organophos-infected bovine materials. Laboratory phate pesticide into the Rhine inexperiments since the 1970s have 1986, killing all aquatic life in theshown that, compared with the blood river from Basel to the North Sea. Itroute, the oral pathway is a relatively took seven years to revive the river,inefficient means of transmitting thesetypes of diseases from one animal to ... it is fair to say that BSE but it can also be argued that the organophosphate spill has played aanother. Extrapolating from that data, now looms as a pandemic role in the BSE which subsequentlyvCJD may ultimately claim fewer that may put HIV/AIDS afflicted cattle in Switzerland,men than women, since tradition in France and Germany in the lateevery world region places more in the shade. 1990s.women than men in the kitchen to risk Purdey had investigated the clus-knife injuries with BSE-suspect meat. ters of BSE in cattle, clusters of tra- Additionally, it is not unreasonable ditional or sporadic human CJD into conclude that a BSE-infected beef Britain, as well as clusters of a simi-consumer is henceforth a living incu- lar illness, chronic wasting disease,bator of vCJD. Like asymptomatic carriers of blood-borne infec- in deer and elk in the Unites States. He discovered that high lev-tions such as hepatitis and syphilis, asymptomatic carriers of the els of manganese—the metal sprayed in high doses on cattle viavCJD agent have the potential to transmit vCJD to recipients of organophosphate pest deterrents—was a common factor. He sug-blood transfusions and organ transplants. gested that, in addition to activating a prion mutation in cattle, Overall, in the context of a BSE-infected food chain and the excess manganese might also intensify traditional forms of CJD,likelihood of BSE-contaminated blood and organ transplant sup- which could thereby explain vCJD appearing in humans severalplies, it is fair to say that BSE now looms as a pandemic that may decades younger than sporadic CJD victims. According toput HIV/AIDS in the shade. Purdey,5 funding for BSE–organophosphate research may never eventuate. "No ones prepared to admit it, because it wouldROOTS OF THE ORIGINAL BSE OUTBREAK involve massive compensation. By keeping the causal agent as A number of theories have been put forward to explain the 1985 something mystified, no ones to blame." He could be right.outbreak of BSE in British cattle. A small but respectable body of The transnational companies behind the pesticide trade exertopinion argues that both cattle and humans have been poisoned by enormous political influence, with the giant Syngenta AG nowthe widespread use of organophosphate pesticides; but an even heading the distribution of organophosphate pesticides.larger body of opinion considers that Britains BSE resulted from Syngentas rise to become the world number one in agrichemicals1980s changes to the manufacture of animal protein–enriched (herbicides, fungicides and insecticides), number two in seedcattle feed. treatment and number three in seed supplies has been nothing From 1985, when a mysterious disease now known as BSE short of astronomical, and can be traced to the 1996 mergerappeared in Daisy, a dairy cow from Kent, the annual number of between the agrichemical divisions of two Basel-based compa-BSE-infected cattle rose to 731 within the space of three years. nies, Sandoz and Ciba. 6 April 1999 saw the agrichemical divi-By 1989, 400 new cases appeared each week, and, by 1992, 100 sions of the Swedish Astra AB and the British Zeneca Group PLCnew cases appeared each day. Also in the 1990s, animal species merge to give birth to AstraZeneca, but by December 1999 bothother than cattle, fed on cattle-containing rendered or raw meat AstraZeneca and the Basel-based duo, by then known as Novartis,and bones, began to die of BSE and CJD-like brain illnesses. had also merged to form Syngenta. Boasting to be "the worlds12 • NEXUS APRIL – MAY 2001
  13. 13. first global, dedicated agribusiness company", the to humans from the consumption of beef or dairy products orNovartis–AstraZeneca empire notched up combined sales in 1998 from the occupational contact of farmers and dairy and slaughter-of close to US$8 billion, and with its new Syngenta identity has house workers with cattle.effectively removed the organophosphate faces of Zeneca and Additionally, although BSE was presumed to have originatedSandoz from public view. from scrapie, and scrapie was not a human pathogen, mouse- adapted strains of scrapie were known to adopt an altered host• Animal Protein–Enriched Feed range after passage through hamsters, to become transmissible And now to the more popular "infected animal feed" theory, thereafter to rodents. 8 Similarly, human strains of kuru or CJDone which claims that BSE emerged from the post–World War II did not transmit to ferrets or goats until passaged through primatesBritish strategy adopted to increase the milk yield of dairy herds. or cats, 9 as, too, a bovine strain of BSE was converted in theIn brief, cows were fed on protein-enriched pellets made from the laboratory from nontransmissible to transmissible to hamsters bymeat and bones extracted from the animal carcasses that littered passage through mice.10abattoir and boning plants and from the animal leftovers discarded By May 1990, the CJD Surveillance Unit was established, aby butchers, restaurants and knackeries. The carcasses of scrapie- move extended three years later to Europe, to detect possibleinfected sheep, and, between the years 1985 and 1988, those of changes in British and European CJD epidemiology. In 1995, theBSE-infected cattle, found their way into the protein-enriched ani- unit in Edinburgh was notified of CJD in three victims, aged 16,mal feed which initially turned cattle into carnivores and ulti- 19 and 29 years. The British cases may not have been the firstmately into cannibals. BSE-related deaths in humans; five years earlier, three cases of During the rendering process, the carcasses were milled and CJD in young patients had been reported in Poland. 11 The neu-then decomposed in large vats by boiling at atmospheric pressure ropathology of all three British cases revealed amyloid plaques, aor higher pressure to produce a liquid protein layer under a layer feature which occurs in only five to 10 per cent of sporadic casesof fat (tallow). Once the fat was separated, the protein solution of CJD. By December 1995, the CJD Surveillance Unit had beenwas dried into a meat and bone meal product. Overall, Britains informed of 10 suspected cases of CJD in persons under 50 yearsrendering plants are part of a huge industry that supplied animal of age. Some turned out to have suffered sporadic or familialprotein–enriched animal feed to livestock farmers, to pet owners, CJD, others a non-CJD illness, but one case was that of a 29-year-and to zoos for a number of animal old and the other a 30-year-old.species held in captivity. Neuropathology subsequently con- The rendering process was deregu- firmed that both had suffered CJDlated in the late 1970s when, as a Britains rendering plants and, like the three unusually youthfulcost-saving measure, fat-removingsolvents were dropped from the are part of a huge industry that 1995 cases, had extensive deposition of amyloid plaques.decomposition menu and the "cook- supplied animal protein–enriched In the first months of 1996, twoing" temperature was lowered.During the same era, rendering pro- animal feed to livestock farmers, further cases of CJD emerged in youthful victims, and both with amy-cedures in other countries also under - to pet owners, and to zoos for loid plaque neuropathology. By then,went similar changes. a distinctive clinical syndrome had Numerous other countries exposed a number of animal species begun to emerge to assist in diagnos-cattle to organophosphate pesticides, held in captivity. ing vCJD: young age at onset, earlybut only British cattle were afflicted psychiatric symptoms, prominentwith BSE by the mid-1980s—a phe- ataxia, absence of periodic electroen-nomenon put down to the large pro- cephalographic activity, and a com-portion of scrapie-infected sheep within the mix of rendered ani- paratively prolonged illness. Two additional vCJD cases weremal carcasses in Britain. Nonetheless, it took until 20 March confirmed by the end of February 1996, and a report12 on a total of1996—the day on which the British Prime Minister John Major 10 cases concluded that an unrecognised variant of CJD, unique atpublicly admitted that BSE apparently had jumped the species that time to residents of Britain aged less than 45 years, was prob-barrier from cows to humans—for Britain finally to ban the export ably due to exposure to BSE infection in cattle.of animal meat-and-bone-meal feed. The link between vCJD and BSE was subsequently proved by laboratory studies 13 which demonstrated the identical characteris-FROM CATTLE TO HUMANS tics of the pathological agents isolated from BSE-infected cattle As the BSE epidemic escalated from the initial case in Daisy and human cases of vCJD.the dairy cow, so too did concerns about human safety.7 By and Laboratory evidence has also indicated that, rather than beinglarge, measures to eradicate BSE and prevent potentially infected present within beef muscle, the agent of BSE finds its way intotissues from reaching the human food chain were slow to com- the human food chain via beef products which are contaminatedmence. It was not until July 1988 that Britain banned the practice by nervous system tissue. This could have happened as a result ofof feeding cattle with meal containing the ground-up remains of the cranium-stunning instruments which are used to immobilisecows, but, for the best part of the next eight years, authorities per- cattle before they are killed by exsanguination; or from the inclu-sisted with assurances that it was absolutely safe to eat British sion of paraspinal ganglia in cuts of meat, e.g., in T-bone steak; orbeef. Few will forget the then Minister for Agriculture, John from the presence of residual spinal cord and paraspinal gangliaGummer, stuffing a hamburger into his five-year-old daughters tissue in the paste of mechanically recovered meat which, in themouth to demonstrate his confidence! pre–mad cow disease era, was added to cooked meat products like But, from the time BSE-like illnesses began to emerge in zoo meat pies, beef sausages and a number of canned meat products.ungulates and domestic and wild cats, it became impossible to Up until December 2000, all vCJD victims, with the exceptionignore the possibility that BSE might also cross the species barrier of three cases in France, had lived in or visited the UK, indicatingAPRIL – MAY 2001 NEXUS • 13