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Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
Mufon ufo journal   1991 6. june
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Mufon ufo journal 1991 6. june

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  • 1. Mufon UFO JournalOfficial Publication of the Mutual UFO Network Since 1967Number 278June 1991$2.50. A f^r^sf^y, .CROP CIRCLES: The Mystical ViewBy Vincent Migliore
  • 2. Mufon UFO JournalJune 1991 Number 278CONTENTSCROP CIRCLES: THE MYSTICAL VIEW Vince Migliore 3HOW TO MEASURE A CIRCLE 9F-CLASS STARS AS EVOLUTION DRIVERS Erich A. Aggen, Jr. 10LOOKING BACK Bob Gribble 12THE UFO PRESS Michael Chorost 14IN OTHERS WORDS Lucius Parish 16LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Salisberrys, Noyes, Shandera, Andrews 17SYMPOSIUM SCHEDULE 21THE JULY NIGHT SKY Walter N. Webb 22DIRECTORS MESSAGE Walt Andrus 24COVER PHOTO Courtesy of F. C. Busty TaylorEDITORDennis W. StacyASSOCIATE EDITORWalter H. Andrus, Jr.COLUMNISTSWalter N. WebbRobert GribbleLucius ParishMUFON UFO JOURNAL(USPS 002-970)(ISSN 0270-6822)103 Oldtowne Rd.Seguin, TX 78155-4099Telephone: (512) 379-9216Copyright 1991 by the Mutual UFO Network.All Rights Reserved.No part of this document may be reproduced in any form without the written permissionof the Copyright Owners. Permission is hereby granted to quote up to 200 words of any onearticle, provided the author is credited, and the statement, "Copyright 1991 by the MutualUFO Network, 103 Oldtowne Rd., Seguin, Texas 78155," is included.The contents of the MUFON UFO Journal are determined by the editors and do not necessarilyreflect the official position of the Mutual UFO Network.The Mutual UFO Network, Inc. is exempt from Federal Income Tax under Section 501 (c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. MUFON is a publicly supported organizationof the typedescribed in Section 509 (a) (2). Donors may deduct contributions from their Federal In-come Tax. Bequests, legacies, devises, transfers or gifts are also deductible for estate andgift purposes, provided they meet the applicable provisions of Sections 2055, 2106 and 2522of the Internal Revenue Code.The MUFON UFO JOURNAL is published monthly by the Mutual UFONetwork, Inc., Seguin, Texas. Membership/Subscription rates: $25 per year inthe U.S.A.; $30 foreign in U.S. funds. Second class postage paid at Seguin, TX.POSTMASTER: Send form 3579 to advise change of address to:MUFON, 103 Oldtowne Rd., Seguin, TX 78155
  • 3. CROP CIRCLES: The Mystical ViewVince MiglioreTechnical writer Milgiore is aMUFON field investigator, as well asState Director for Lake and SonomaCounties, California.In April 1991 two leading Englishresearchers on the crop circlephenomenon, George Wingfield andJohn Haddington, visited California ona lecture tour. On April 14 they ap-peared for a six-hour presentation co-sponsored by MUFON and StarrionProductions of San Francisco. Thisreport is a summary of their talk withsome additional information culledfrom newsletters and periodicals com-ing out of England.The current theories on the mech-anism and the meaning of cropcircles fall very roughly into twocamps, the Natural and the Mystical.The leading hypothesis in the Naturalcamp is the atmospheric plasma vortextheory advanced by Terence Meaden ofTORRO. This postulates that wind cur-rents are manipulated by surroundinghills to create whirlingair currents andionized plasmas that form the patterns.There are numerous aviation safetystudies that describe the power and un-predictability of air turbulence. Criticsclaim, however, that the complexity andprecision of the crop pictograms rulesout natural causes. They further claimthere is a link to the many ancient stonetumuli (ceremonial sites such asStonehenge) that dot the English coun-tryside. The plasma vortex theoristscounter that the phenomenon has beengoing on for many years and that theremay even be some hoaxers who sup-plement the natural formations.In their lecture, George Wingfieldand John Haddington are quick todismiss the plasma vortex theory. "On-ly the most hardened skeptics still clingto that version of events," claimedWingfield at the start. He went on tolist some of the more perplexing find-So-called "double pictogram" formed on July 27,1990, between the East andWest Kennett Long Barrows, Wiltshire. Photo by George Wingfield from TheCrop Circle Enigma (Gateway Books, Bath, UK), edited by Ralph Noyes. Oneof a series of eight color postcards available from the Centre for Crop CircleStudies or Gateway: The Hollies, Wellow, Bath, BA2 8QJ. Does the forma-tion point directly toward or away from Silbury Hill in the distance, Europeslargest prehistoric man-made mound?MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 4. ings associated with genuine cropcircles, and why he feels they are nothoaxes. These include:1. The stalks are bent but not broken.They are essentially undamaged.2. Some impressions are only light-ly imprinted, an effect difficult to hoax.3. There is a fine structure to the laidcrop. There are sharp edges, and attimes multiple layers in differentdirections.4. Many of the shapes are elliptical.Hoaxes would more likely be circles.5. There are sometimes narrow ringssurrounding the circles. These are con-centric with the center circle, and aresometimes only a few inches wide. Itsimpossible to view these rings atgroundlevel without wading through anddamaging the crop, yet there are nosigns of anyone entering the field.6. The presence of "grapeshot,"numerous small circles adjacent to themain formation.7. The phenomenon is worldwide.8. The scope and precision of thelarge pictograms, often several hundredfeet long.9. Eyewitness accounts of circles ap-pearing as if an invisible force werepressing down the crop.10. A large number of formations,over 1000 reported in England in 1990alone (see Table 1).11. The Operation Blackbird hoaxwas easily detected as fraudulent.12. Dowsing evidence. With a highdegree of consistency dowsers reportthe pictograms lie across or along leylines.One curious observation is that manypictograms seem to be oriented withtheir major axis along the tram linesthat farmers use to spray their crops.American farmers generally use cropduster aircraft to spray insecticide, butthe British use tractors that ride alongthese tram lines. Wingfield relates astory of how one farmer, determined tooutwit the supposed hoaxers, decidednot to spray his crops. Despite the lackof tram lines, and much to the frustra-tion of the farmer, his crops exper-ienced a large pictogram shortlythereafter. This is typical of the con-founding effect the circles seem todisplay. Just when one researcherThe first "double pictogram" appeared July 11,1990 at Alton Barnes, nearAdams Grave, Vale of Pewsey. One hundred and thirty-five meters long, itattracted thousands of curious visitors. Photo by Alick Bartholomew fromEnigma.claims the glyphs never cross naturalboundaries, there appears a patternthatintersects a hedgerow, stops, then con-tinues on the other side.With a rapt audience, Wingfield andHaddington didnt go very far in ad-dressing the possibilitythat the forma-tions are the result of natural processes.Even if hoaxes and wind vortices areruled out, there may be other naturalforces at work. These alternativehypotheses are discussed in someof themany fine books and newsletters fromEngland (see Sources below). Othernatural theories for the creation of thecrop circles include magneticanomalies, seismic events, soundwaves, electromagnetic radiation,cosmic radiation, some form of in-teraction with ancient tumuli, chemicalreactions from the soil, gas emissions,etc. A menagerie of animals has alsobeen suggested, including pigs,hedgehogs, birds, foxes, even worms.None of these concepts however seemsable to explain all, or even most of theodd characteristicsof this mystery.The underlying assumption of themystical view is that the agriglyphshavesymbolic meaning, and are therefore theresult of an unknown intelligence.Clearly, the first impression mostwitnesses have is that there is informa-tion in these patterns. The only remain-ing questionthen is whatdo they mean?With the tremendousincrease in thenumber of formations in 1990, anumber of experts in various fieldsTable 1. Count of Crop Circle FormationsYEAR COUNT1985198619871988198919901717751103051000+MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 5. 1-a 1-bFigure 1. Crop Patterns Likened to the Celtic Crosshave been exposed to and are ex-pounding on the circles. Visitors, in-cluding Wingfield and Haddington, in-frequently report the presence of "ahigh-pitched trilling sound," and severalhave recorded anomalies and malfunc-tions on electronic devices. Othersclaim blue and red flashes of light,translucent orange spheres and otheroptical effects. This suggests there aretransients all across the electromagneticspectrum.Up to this point there is not muchdebate on the data collection methods,but what follows is a bit more con-troversial. Wingfield and Haddingtonreflect the most popular mysticalinter-pretations, such as those advanced inThe Crop Circle Enigma, edited byRalph Noyes. This must-read book canbe likened to Jacques Vallees Passportto Magonia, which inextricably linkedthe UFO phenomenon with a longhistory of folklore and fortean events.In the same manner, the current ragein England is to link the crop circlesto the Celtic fairy faith, ancient tumuli,neolithic religions, channeling,dows-ing, a variety of present-day super-natural events and of course UFOs.Celtic FolkloreThe Fairy Faith so popular in theBritish Isles brings to mind theelusivelittle fairies that paint the flowers, danceFigure 2. Typical Dumbbell Pattern Compared to the Hindu Vajra.in the moonlight and create mischief inthe cottage kitchen. Less well knownare the reports of time travel, circles inthe grass knownas fairy rings, and theofferings of (curiously) wheat cakesfrom the Good People.In any case the crop circles began tobe linked to some of the rich folkloreof the area. The Good People areknown by other names, such asleprechauns, the Little People,Gnomes, etc. There was even a recentreport of a small man with bright redhair and beard seen perched high in atree near a crop formation. The red-haired dwarf is found both in Celticmyths and the UFO phenomenon.As the simple circles evolved, one ofthe first inferred symbols was the quin-cunx (Figure 1-a without the bottomcircle). This was followed by the longcross (Figure 1-a), and became labeledthe Celtic Cross (Figure 1-b). This isjust one example of why Wingfield andHaddington feel there is "very distinctlya spiritual connection." If this symboldoes in fact correspond to the CelticCross, then there is a clear link withage-old beliefs.Stones & TumuliStonehenge is the most pouplar of an-cient stone ceremonial circles. Quite alarge number of these monuments arescattered throughout the British Islesand northern France, but the heaviestconcentration is in the south and westof England, exactly where theagriglyphs are found in such abun-dance. Again, these sites have historicaland spiritual significance, and the cor-relation is seen as significantby somecereologists.Silbury Hill is an earthen pyramidestimated to be at least 2600 years old,with a rich history of religious andmythical connotations. According toWingfield, over 40 formationshave ap-peared in the immediate proximity ofthis artificial mound. Another more re-cent monument is the White Horse ofUffington, "a symbol of the gatewaybe-tween the physical and the spiritualworlds." Several pictograms have beenfound that conspicuously align withSilbury Hill and the White Horse.MUFON UFO JOURNALNo. 278 June 1991
  • 6. Though the source is unknown,manypeople report the presence of an energyinside the ancient tumuli and the pre-sent crop circles. Unfortunately, reac-tions vary widely across the spectrum.Most report a sense of awe, some a feel-ing of exhilaration. Yet others ex-perience nausea and even blackouts. PatDelgado (Crop Circles, the LatestEvidence) tells how his dog refused toenter the circle, but Wingfield reportson a dog that had no adverse reaction,and actually started eating the croponce inside the circle!Stonehenge has been found to be aningenious astronomical calendar, andthe layout of its stones is remarkablysimilar to some of the agriglyphs.Whether the modern formations haveastronomical significance seems tohaveless urgency than the idea that there isintelligence behind them.ReligionsThe already mentioned Celtic crossis not the only religious symbol seenin the crop circles. The quincunx,forinstance, may be associated with theHindu god Shiva Shakti (destroyer ofworlds). A "swastika" formation hasalso been identified and appears on thecover of The Crop CircleEnigma. Thisof course predates Hitler, and is takento mean "the totality of universe" ac-cording to Wingfield, or in laterEnglishsimply good luck. Also commonlyfound are "dumbbell" figures, twocircles of slightly different diametersconnected by a central shaft (Figure 2).This has been likened to the Hindu "Va-jra," a tool used for rituals and initia-tions. The Vajra symbolizes the un-breakable. For further reading see "TheYear of the Vajra" by John Haddingtonin Global Link Up, Autumn 1990.Some of the crop circle patterns re-quire a moderate stretch of the imagina-tion in order to equate them with themore traditional symbols referred tohere. Wingfield cautions however thatthese are "mystical symbols, not in-tellectual symbols - they speak to usthrough the subconscious." Some of thepatterns, he reports, are also known tothe NavajoIndians, and can be seen inIndian sand paintings.Ancient stone sites, symbols from avariety of antique faiths, and the generalatmosphere that something supernaturalis occurring all lead to the conclusionthat this is a religious phenomenon.There is an undercurrent that thismystery is not just an awakening, buta re-awakening. "Many people arecoming to visit," Haddington notes."They dont know why they come, butthey know they absolutely have to bethere."ChannelingChanneling is one of those tools thattends to obscure or clarify your com-prehension of crop circles, dependingon your faith. And faith it seems, playsa primary role here, as we delve deeperinto the occult sciences. Any psy-chologist will tell you that you will seeand perceive what you want to see,what youare motivated to see, and whatyour mental makeup tells you is possi-ble. My mission here is to relate whatWingfield and Haddington report, andwhats written in the literature. Withthat caveat, lets move on.Wingfield and other researchers haveused channelers to gain informationonthe circles. One claimed they are be-ing made by "The Shining Ones," agroup of angelic sages that built SilburyHill 4500 years ago. They disappearedin the Neolithic period, when manbegan to lose his spiritual connectionwith the earth, and are returning nowto help in the upcoming transition. Forfurther reference see "Cairns and CropCircles" by Michael Poynder, KindredSpirit magazine, Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter1990. Another feels the crop circles arethe result of an exercise of the collec-tive consciousness of mankind. Thecollective consciousness is a conceptthat all of mankind, or all livingorganisms, share a common mentalconnection, a theory championed bynoted psychiatrist Carl Jung.Other psychics have been successfulwith predicting the date and time offuture circles. At least partially suc-cessful anyway, as one predicted theplace, but the timing was off by a fewweeks. Several have predicted an in-crease in the complexity of the pic-tograms in 1991, and well have to waitto see if that proves to be true. Reportsthat the phenomenon is continuingin1991 have now been received. There arealso psychic suggestions that the small"grapeshot" circles found near manylarger formations may represent astro-nomical constellations.DowsingDowsing is another of those dis-ciplines that is held suspect by thosewho worship the god of WesternScience. Nevertheless, dowsingplays amajor role in crop circle geomancy.Wingfield, Haddington and just aboutall the newsletters out of England referfrequently to dowsable ley lines.Stonehenge and many of the tumulihave strong dowsable lines, and manyof the pictograms reportedly havedowsable lines along the major andminor axis.Haddington reports that the ley lines"seem to be increasing in energy,almost like theres a global network,like a nervous system" is responsible.Gaia, the living Earth, and Ceres, thegoddess of corn are also linked to thecrop circles. Some dowsers claim thereis another dimension to the glyphs, thatthey can measure a force above theground for many feet into the air abovethe pattern in the cereal.Present Day EventsThe crop circles are now appearingin other countries. Many New Agedisciples feel the pictograms are justone more manifestation of a global,spiritual change that is evolving all overthe world, with links to such seeminglydiverse events as the falling of theBerlin wall, the environmental move-ment, and the popularity ofvegetarianism.Another of the mysteries presentlyoccurring is the appearance of theBlessed Virgin Mary (BVM) in a littlehamlet in central Yugoslavia,the townof Medjugorje. With remarkableparallels to the BVM appearances atFatima, several children have beenreceiving messages urging prayer andfasting. One Roman Catholic nun, aMUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 7. Figure 3. Left: 1990 pictogram near Lancing, Sussex, The Cerealogist, No. 3, Spring 1991. Right: drawing fromunidentified photograph from Haddington display. (Not to scale.)Sister Mary Michael, has studied boththe events at Medjugorje and the cropcircles. She feels the markings aresomething evil. Most other researchersdisagree.One of the Medjugorje predictions isthat the BVM will leave a permanentmark on the earth on June 6, 1991. Oneparticularly symbolic pictogram (con-taining many linked patterns) appearedon April 6, 1990. Haddington suggeststhis pictogram may be a precursor forthe June 1991 event.Likewise, there are a series of holesin the earth appearing in Switzerland.The holes may be related to cropcircles, as there are no footprintsaround, yet many cubic yards of soil areremoved withouta trace of disturbanceto the surrounding ground. There is nospilled dirt, and the evacuations occurunseen in the middle of the night.UFOsThe favored refrain among mystical-minded researchers is that UFOs areMUFON UFO JOURNALNo. 278 June 1991
  • 8. responsible for the crop circles, or morebroadly, the same force responsible forcrop circles is behind UFO exper-iences. There are a variety of eye-witness accounts of red glowing orbs,blue flashes of light, large translucentorange spheres and silvery metallicglobes sited in the fields. There is arecord of a Mr. Bryce Bond in theSpring 1991 Cerealogistof how he wasin a field when he felt paralyzed, thenreceived a communication: "Be atpeace. We mean no harm. You arestanding in the middle of our craft. Weare not of your dimension."Wingfield and Haddington tell of howone night they were standing watch forcrop circles. It was about 3:00 a.m.,and there were 12people in the group,including a psychic. They heard a high-pitched "trilling sound." The soundseemed difficult to localize, but at onepoint appeared to be just outside of thecrop formation they were standing in.Haddington felt there was "a presence"in the area. The psychic woman pleaded"If you can hear us, stop." The trillingnoise immediately stopped, then re-sumed again. Another witness, view-ing from a point some distance away,claims he saw a UFO above the groupat the time of the noise, but those in thegroup sawnothing unusual. Haddingtonmeanwhile witnessed a most strangeevent when looking into the night -several hundred black rods seemed tobe dancing among the stalks. Others inthe group confirm this account.Another witness, RonJones, also ex-perienced the trilling noise. One nighthe heard the sound in his home. He wasimmediately transported to a field,where he saw a whirl of lights. Then,just as quickly, he found himselfbackin his own bed. All of these experiencessmack of the UFO phenomenon, in-cluding reports of high strangeness.George Wingfield advises us to keepan open mind. He hints that certain pic-tograms may actually be drawings ofentities, such as those from the Celticmyths. Figure 3 shows two examples.ConclusionDuring the question-and-answerperiod after the lecture GeorgeThe above formation appeared at Barn Field, Cheesefoot Head, near Win-chester, Wiltshire, on August 11, 1990. Photo by Busty Taylor, again fromEnigma and the postcard series.Wingfield was asked what he thoughtthe significance was of these cropcircles. He responded that they maysignal the next stage in the evolutionofman. He urged those present to cometo England and visit the circles. "Itsan experience that cannot be describedin words." You must participate.Whether you are mystical-minded orgrounded in academic science, the cropcircles prove to be an ongoingenigma.Since the circles are repeating, havemeasurable electromagnetic and visualanomalies, and seem to contain a sym-bolic message, this mystery may be afertile field (pardon the pun) to in-vestigate. For those interested, I recom-mend the following sources, as well asthe excellent bibliography compiledby Michael Chorost, and listed in theApril 1991 issue of the MUFON UFOJournal.The Cerealogist, 20 Paul Street, Frome,Somerset, BAH 1DX, England.The Journal of Meteorology, T. Meaden,52 Frome Road, Bradford-on-Avon,Wiltshire BA15 1LD, England.The Circular, 58 Kings Road. West End,Woking, Surrey GU24 9LW, England.The Crop Watcher, 3 Selbourne Court,Tavistock Close, Romsey, Hampshire SO517TY. England.Kindred Spirit, Foxhole, Darlington,Totnes, Devon TR9 6EB, England.Global Link Up, 51 Northwick BusinessCentre, Blockley, Gls, GL56 9RF,England.The Crop Circle Enigma, edited by RalphNoyes, Gateway Books, UK.Crop Circles, the Latest Evidence, PatDelgado and Colin Andrews, BloomsburyPublishing, UK.North American Institute of Crop Cir-cle Research, 649 Silverstone Avenue,Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2V8, Canada.Opposite: How to measure a Circle,reprinted with permission from TheCircular, Volume 2, Number 1, thequarterly journal of the Centre forCrop Circle Studies, Bob Kingsleyeditor. Original diagram by profes-sional surveyor Peter Baillie.MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 9. iOR CftbP CKRCLElSTUDIESGEnERRL OOTES1. Locate the north as accurately appossible. I2. Relate the figure to some !immovable object i.e., permanentfence, large tree etc, by means oftwo dimensions. [This will notalways be possible].3. Two measurements are requiredat each circle to ensure anaccurate record of the diameter,i.e., dimensions R, B and J to beapprox 90 degrees to dimensionsC, D and H.>f. Dimension L is to be taken at themid point of the chord, dimension5. Dimension PI may be anyconvenient measurementgreater than dimension F.6. Rny other offshoots to the mainfigure should be measured andrecorded i.e., dimensions Q anR also relate to main figure bytwo measurements i.e.,dimensions G and T.7. Dimensions may be obtained ineither metric or Imperial measunRn Indication of Data Required from scale drg.by datemembers Investigating Crop Circles n.t.s. PDB Jan 91GTRT1DRRO DRRUJIOGHo 1991/01MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 10. F-CLASS STARS AS EVOLUTION DRIVERSBy Erich A. Aggen, Jr.A frequent Journal contributor,Aggen is a State Section Director wholives in Kansas City.A stronomers and astrophysicists/ have estimated thenumberofA. ^advanced technological civiliza-tions in our galaxy at between onemillion to 10million inhabited worlds.Most scientists have assumed that G-class stars like our own sun offer thebest possibilities for the evolution of lifeand intelligence. This assumptionmaybe in error, however, if researchers suchas K.A. Ehricke, F.J. Dyson, F.D.Drake, I.S. Shklovsky and Su-ShuHuang are correct. According to thesescientists different classes of stars canact as "accelerators" or "brakes" on theevolution of planetary life. G-class starsmay not be the most effective "in-cubators" of life; other classes of starsmay provide more optimal conditions.1Solar radiation appears to play a ma-jor role in affecting those factorswhichdrive evolution. The evolution of lifeis dependent on the rate of favorablemutational changes and radical "leaps"in development triggered by solar radia-tion and specific environmental factors.This interaction is readily evident onour own planet. The rate of mutationhas been more rapid on the land andslower and more predictable in theoceans. Sea life has been moreinsulatedfrom solar radiation and less subject toenvironmental upheavals. As a result,although sea-based Cetacean in-telligence is theoretically equal to ourown, the development of manipulativeorgans and technology has given manthe ability to dominate all other formsof life on Earth.A higher rate of mutation may resultwhen life in its early stages is subjectedto highly energetic solar radiation. Thisin turn would speed up evolution andhasten the emergence of higher formsof life. The radiation-rich environmentsof planets in F-class star systems wouldencourage mutations and "drive" evolu-tion. Scientific studies have shown thatan increase in the amount of "hard" ra-diation reaching the Earths surfacewould increase the incidence of mutationfrom about 0.1% at present to over 50%!Our sun and most of the stars in theouter rim of our galaxy are so-called"Population I" stars - young blue starsrich in the heavier elements and metals.These stars have a greater chance ofpossessing life-bearing planets than theolder, mainly red "Population n" starslocated in the nucleus of the galaxy.Population I stars in the F5 to K5 range(6600-3900° K) offer the best prospectsfor life. F-class stars have stablelifetimes of 4 to 6 billion years com-pared to 11 to 17 billion years for G-class stars. F-class stars are hotter intemperature and slightly larger than G-class stars. On Earth, higher surfacetemperatures have been shown to ac-celerate metabolic processes and therate of mutation. Warmer oceans, forexample, tend to maximize the effectsof mutation on water-based organisms.On F-class planets the amount of high-energy solar radiation reaching the sur-face would also increase the probabili-ty of climatic change - another driverof evolution. Intelligent life may evolvefaster on such planets as compared toplanets in the cooler, G, K and M-classstar systems.2Intelligent life evolving on a planetin an F-class star system would in-evitably be forced to develop interstellartravel or face the prospect of beingdestroyed when their star swelled intoa Giant. It would be necessary for F-class civilizations to improvise star-flight capability earlier (or faster) thanG, K or M-class civilizations in orderto insure their survival. If thishypothesis is correct, a large numberof star-faring alien races may comefrom F-class star systems.Life may have a much betterchance of gaining a "foothold"in F-class star systems than in asystem such as ours. F-class stars havea much larger habitability zone or"ecosphere" than G, K or M-classstars. If our sun suddenly became anF-class star the "temperate" life zonethat Earth occupies would be shiftedfarther out to the gas giants such asJupiter and Saturn and the inner planetswould become too hot to sustain life.If the size and distance relation of theplanets in our system is typical, planetswithin the ecosphere of an F-class starcould be somewhat larger than the "ter-restrial" planets such as Earth. Theymight resemble planets such as Jupiterand Saturn with their huge gaseous at-mospheres boiled off leaving solidrocky cores; they wouldbe about 30%to 260% more massive than Earth.Conversely, if the size and distance con-straints of our system are not typical,such planets would have to be at theproper distance from their sun and nomore than 30% larger or 14%smallerthan Earth to maintain the optimumconditions for life.34There are 130to 200 billion stars inour galaxy; of this number about 18%are F-class stars and 14% are G-classstars. If we eliminate the three out offour F-class stars thought to be whitedwarfs or giants, we are left with apotential galactic population of 6 to 9billion F-class stars that may possesspromising planetary systems. If wefur-ther reduce this number by consider-ing only those F-class stars in the mostfavorable spectral sub-classes (F5 - F9),we arrive at an estimate of 3.4 to 5.2billion F-class star systems that mayharbor life in various stages of evolu-tion. In addition, many or most F-classstar systems may contain more than oneinhabitable planet because of theirlarger ecospheres. The existence ofmore than one inhabited planet in sucha system would provide a powerful in-centive for the early development ofspaceflight technology and in-terplanetary travel. By most conser-vative estimates, the number of ad-MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 11. vanced alien civilizations in thesesystems could range from several hun-dred thousand to several million.5One of the major arguments againstfinding intelligent life in F-class starsystems is the short lifetime of F-classstars. This criticism is based on therelatively long lifetimes of G-class starslike our own sun. Some scientists con-tend that stars must remain stable onthe "Main Sequence" for longer thanfour to six billion years for sentient lifeto evolve from primitivemulticellularorganisms. This assertion, however, isbased on the evolutionaryhistory of ourown planet and the statistical observa-tion of much less than 1% of galacticstars; the solitary example of Earth maynot be typical for the rest of the galaxy.There are no valid scientific reasonswhy life cannot evolve and progress toan advanced technological stage in lessthan four billion years. 6>7In conclusion, we can extrapolatethatlife-bearing planets in F-class starsystems will most likely have lessdiverse forms of life than planets in G-class systems owing to the relativelyhigh amounts of solar radiationreaching the surface. Only the fittestforms of life would survive on planetsof F-class stars. Such lifeforms, in-telligent and otherwise, would probablybe very resistant to various types ofenergetic radiation, high levels of at-mospheric ionization and changing en-vironmental conditions. The hotter en-vironments and higher surfacegravitiespossible on planets within theecospheres of F-class stars would tendto produce smaller lifeforms withhigher metabolic rates, tougher andmore leathery (or lizard-like) skins andeyes adapted to the more intense bluelight spectrum produced by F-classstars.Intelligent life located on planetswithin the inner ecospheres of F-classstars may be adapted to dry, desert-likesurface conditions. Faced with suchharsh environments, an intelligentspecies might elect to live most of thetime in underground dwellings ratherthan stay on the surface. Eventually,however, all advanced forms of life onF-class planets may be forced to moveunderground as their sun enters the in-To survive, the inhabitants of these systems would have toabandon their home planets and migrate to planets fartherout in their solar systems, or travel to other stars in searchof a new home.itial stages of expansion into a Giant.Although this period of stellar expan-sion would take several million years,the detrimental effects on planetary en-vironments would be felt much earlier.To survive, the inhabitants of thesesystems would have to abandon theirhome planets and migrate to planetsfar-ther out in their solar systems (if theyexist), or travel to other stars in searchof a new home.In the final analysis, the hypotheticalinhabitants of certain F-class starsystems may closely resemble the ubi-quitous "gray aliens" described inufological literature, i.e., small beingswith reptilian-like skin and large, blackinsect-like eyes. It is also interesting tonote the unusual number of cases inwhich the "grays" and other aliens havestated or inferred that they come froma dying sun or solar system.References1. Lunan, Ducan. Interstellar Contact.Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1974.2. Ehricke, Krafft A. "Astrogenic En-vironments." Space/light, Vol. 14, No. 1,January 1972.3. Heppenheimer, T.A. Toward DistantSuns. New York: Fawcett ColumbineBooks, 1979.4. Ley, Willy. Gas Giants. New York:McGraw-Hill Company, 1969.5. Macvey, John W. Journey to AlphaCentauri. New York: The Macmillan Com-pany, 1965.6. Powers, Robert M. The Coattails ofGod. New York: Warner Books, Inc., 1981.7. Berry, Adrian. The Next Ten ThousandYears. New York: New American Library,Inc., 1975.Calendar of UFO Conferences for 1991June 27, 28 & 29 — 12th Rocky Mountain Conference on UFO Investiga-tions - University of Wyoming, Laramie, WYJuly 5, 6 & 7 — MUFON 1991 International UFO Symposium - HyattRegency OHare Hotel at OHare International Airport near Chicago,IllinoisAugust 16, 17 & 18 — Sixth International UFO Congress - CentralLibrary Theater, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, EnglandAugust 23-25 — Disney Worlds UFO/ET & Abduction Congress - TheGrosvenor Resort, Disney World, Orlando, FloridaSeptember 7 & 8 — The UFO Mystery - Sebel Townhouse Hotel, Eliza-beth Bay, Sydney, AustraliaSeptember 13 & 14 — 28th Annual National UFO Conference • HolidayInn, Cleveland/Airport, Cleveland, OhioSeptember 29 — New Hampshire MUFON UFO Conference - YokensConvention Center, Portsmouth, New HampshireOctober 3-6 — International UFO Congress - Sponsored by EuropeanUFO Network, BelguimOctober 12 & 13 — The UFO Experience - Holiday Inn, North Haven,ConnecticutOctober 12 & 13 — Fourth Symposium on Ufology and Exobiology - SaoPaulo, BrazilOctober 19 — Show-Me UFO Conference III - Holiday Inn Airport-West,Bridgeton, Missouri. Near St. Louis AirportMUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 12. Looking BackBob GribbleJune 1951 • About 10:37 a.m. onthe 15th, several French Air Force jetsencountered a UFO over Orange,France. Flying a Vampire jet on thetraining flight were Lieutenants PrioJrence and Raymond Gallibert whowere in constant radio communicationwith the tower at Orange Field. In aninterview, Lt. Prio declared: "We wereflying in an absolutely cloudless skywhen right over Orange we perceivedan object of bright metallic appearanceat an altitude of between 1600 and 1700feet. The object was circular and ap-peared to be of aluminum and wasperfectly motionless. Naturally in-terested, we made toward it, the discsee-sawed for a moment and then tookoff at a rapidly increasing speed. Wechased it as far as Aspes-sur-Buechwithout being able to catch up, theclimbing speed of our Vampire beinginadequate. After we had pursued it forsix minutes, the object disappeared, stillclimbing at a speed of about 600 milesper hour." (Source: UPOs: A History1951)1966 • State Police andAirForce in-telligence officers joined forces in pro-bing the story of a New Bedford,Massachusetts motorist who said hiscar was "buzzed" at treetop level by aUFO on the llth. The episode occurredat 3:45 a.m. in suburban Westport. "Anobject whose illumination seemed tovary between an amber-green and abluish-yellow, came up from behindand I gradually became aware of ithovering over my car," Ronald Petitsaid. "Then it moved ahead and I couldsee it quite clearly. I slowed my car andthe object appeared to stop. I drove towithin about 100feet, stopped, got outand took a close look." Petit said hestared at the "thing" for at least twominutes before leaping back into thesafety of his car. "When I slammed thedoor," he said, "the glowing objecttilted to an approximate 45-degree angleand went straight up until it disap-peared." (Source: Flying SaucerReview— Sept.-Oct. 1966)• Mrs. Gordon M. Avery, of Mt.Sunapee, New Hampshire, said she sawa white-oval-shaped object about 4 a.m.on the 16th while investigating thesource of a brilliant light illuminatingher living room. To the east, she sawthe craft apparently hovering a few feetabove the utility wires. As she watched,a jagged extension protruded from theobject and seemed to touch the wires.It had no apparent physical effect. Afterabout five minutes, the rod retractedand the craft began moving northeast,accelerating and disappearing over amountain at high speed. (Source: TheUFO Investigator — Oct.-Nov. 1966)• Julian Sandoval, an Apollo SpaceProject engineer, a pilot and former AirForce navigator, spotted a large UFOover Placitas, New Mexico — about 18miles north of Albuquerque — about3:45 p.m. on the 23rd, and watched itfor about an hour and a half. Sandovalsaid the craft appeared to be stationaryat about 12,000 feet, was about 300 feetlong, that its main body had a blunt endand was "incandescent" like a regularlight bulb. "Its like nothing we have,"Sandoval said. The object finally disap-peared in a northeasterly direction aftermaking a vertical climb and increasingits speed to about six Machs (six timesthe speed of sound). Sandoval hadlogged 7000 hours of flying time, wasemployed by North American Aviationand was in charge of electrical powerand environmental control with theApollo Project. (Source: TheChristianScience Monitor — 7/11/66; alsoAliens From Space)• Richmond, Virginia Police OfficerWilliam L. Stevens, Jr., was on patrolabout 3:30 a.m. on the 24th, when henoticed some lights hanging low in thesky. He approached to investigate andobserved a light-colored, dirigible-shaped craft with a string of alternatingyellow and white lights around the edge.When he tried to get close, the objectstarted moving away, stopping until hecaught up, then moving again. Stevenswas soon chasing the craft at more than100 miles per hour along theRichmond-Henrico Turnpike. TheUFO kept ahead of him, followingevery twist and turn of the road. "Itrailed it across the ChickahominyRiver into Hanover County about sixmiles," Stevens said. "Out in Hanoverit kind of stopped for a little bit, thenwent into a high speed vertical climb.It didnt just disappear all of a sudden,it climbed out of sight." The pursuithadlasted about 15 minutes. (Source:Mysteries of the Skies; The NewsLeader — Richmond, VA - 7/21 /66)• Peter Rasmussen was standingwatch aboard a ship some 800 milessouthwest of Hawaii about 3:40 a.m.on the 26th, when he noticed anunusual light on the starboard quarter.After watching it for about 10minutes,it flared up very bright and started mov-ing toward the ship. It stopped andhovered directly above the ship. Thelight soon became a huge disc-shapedobject ("bigger than the 465-foot ship")which hovered silently over the ship forseveral minutes. Rasmussen describedthe craft as having a solid center —possibly metal — with a pulsating whitelight. "The outer rim or halo seemedto be some sort of force field. It wassemi-transparent, as I could see starsthrough it." Three other long-timeseamen, including the ships captain,also saw the object. They estimated theheight above the ship to be around10,000 feet and the diameter of the craft(the solid portion) to be about 600 toMUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 13. 700 feet. After hovering over the shipfor about 10minutes it went straight upat a high rate of speed and soon disap-peared. (Source: The Press Democrat- Santa Rosa, CA —10/28/66)1971 • Anelderly woman livingatHudsons Beach, Waluku, Auckland,New Zealand, described an experienceshe had about the first week in June:"I live alone and I was having a cupof tea between 2 a.m. and 3 a.m. Thetide comes to my gate and this morn-ing it was in, but not right up. I drewmy curtain a little to peep out and I sawwhat I took to be three men chatting onthe beach. I thought it must be somechaps cleaning fish. Then I said tomyself not at 3 a.m. Outside the gateis a pine tree and through the big branchof the pine shone a very bright red lightwhich hovered slightly. The figuresseemed to be shrouded in a grey mist.A little later a silver strip appeared onthe water and appeared to light thewayback for the men to get on the red ball.As I watched, the silver strip disap-peared and the red ball moved off ..."(Source: The Truth — Auckland, NewZealand —6/15/71)1976 • Mrs. Nancy Shuken andMrs.Zelda Segall saw what they describedas a "dirigible-shaped object" that ap-peared to hover over Segalls home inPalm Springs, California, about 9:30p.m. on the ninth. "We were in Zeldasbackyard when we looked up and sawit," Mrs. Shuken said. "It washugeandbright." Mrs. Segall said she rushed tofind her camera, but when she tried totake a picture of the object, the flashrefused to work. "What was reallystrange," she added, "was that when Itook a picture of something else, thedarn thing worked. But when I triedtaking a picture of the object, nothing."Both women said the camera flash wasnot the only electrical device thatwouldnt operate while the object was"hovering" over the house. Thetelephone, radio and television alsowent on the blink. The house lights,however, presented no problem. "Whatwas even stranger," Mrs. Segall said,"was after we saw the thing disappear,all this equipment worked. Ill tell you,we were scared out of our wits." Atleast six other residents reported see-ing the object. (Source The Desert Sun— Palm Springs, CA — 6/12/76)• Onthe 13th, Manual Gomez, arancher in Dulce, New Mexico,reported that he discovered one of hiscows mutilated in the middle of apasture —with several organs removed"with a sharp instrument." Gomezreturned the following day with StatePolice and a county livestock inspec-tor, only to find additional parts of theanimal apparently also surgicallyremoved. A subsequent investigation ofthe area reportedly revealed triangulartracks in a tripod pattern near the car-cass which, according to a scientificconsultant, had radiation levels twicethe normal background level. No othertracks, including human footprints ortire tracks, could be identified. TheState Police also discovered a "stickysubstance," yellow in color, on someplants in the immediate area near thetripod tracks, adding that some of theplants appeared to be scorched and dy-ing. Wild predators would not approachthe remains of the cow for at least 72hours after the discovery. A calf thecowhad been nursing was also missing. Onthe same evening the cow wasdiscovered, a UFO was reported overDulce. (Source: Signal & SaugusEnterprise — Newhall, CA —7/19/76)• Anenormous UFO —the height ofa three-story building —seenhoveringover the Canary Islands on the 22nd leftscientists, military authorities anddozens of other witnesses completelydumbfounded. Two of the witnesses, arespected medical doctor and his driver,saw within the globe-shaped transparentobject two "extremely tall" figures with"large, bright eyes" — and ran from theobject in terror. And three astronomerswatched in stunned amazement as the"giant, brilliant sphere with a swirlingcenter" streaked directly toward theirobservatory. At about 10:30 p.m. thephysician, Dr. Francisco Julio Padron,was being driven to Gaidar, a town onthe northwest coast of Grand CanaryIsland. As the car rounded a curve, thestrange sphere was seen some 60 yardsoff the road. "It was very large, aboutthe size of a three-story building, andas perfectly round as if drawn by a com-pass," Dr. Padron said. "It was of agrayish-blue color, but transparent —we could see the stars right through it.It was suspended a few feet above theground."There were two figures toward thecenter of the sphere. They were wellover six feet tall. They were eitherdressed in brilliant red or red in color.Their faces were flesh colored andhuman in appearance. I could not seeany ears because they wore a kind ofclothlike helmet or turban on theirheads. Their head gave off a glow, likea halo or aura. They had pointed, wing-like appendages on the end of theirarms that they moved slowly like hands.They seemed intent on some sort ofcontrol panel. Suddenly the car radiowent dead and we felt a terrible cold-ness. The object began to lift off— andseemed to be growing steadily larger asit rose." Shocked and frightened bywhat theyd seen, they brought the carto a screeching halt — and soughtrefuge in the nearby farmhouse of PacoRodriguez.Just before Dr. Padron and the driverknocked at his front door, Rodriguezrecalled that his TV set suddenly andmysteriously went dead. When thefarmer let the men in, they all rushedto the window. "We could see the ob-ject clearly — a bright bluish spherewith two red objects inside that lookedlike human forms. I dived to the floor,covered my head with my arms andyelled to my wife to do the same. Westayed there until the doctor told us ithad gone away." The driver, FranciscoEsteves, declared: "I also saw the twofigures. I could see that they had verybright, large eyes. I can swear that thiswas something out of this world. Mynerves are shattered — Ill never forgetthis as long as I live."Another witness was architecturaldraftsman Domingo Alamo, who wasin a friends house on a mountain nearGaidar. Their wives, coming in fromoutside, explained there was something"very strange in the sky; We ran to theroof and were astonished to see aMUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 14. perfectly round, transparent sphere inthe center of which was a sort of bent,long shape of a bright red color,"Alamo said. "It was stationary, aboutthe height of the church spires nearby.It seemed to expand gradually, alwaysin a perfect circle. We had it in viewfor about 30 minutes, while it seemedto recede until there was just a huge,white circle in the sky."Dr. Francisco Sanchez, director ofthe Astrophysical Observatory onMonte Izana, Canary Islands, said thatseveral scientists at the observatory sawthe object with their naked eyes, butwere unable to track it with theirtelescopes. "It was below the line ofsight of our telescope," he explained."The astronomers reported it had theform of a huge sphere and was verybrilliant. It was definitely not a planet,a balloon or smoke. I have no scien-tific explanation for it." Dr. FernandoBello, one of three astronomers at theobservatory that night remembered,"All of us saw the UFO — a giant,brilliant sphere with a swirling centershaped like a snail. It seemed to beheaded straight toward the observatory!The object continued to approach un-til it paused for just a moment, madean abrupt 90-degree right turn and tookoff like a streak of light. We had itunder observation for three to fiveminutes." (Source: National Enquirer- 9/28/76)The UFO PressNorth American Crop Circles and Related Physical Traces in 1990By Chris Rutkowski et al.Released February 1991 by the North American Institutefor Crop Circle Research. 40 pp.Reviewed by Michael ChorostChris Rutkowski and his sevencolleagues have produced thekind of report cereologists acheto see: a tabular list of 1990 crop circlesin North America, with an analysis ofthe data. Their report is the first of itskind, since previous studies havelimitedthemselves either to photographicdocumentation or to promoting onetheory over another. As the first collec-tion of locations, dates, dimensions, andother data produced on either side of theAtlantic, this study has great value.Its authors, however, were beset byconsiderable problems, which are in-evitably passed on to the reader. Onewas the problem of cobbling togetherusable data from diverse sources ofvarying completeness and reliability.Another was the challenge of decidinghow to organize it, since no oneknowswhich data structure will best bringburied truths to the surface. Still anotherwas the sheer unprecedented nature ofwhat they were doing, since there wereno successful analyses to emulate, nofailed analyses to learn from. In sucha situation, unorganized tables ofnumbers take on an aspect of terror.They can be sorted in infinite ways, yetonly a few are likely to lead to the truth.One might walk across Antarcticablind-folded with greater confidence.This terror may help account for whyno one has published and attempted toanalyze tables of data, even though thecircles have been the focus of sustainedpublic attention for at least four years.Rutkowski and his colleagues, then, areto be commended for the ambition andbravery of this first attempt.The reports raw data are presentedtwice, in two different forms: by ele-ment, and by formation. In the first setof raw data, the authors list each ele-ment of a formationseparately, so that,for example, a group of ten circlesfound in Warsaw, Indiana, is listed asten separate elements. The elements arerecorded in a dense table of 86"unusual ground markings" (UGMs)listed by date, location, type (flattenedcircle, burned circle, ring, etc.,), cir-cle diameters, direction of swirl, croptype, associated UFO sightings, andwhether samples were taken and testsperformed. Dates range from March toOctober 1990; locations span the con-tinent, from Pennsylvania to BritishColumbia, with a preponderance in theAmerican Midwest and in Manitobaand Saskatchewan. Diameters rangefrom 1.7m (Warsaw, Indiana) to 38m(Odessa, Missouri). Samples and testsare noted but the results are notspecified. Hopefully, future reports willhave more to say on that score.Unfortunately, the first data setsmode of organization is not followedconsistently. For example, a formationin Leola, SD, which consisted of fourseparate elements (a "reverse questionmark" and three rectangles) is listed asonly one element. This probably hap-pened because the table was set up torecord only circle diameters and ringwidths. Thus it couldnt accommodateany other kind of element, such as rec-tangles or partial arcs. For example, aformation in Northside, Saskatchewan,is described as a circle with four spokesand two rings, withanother circle 125maway, yet the data set lists just the tworings.It appears that the numerical-tabularformat created more headaches forRutkowski and his colleagues than itsolved, because it assumed moreuniformity than was the case, and usedan awkward mode of representation.The circles are diverse and spatiallycomplex objects which resist simplenumerical representation. It wouldseem more sensible to tabulate themvisually, in annotated diagrams. Thiswould lead one to record formationsona case-by-case basis, creating new datacategories as appropriate, rather thantrying to define all of the relevant datacategories in advance. One can envisionscanning formations into aHyperCarddatabase and annotating the dimen-sions, with fields for location, date andso forth. Colin Andrews has made astart in this direction with his com-puterized visual catalogue, whichshould be reproduced as an appendixto my article in the proceedings of the1991 MUFON conference in Chicago.MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 15. Following leads like this, we candevelop more flexible and productiveways to represent our knowledge.The other set of raw data is the moreimmediately useful one, because it listswhole formations,not elements. It lists45 formations by date, location andbrief verbal description. About 30 areEnglish-style crop circles; the rest arecircular burns, areas of flattened andburned crops, areas of missing vegeta-tion, holes, etchings in dry soil, andpatches of stunted growth (probablyfairy rings, which are naturalphenomena). Since no one knowswhether and how these diversephenomena are separable, Rutkowski etal reasonably chose to lump them alltogether.The reliability of thedocumentationis obviouslyuneven. Someformationshave been well documented by theauthors themselves, such as a 3.6m dia.circle surrounded by a 7.5m dia. ringin Tweedsmuir, Saskatchewan, and anelliptical formation measuring 7.8 by7.6m in Petersfield, Manitoba. Othersare reported on little more than hear-say. For example, one item reads mere-ly, "It was claimed that a crop circlewas discovered near this town" and liststhe source as a TV station. This is nofault of the authors, who clearly de-cided that it was better to risk report-ing rumor than to leave out potentialtruth. Since sources are listed, it isusually possible for the reader to decidehow much weight to give each report.The two sets of data are listed inthe back of the report. In thefront, Rutkowski et al attempta basic analysis of the data. They pre-sent five tables breaking the datadownin different ways: circle type versuscountry, circle type versus direction ofswirl, circle type versus crop, countryversus crop, and country versus direc-tion of swirl. Perhaps the most in-teresting result is that grass elementspredominated over wheat elements inthe U.S. (46 grass elements vs. twowheat ones), but the reverse held inCanada: 16 wheat elements vs. fourgrass ones. Other interesting results arethat concentric rings almost alwaysformed in wheat (nine in wheat vs. onein grass) and that burned and flattenedcircles almost alwayshappened in grass(nine in grass vs. one in wheat.) Onecould guess that grass is more suscep-tible to burning than wheat. One mustview these findings with caution,however, because of the incompletenessof the data, the distortions introducedby counting elements rather than for-mations, and the low total numbers in-volved. They may make more (or less)sense when compared to English data,if and when the latter become available,and in the light of future findings.Rutkowski is appropriately cautious,writing, "There was no evident trendin any characteristic of the UGMs."This might even seem overcautious, inlight of the numbers cited above, buthe clearly has the problematic natureof the data uppermost in mind.Some minimal conclusions can bedrawn, however. For example, it seemsevident that grass crop circles happenmuch more often in the U.S. than inEngland. This is easily explained by thefact that England is so intensivelycultivated that there is very little tallgrassland left. However, it is more dif-ficult to explain why so few grasscircles were reported in Canada, acountry with abdundant grassland,relative to the United States. Perhapsthere are fewer people in Canada todiscover circles in grassland far frompopulation centers.In addition, the authors note that thepeculiar effects reported in English cropcircles, such as strange noises andflashes of light, have not been noticedin North American formations. Nor dothey exhibit the same level of complex-ity seen in England (ringed and spokedcircles seems to be the maximum).Thus, as a sort of negative conclusion,it remains unclear whether the 45 caseslisted belong to one phenomenon orseveral, and whether the 30 crop circleswithin that set are truly identifiable withthe English version of the phenomenon.In an intelligent and cautious discus-sion, Rutkowski analyzes the debateabout the cause of the circles. He breaksthe theories down into four types: ex-traterrestrials, wind phenomena,hoaxes and "other." The first three arecertainly the best-known. "Other" sub-sumes less popular theories, such asmilitary activity and mating hedgehogs.However, there are more catagoriesthan Rutkowski notes. Some people inthe CCCS (Centre for Crop CircleStudies) subscribe to the theory that"earth energies" create the crop circles.Richard Andrews, a professionaldowser, is perhaps the best-known ofthese theorists. It is certainly not clear(to me, anyhow) what "earth energies"are, nor how they could create the com-plex forms we have seen, thoughRupertSheldrakes theory of morphogeneticfields and James Lovelocks "Gaia"theory of planetary intelligence haveboth been invoked as explanatory fac-tors. In addition, there are significantsplits within the theoretical camps: forexample, Terence Meaden has acceptedthat the more complex formations aremeteorological in nature, while hisfollowers Paul Fuller and Jenny Randiesstill think most or all of them must behoaxes, with only the simpler forma-tions being "genuine."Rutkowskis main point is that notheory adequately explains the phenom-enon. So far, the data support none ofthem: "Statistical studies conducted onthe data ... suggest [no] particular uni-fying explanation." He notes that onlyfour of the 45 formations have UFOsightings associated with them, and aperusal of the data shows that none ofthe sightings are clearly of "nuts andbolts" spacecraft: two sightings were ofglowing lights, the other two go un-specified. Glowing lights fit in just aswell with meteorological theories, whichpresuppose hot, glowing plasma vor-tices, as with ET theories. And yetmeteorological theories themselves canexplain very little: "Is Britians changein weather so incredibly dramatic thathundreds of circles can form in 1990,compared with only a handful a decadeago?"Rutkowski notes that many factorscomplicate each theory: winds do causecrop damage, yet crop circles do resem-ble classic "saucer nests"; many cropcircles have been considered genuinedespite their great complexity, yet therehave been notorious hoaxes; cropcircles may be an effort at communica-tion, yet nobody understands them.MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 16. And there are, in addition to crop circles,many other kinds of anomalous groundmarkings. Do they have the same basiccause, or are they caused by entirelyunrelated phenomena? No one knows.As George Wingfield astutely writesin The Crop Circle Enigma, the "ex-otic" theories tend to fall into twoclasses: those involvingearth mysteries,like earth-energy theories, and those in-voking sky mysteries, like alien-intelligence theories. The English leantoward earth mysteries, whereasAmericans tend to favor sky mysteries.At the risk of oversimplifying, onemight suggest that the English tend tolook to the earth which contains theirpast, whereas Americans, a spacefar-ing race, look up to a sky which mayhold their future. Perhaps Canadians,being of the New World, yet still Com-monwealth citizens, fall somewhere inbetween.Certainly the Canadians haveshownconsiderable good sense in this land-mark report. It has significant shortcom-ings, as I have noted, but they arecounter-balanced by the pioneeringnature of the work. Bigger and betterreports should follow from both sidesof the Atlantic,but this one sets the pace.Availablefor U.S.$3.00 from NAICCR,649 Silverstone Avenue, Winnipeg,Manitoba R3T2V8, or UFOROM, P. O.Box 1918, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaR3C 3R2. Authors: Chris Rutkowski(text), Grant Cameron, Roy Bauer, JeffHarland, Gordon Matthews, WalterNilsson, Vladimir Simosko and GuyWestcott (research associates).In Others Words ...1971 Midwest UFO ConferenceProceedings Still AvailableTheme: UFOs — Defiance toScience, 115 pagesSpeakers: Walter H. Andrus, Jr.,Hayden C. Hewes, Sherman J.Larsen, Ted Phillips, William H.Hunkins, Stanton T. Friedman andLeonard H. Stringfield.(A limited special reprint.)$8 plus $1.50 for postage and han-dling. Order from: MUFON, 103Oldtowne Rd., Seguin, TX 78155Lucius ParishThe UFO abduction research ofToronto hypnotherapist Dr. DavidGotlib is discussed in the April 16 issueof NATIONAL ENQUIRER. Dr.Gotlib says that such experiences arenot imaginary and should be takenseriously by health professionals.Was the "whatever-it-was" whichcrashed at Roswell, NM in 1947 real-ly just a Japanese "Fu-Go" balloon ofWorld War U vintage? Thats the sub-ject of OMNIs "Antimatter/UFO Up-date" column in the May issue. Theforemost proponent of this theory isJohn Keel, but others who have in-vestigated the Roswell case dismissKeels claims. "Alien implants" isthetopic under discussion in the June issueof OMNI.Recent paperbacks of interest includereprints of NIGHT SIEGE by Hynek,Imbrogno & Pratt (Ballantine Books)and THE GULF BREEZESIGHTINGS by Ed & Frances Walters(Avon Books), as well as an originalpaperback by Martin Caidin, GHOSTSOF THE AIR (Bantam Books).Caidins book covers all types of aerialmysteries, includingsome material onUFOs. Forthcoming paperbacks in-clude UFO CRASH AT ROSWELLby Kevin Randle & Don Schmitt (Ju-ly; Avon Books) and a reprint of Ray-mond Fowlers THE WATCHERS(August; Bantam Books).A new book by Bill Hamilton isalways welcome and his latest one,COSMIC TOP SECRET, is nowavailable from Inner Light Publications— P.O. Box 753 (CS) - New Bruns-wick, NJ 08903. The price for this144-page softcover is $12.95. As thetitle suggests, the book deals with allof the reports, rumors and wild spec-ulations concerning crashed/retrievedUFOs, Bob Lazar, Area 51, secretgovernment pacts with alien forces,etc. Bill Hamilton would probably bethe first to admit that he doesnt believeeverything he presents in his writings,but he does make it available, so thatreaders may decide for themselves. Ifyou want a good summary of the moreintriguing topics being discussed inUFO research today, COSMIC TOPSECRET is a good place to begin.The two most recent books byZecharia Sitchin, THE LOST REALMSand GENESIS REVISITED, are nowavailable in hardcover editions fromBear & Company - P.O. Drawer 2860- Santa Fe, NM 87504-2860. THELOST REALMS is $19.95 andGENESIS REVISITED is $21.95. Allfive books by Sitchin should be re-quired reading and Bear & Companyplan to publish or reprint all of themin hardcover.A new videotape, UFO ... ABDUC-TION, dealing with the William J.Herrmann case from South Carolina,is now available from Genesis HIPublishing - Box25962 - Munds Park,AZ 86017. The price is $43.95 for the100-minute tape whichgives a detailedaccount of Herrmanns UFO ex-periences, as well as corroboratingevidence from other witnesses. Herr-manns photos of UFOs are examined,as well as photos taken by others in thesame area. Youll find much of interestin this examination of one of the earlierabduction cases.An American edition of CIRCULAREVIDENCE by Pat Delgado & ColinAndrews is now available from PhanesPress - P.O. Box6114 - Grand Rapids,MI 49516. A softcover version isavailable at $14.95; the hardcover is$30.00. Phanes Press apparently plansto publish more "circles" literatureand to make available Britishperiodicals on the subject, such as THECEREALOGIST. You may also con-tact them at (800) 678-0392.MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 17. Letters to the Editor...Dear Editor:We are writing in response to Dr.Maccabees article in the November1990 issue of the MUFON Journal.Since we are mentioned in the article,we believe that we are entitled to haveour response published under your 50%rule. Since our work on the Walterscase was taken out of context by Mac-cabee, we feel it is necessary to pro-vide the context for the edification ofyour readers.Last July, we were asked by MUFONto take the lead in the investigation ofthe reopening of the Walters case afterthe UFO model was found in the atticof the Walters previous residence anda young man, Tommy Smith, madeallegations which cast doubt on theauthenticity of the case. Prior to thattime, we had accepted the authenticityof the case based upon the representa-tions of the previous investigators, whowere known to us. We would not havebought six copies of Walters book forfriends and relatives had we entertainedserious doubt about the case. Despiteour admitted positive bias, we believethat we have been successful in main-taining our objectivity in our work withthe case and have followed the evidenceto logical conclusions.After weeks of frustrating effort, wearrived at the conclusion that theWalters photos were probably faked,which was reported to MUFON bytelephone on September 9, 1990.Although there is considerable evidenceto doubt the credibility of the case, oneof the deciding factors for us was ouranalysis of photos 14and 19.Using in-formation provided by Walters and thedata provided byMaccabee, the "reflec-tions" in photos 14and 19were shownto be physical impossibilities, i.e. thereflections were not flat on the surfaceas one would expect, but were elevatedas if reflecting off of a raised ramp.With photos 14and 19shown to be pro-bable fakes, the other photos whichdepict images of the same modelsshould be considered to be highlysuspect. At that time we consulted withthree PhD-level Photo Analysts anda Masters level Analytical Physicistwho agreed with our analysis and con-clusions. Dr. Maccabee apparently alsoagrees with our work, which promptedhim to "reanalyze" photo 19. We ac-cept this as his repudiation of his earlieranalysis and of Walters description ofthe alleged event.Careful reading of Maccabees newanalysis and Walters account of theevent show that there are majordiscrepancies between the two whichmakes them mutually exclusive. IfMaccabees new scenario is "possible"as he claims, then Walters account isimpossible and Dr. Maccabee is "hoiston his own petard." He has effectivelyimpugned his own witness. Additional-ly, Maccabee has failed to address thevery similar "reflection" of photo 14.His "possibility" for photo 19can notapply to photo 14 since the reflectivesurfaces and other aspects were muchdifferent.Maccabee goes on for several pagesin his analysis to conclude that theheight of the camera above the road of4.1 feet agrees "perfectly" with hiscomputations, although heights of 3.5to 5 feet would be reasonable. If youput Walters in his Ford 150XLTtruck,which is "very high off the ground,"you will find a camera elevation of 5.4(+/- 0.2) feet which is outside of thereasonable limits and by itself negatesMaccabees new analysis. A com-parison of a photo re-enactment ofWalters taking the "shot" and thegeography of the scene confirm theabove.It is unfortunate that Maccabee didnot carry his analysis somewhat fartherand compute the comparative reflectionintensities within the 125-foot-longreflection which he claims is "possi-ble." Had he done so, and then com-pared the expected variations to thoseobtained by densitometer measurementsof the photographs, he should havecon-cluded that his "possibility" is actual-ly impossible.We regret the space limitation whichprecludes us from providing moredetailand other evidence which we havegathered regarding this case. Permit us,however, to provide a brief partiallisting.1. Two professional voice stressanalyses have been done of the taperecording of the June 15,1990 telephoneconversation in which Tommy Smithmade allegations about the Waltersphotos being hoaxed. The tapedmaterial was well suited to the analyseswhich indicated that Tommy was tell-ing the truth. Allegations by Tommy in-clude that he saw two UFO models inthe Walters home, that he saw Waltersphotographing UFO models, thatWalters had tried to enlist Tommys helpin conducting the hoax, that Waltersand/or Hank Boland were responsiblefor the "Believer Bill" and the "Jane"photos, that Hank Boland and Walterswife and son participated in the hoax,and that Walters had described to himhow some of the photos were faked. Inan interview with us, Tommy recon-firmed the above and further related,among other things, that Walters hadtold him of hoaxing UFOs using hot airballoons when Walters lived in CostaRica.2. Tommy had discussed much of theabove with his family back in 1988,which is confirmed by the law partnersof Tom Smith Sr. and the Gulf BreezeChief of Police. The description whichTommy provided of Walters UFOmodels at that time fit the model whichwas found in the attic of Walters oldhome.3. Three of the four lie detector teststhat Walters claims to have passed wereself-sponsored (i.e. paid for by Walterswith no third party supervision) andshould be regarded accordingly withskepticism. The fourth, a voice stressanalysis, was done by MUFON withoutWalters knowledge or consent. The ex-aminer on this test states "The way theinterviews were done and the type ofinformation discussed does not give theexaminer the verbal material necessaryto be able to say if these individuals arebeing completely truthful with the in-terviewer." Additionally, Walters failedto keep the appointment for a MUFONsponsored polygraph test and hasadamantly refused to take any spon-sored tests ever since.4. The model found in the attic ismade of styrofoam plates with thecenter section made from one ofMUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 18. Walters house plans. On page 28 ofWalters book he described the UFO ashaving "horizontal lines going aroundthe main body." The model has 14horizontal lines drawn around its mainbody which are not shown in Waltersdrawings or photos. Evidence ofresponsibility for the model points toWalters, in that he knew of the horizon-tal lines, had access to his house plansand access to the home until theMenzers moved in during November1989. Proof has not emerged thatanyone else possessed these three re-quisites. Continuing arguments aboutwhich house plan was used, etc., areinteresting, but ancillary to the primaryfocus.5. Mark Curtis of WEAR-TV con-ducted a demonstration to show thefeasibility of faking photo 19withdou-ble exposure photography which wasbased upon Tommy Smiths informa-tion. Many people believe that he wassuccessful despite a lengthy letter to theeditor from Maccabee attempting todebunk it. Basically, Maccabee tried toshow that photo 19 was not duplicatedexactly while ignoring the fact thatfeasibility was amply shown.6. Interviews with the young peoplewho had attended parties in the Waltershome and others tend to confirm ourconclusions.7. Long before the alleged onset ofWalters UFO photography onNovember 11, 1987, Walters told Mr.and Mrs. Peter Neumann of GulfBreeze that he had used double-exposure photography to amuse theyoung people who attended functionsand parties in his home.There is much more, includingamplification and documentation, forwhich we do not now have the space,but intend to include in our final report.— Carol and Rex SalisberryNavarre Beach, FLDear Editor:Thank you for your very fair - in-deed, generous - review of The CropCircle Enigma in your March issue.You rightly draw attention to two omis-sions: apart from George Wingfieldsarticle the book says little about a possi-ble UFO connection"; and we were vir-tually silent about what might be hap-pening, physiologically, to the crops.Perhaps I may comment.When we went to press last August(a bare 100 days after setting up theCentre for Crop Circle Studies) the on-ly material available on crop effects wasthe information which had beenpublished by a holistic medicine firmin Stroud. Although Pat Delgado andColin Andrews saw fit to reproduce thismaterial in Crop Circles: The LatestEvidence - reviewed by Jerold R.Johnson in your March issue — I ad-vised my publisher that we should notmake use of it ourselves. I share JeroldR. Johnsons view that it falls far shortof meeting acceptable scientific stan-dards. It has also been used as the basisfor wildly speculative claims about thesupposedly deleterious or beneficial ef-fect of the disturbed crops on humanconsumers. There is at present no shredof acceptable evidence for this, one wayor the other.CCCS is in no doubt, however, thatwe need to find out whether physi-ological changes in the crop do in facttake place when circles form. One ofthe research panels we have set up isdevoting itself entirely to this question,using carefully controlled samples andworking with scientifically qualified in-stitutions. As soon as we have proper-ly founded results we shall publishthem.The "UFO connection" ... ? At pre-sent CCCS cant go further than tosaythat luminousand audible phenomenaoccurring in the low atmosphere havenot infrequently been associated withthe formation of crop circles. Andthere have been other oddities of thekind familiar to ufologists over the past40 years. Reports are accumulating;they are being carefully assessed. Butthere is a long way to go before we canbe sure of having more than a very in-teresting and suggestive (thoughsomewhat patchy) correlation. At pre-sent CCCS has no wish to plunge intothe murky debate about what UFOsmay or may not be! But I suspect thatwe shall have a worthwhile contribu-tion to make to ufology when ourresearches have been carried further.Findings will be published as soon aswe feel reasonably confident about ourevidence.— Ralph NoyesHon. Secretary, CCCSWe certainly appreciate your restraintin regard to the ratherdubious evidencesubmitted by the Stroud laboratory tothe effect that the crystalline energystructure, orsomesuch, of theplants in-side aforming crop circle is somewhataltered when compared to outside con-trols. Even so, what we were lookingfor in the review,and we may not havebeen crystal clear ourselves, was abackground into the status of agricul-tural techniques and developments inthe UK as a whole, and how, if at all,same might conceivably impact, in-fluence or interact with whatever it isthat is obviously forming the crop cir-cle formations, human hoaxing aside.In other words, it takes two to tango.In the case of the circles we have anapparent "artist," along with a pre-ferred medium or canvas, which is thetargeted cereal crops themselves. Iwould simply have liked to have seenthe latter issue addressed, out of myown personal curiousity, in somewhatgreater depth.Similarly, the UFO "connection." Wedidn t mean to imply that nuts n bolts(or other) UFOs might be involved inthe actual creation of the circles, butonly to suggest, in light of past "saucernests" and similar physical circulartraces, that some interesting parallelphenomenology may or may not existand be subsequently shared by the twophenomena.At the same time, we appreciate theimmense labor and commitment thatgoes into the creation of any book, letalone one with the scope and overallquality of The Crop Circle Enigma.— D. StacyDear Editor:In reference to the recent DonaldSchmitt and Kevin Randle article("What Happened in Rameys office?")MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 19. in the April Journal, I called GeneralDuBose the other day to see how heliked the interview I did with him(January 1991). He stated that he wasquite pleased, had read it several timesand saw no flaws. "Youve got it right,thats the wayit was ... ," were his ex-act words. He wanted to know what thereaction was. I told him it had been verypositive, except for Schmitt and Ran-dle (S/R). I told him they were claim-ing an earlier interview they did wasmore accurate. I told the general thatI felt the earlier interviews were ram-bling recollections."Well thats exactly right. It waswhen you showed me the pictures thatI was able to recall just what had hap-pened," DuBose said. He then added,"You know they tried to hypnotize mebut I told them that I cant be hypnotiz-ed. But they tried for two hours withsome doctor who kept saying that hecould hypnotize anybody. I went alongwith it, but they never hypnotized me."I told the general I had seen an inter-view that S/R claim was done with thegeneral under hypnosis. "Thatsbullshit! I cant be hypnotized. I knowit for fact. After WW II I was in theHypnosis Center at WalterReed ArmyHospital and they tried for several days,under various conditions, and it justdoesnt work on me."This is typical of why there is a dif-ference between the results of S/Rswork and that of Bill Moores and mine.Their interviews are so ambiguous theymust interpret what the subject saidafter the fact. This technique leads tohypothesizing, which injust a few shortparagraphs turns into fact. The primeexample of this is the mythical flightof July 6, 1947. S/R say that DuBosetold them of this flight. But when thefacts were gone over, when he review-ed the pictures and refreshed hismemory on the dates, he had this to say:"There was no damn flight on the 6th;Butch Blanchard would never havesent anything on to higher headquartersbefore his intelligence officer had comeback with his report. To even suggestthat Blanchard would act on the wordof some rancher is a bunch of crap. Iknew Blanchard well."Schmitt and Randle claim that I didntbother to interview former Warrant Of-ficer Irving Newton. Thats absolutelyridiculous. I even refer to my recent in-terview with Newton in the DuBose in-terview. I also indicate some of whathad changed in Newtons story. Eventhe general rejected it. But they haveto build up Newton; hes their starwitness. Hes the only witness fromFort Worth who hasnt repudiated theirconclusions.S/R threw away testimony from JesseMarcel because they cant make it fittheir scenario. There are, on record,four distinct and separate interviewswith Marcel. He never wavered fromhis position that it was the real debrisin the pictures. He even signed an af-fidavit testifying to the validity of hisstatements for the publisher of TheRoswell Incident. What confuses S/Ris the second half of his statement thatthe debris had been switched for otherpictures. But Marcel never said hesawit switched; he was ordered back toRoswell. It was a logical assumptioninlight of the cover story that Gen. Rameywas pushing on the press. It just hap-pened to be wrong.S/Rs taped interviews of unqualifiedstatements by witnesses are virtuallyuseless. An interview with a witnesstoan eventover 40 years ago isdishonestwhen the interviewer withholds photo-graphs or other published data from theperiod that could assist in his recall.Distribution of these tapes doesnt makethem any more valid. Editing themmakes them even more questionable.Their interview with Dr. J. BondJohnson is a classic example ofattempt-ing to lead a witness. They didnt at-tempt to find out what the witnessknew; they tried to tell him what theywanted to hear.I love their suggestion that everyoneshould look at the pictures and decidefor themselves what they show. Theseare the same pictures that theywithheldfrom Gen. DuBose. I guess the averagereader should know more than themilitary experts who were there. If wecarry this concept out we could surelysave millions in our judicial system.Think of it: no more need for witnesstestimony! We could just have juriesvote on what they think went on bylooking at pictures. Even coronerscould pronounce bodies dead by look-ing at pictures.Bill Moore and I are preparing acomplete response to Schmitt and Ran-dle to include vital evidence that they,for whatever reason, have chosen to ig-nore. We will also have a section onwhat the debris in the pictures mightactually be. It was courtesy of KevinRandle that we saw the photo from theBettman Archives. But how curious thatthe copy Kevin sent to Bond Johnsonshould have a transmission tune of 7:59CST, and the copy that Kevin sent toMUFON has a time of 11:59 CST onit. Now both came from Kevin Randle,but he accused me of getting the timewrong. What gives?Ill close with a quote from GeneralDuBose. "From now on if anyone asksabout what went on, Im going to tellthem that interview is good, it stands("New Roswell Revelations — AGeneral Speaks Up," January 1991). Ifthey dont like it, thats too bad."— Jaime H. ShanderaN. Hollywood, CADear Editor:I have studied the Corn CirclePhenomenon since 1985, when life inthis subject was relatively un-complicated. At that time I realized thatthe dowsing I had been doing for theprevious 15years on the Ley Lines, orenergy grid associated with ancientmegalithic sites, was also part of theCorn Circle Phenomenon.To start with, the circles, as they werethen, took the form of single circles invarying sizes and in groups of two orthree. In 1983, the Quintuplet (that is,the large circle with four satellites) firstappeared at Cheesefoot Head, nearWinchester. In 1986 the first single-ringed circle appeared and in 1988 atwo-ringed circle and also three circlesgrouped together like a triangle. Thelast configuration of 1988 was a quin-tuplet with a ring round the satellites,as seen in CircularEvidence. The othersignificant happening in 1988 was thatthe quintuplets on some sites doubledin size, and the number of circles hadreached approximately 100. This was aMUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 20. quantum leap in the Corn CirclePhenomenon.Nineteen hundred and eighty-ninesaw the numberof circles double againwith all the previous circle configura-tions in evidence, but the final twocircles of the season, at WinterbourneStoke, were of a new type which hasnot been repeated at the time of goingto print. The second configuration wasa quartered circle - the photograph byBusty Taylor being the front cover ofThe Crop CircleEnigma, Ralph Noyeseditor.Nineteen hundred and ninety hasshown a complete departure from thetraditional configurations, producinglarge pictograms, i.e., circles, triangles,wings, finger and key patterns. Thedowsable patterns have also changedvery substantially with the wideningand amalgamation of lines, which is anew feature evolving in conjunctionwith the new patterns.Many people are now showing in-terest in the subject, and it is verygrati-fying that my original work on dows-ing has now become standard practicefor verifying circles. I have provedbeyond doubt that all genuine circleconfigurations have a dowsable print,and that the hoax will not have any rele-vant print. Although there is no needto fear these sudden manifestations,there is need for caution, however,because the energies present can bevery powerful indeed and some peoplewill be affected physically by exper-iencing headaches and nausea, whileothers will experience depression orgreat elation. When any of thesesymp-tions occur, the best antidote is toretreat from the circle configuration im-mediately and the symptoms will recedewithin an hour or so. Others, however,will experience none of these effects.I hope this will begin to show thatthere is very much more here thanwewould have appreciated a few yearsago,and that quick answers to thiswonder-ful happening will not come early.Weare only part way through a very com-plex weave of experience and realitywhich will need some of the bestmindsbrought to bear to begin to show theright pathways to tread.Dowsing is a tool that has created aDowser Richard G. Andrews near Cheesefoot Head, Wiltshire.Photo by Dennis Stacy.window for us to look through andbegin to see some of these pathways.I am optimistic about the future formankind from the window I haveopened. I believe this to be anotherRenaissance for the human experience.Let us go quietly and steadily forwardand bring stability out of chaos, andunderstand our part in the ecologicaland metaphysical maze shown in thisphenomenon.— Richard G. AndrewsHampshire, UKMUFONAmateur Radio Net80 meters — 3.990 MHzSaturday, 10 p.m.40 meters — 7.237 MHzSaturday, 8 a.m.10 meters — 28.460 MHzThursday, 8 p.m.10 meters — 28.470 MHzSunday, 3 p.m.All times Eastern Standardor DaylightMUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 21. MUFON 1991 INTERNATIONAL UFO SYMPOSIUMSPEAKING PROGRAMSATURDAY, JULY 6 - MORNING SESSION -9:00 a.m. Welcome to Chicago Thomas P StultsIllinois Slate Director. Downers Grove. IL9:05 a.m. Greetings from the Mutual UFO Network Walter H. Andrus. Jr.International Director. Segum. TXIntroduction. Master of Ceremonies Forest CrawfordIllinois Asst. Slate Director. Collmsville. IL9:10 a.m. "Crop Circles: Brief History and Overview" Dennis StacyEditor. MUFON UFO Journal. San Antonio, TX10:00 a.m. "The 12th Planet Key to the UFO Enigma" Zechanah SitchmAuthor. New York. NY11:00 a.m. "Modem Biology. Close Encounters, and the ETH"Michael D. Swords. Ph.D.MUFON Consultant and CUFOS Board Member. Kalamazoo. Ml12:00 noon LUNCH • (Place of your choice)- AFTERNOON SESSION -1:30 p.m. "Further Evidence Linking Animal Mutilations andHuman Abductions to Alien Life Forms Linda Moulton HoweFilm Producer and Author. Huntingdon Valley. PA2:30 p.m. "Tissue Changes in Unexplained Animal Mutilations"John A. Altshuler. M D.. Hematologist. Englewood. CO3:30 p.m. COFFEE OR COKE BREAK4:00 p.m. "HasScience Something to do with UFOs?" Prof. Jean-Pierre PetitCNRS Senior Researcher, Pertuis, France5:00 p.m. DINNER - (Place of your choice!- EVENING SESSION -7:30 p.m. "The Reality of the Abduction Phenomenon"John S. Carpenter. M.S.W.Clinical Hypnotherapist. Springfield. MO8:00 p.m "Update on Crashed Saucers in New Mexico"Stanton T. Friedman. M.S.Nuclear Physicist and Researcher. Fredencton. NB. Canada9:30 p.m. "English Crop Circles" Colin AndrewsAuthor and Researcher. Andovcr. Hampshire. EnglandSUNDAY, JULY 7 - MORNING SESSION -9:00 a.m. "Theses for a Pre-Paradigm Science: Cereology"Michael M. Chorost. M.A., Researcher, Durham. NC10:00 a.m. "Government UFO Connections" C. B. Scott Jones. Ph.D.Researcher, Falls Church, VA11:00 a.m. "What Can We Believe in Abduction Accounts?"David M. Jacobs. Ph.D., Author andAbduction Researcher, Wyndmoor. PA12:00 noon LUNCH (Place of your choice)- AFTERNOON SESSION -1:30 p.m. Insights Into the Ancient Astronauts Theory"Gene M. Phillips. J.D.. President ofAncient Astronauts Society, Highland Park, IL2:30 p.m. "Gulf Breeze Without Ed" Bruce S. Maccabee,Ph.D.Chairman, Fund for UFO Research, Sabillasville, MD3:30 p.m. COFFEE OR COKE BREAK4:00 p.m. Question and Answer Panel, Composed of all SpeakersForest Crawford. Moderator5:30 p.m. Invitation to MUFON 1992 International UFO Symposium in Albuquerque. NMHosted by New Mexico MUFON.5:35 p.m. Adjournment Mrs. Judy StultsChairperson, MUFON 1991 SymposiumI3oHyatt Regency OHare Lobby: Chicago Symposium Site
  • 22. MESSAGE, ContinuedNew OfficersShirley A. Coyne, Michigan StateDirector, appointed Elmer V. Bean, HI(Marcellus, MI) to be State SectionDirector for Van Buren, Allegan andCass Counties. John E. Combest(Spring, TX) is the new State SectionDirector for Harris County (Houston,TX area). Two new consultantsvolunteered their expertise this month;Tom Joldersma, Ph.D. (Vashon, WA)in Physics, and Carol A. Ferguson,Ed.D. (Springfield, MO) in Education.Joseph V. Zonfrelli, M.S. (Boulder,CO) became a new Research Specialistin Electronic Engineering.State and ProvincialDirectors MeetingOn Friday, July 5, 1991, the annualState/Provincial Directors Meetingwill be conducted starting at 10 a.m.and continue until 4 or 5 p.m. AllAssistant State Directors are invited toattend. If a State or Provincial Direc-tor is unable to attend, he/she maydesignate a person to representhim/her, preferably a State SectionDirector.The four Regional Directors willpreside at the meeting with GeorgeCoyne as the moderator.No Video or AudioTaping PermittedNo video or audio tape recording willbe permitted within the confines of thelecture auditorium duringthe speecheson July 6 and 7. Tapes will be availablefor purchase after the Symposium fromIllinois MUFON, the host organiza-tion. Still cameras without flash areacceptable.MUFONET-BBS NetworkElectronic Bulletin Board8-N-l 300-14,400 Baud901-785-4943The Night SkyWalter N. WebbJuly 1991Bright Planets: (Evening Sky)The unusual planet parade continues in the early evening western sky. Mer-cury joins the original trio low in the WNW, while Saturn rises in the op-posite sky (ESE).July 9 & 10 Venus, Mars & the star Regulus form a compact group ina field 3° across. Venus less than 1°below Regulus.July 13 Lunar crescent between and below Venus, Mars, Jupiter andMercury.July 14 Crescent Moon below Venus while Mars and Regulus only2/3° apart and Jupiter/Mercury only 1/3° to 1/10° apart (de-pending upon your location in the U.S.).Mid-July At dusk view all five naked-eye planets at the same time (plusthe other three planets telescopically). Four are in the west.From right to left, they are Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and Venus.Saturn rises in the ESE about 8:45.July 16 Venus (magnitude -4.5) at maximum brilliancy. Shows a cres-cent phase in a telescope.July 21 Venus 4° below Mars.July 25 Mercury 1.7° below Regulus.July 26 Saturn (0.1), in Capricornus, is opposite the Sun, rising atsunset and remaining visible all night. The ringed planet alsois near the full moon.Bright Planets: (Morning Sky)Saturn is low in the SW at dawn.Total Solar Eclipse:On July 11the nearest new moon of the year and its alignment with the Suncreate North Americas longest total eclipse of the Sun (nearly seven minutes)this century and the longest one worldwide until the year 2132. As the Mooncrosses the face of the Sun, the tip of our satellites shadow cone sweeps acrossHawaii (the Big Island), southern Baja California, mainland Mexico, CentralAmerica, Colombia and Brazil. Persons within this narrow zone (up to 160miles wide) will experience varying durations of totality, reaching maximumin Baja and western mainland Mexico. At Kailua Kona, Hawaii, partial phasesbegin at 6:31 AM. The eclipse is total from 7:28 to 7:32. Partial eclipse endsat 8:37.Meanwhile, all of the U.S. except Alaska and the northern half of New Englandwill see a partial eclipse, weather permitting. The closer one is to the pathof totality, the more the Sun is obscured. Percentages and local times of max-imum eclipse follow for some sample cities: Atlanta, 28% at 3:32 PM; Chicago,13% at 2:16; Denver, 37% at 12:51; Honolulu, 96% at 7:30 AM; Houston,60% at 2:18; Miami, 44% at 3:50; New York, 2% at 3:35; San Diego, 74%at 11:30; Seattle, 20% at 11:23; Tucson, 72% at 12:44; Washington, 7% at 3:34.Warning! While it is perfectly safe to view the totally eclipsed Sun with thenaked eye, do not look at any part of the partially covered Sun! Permanenteye damagecan result from even short exposures to our stars visible, infraredor ultraviolet rays. Instead, project the Suns image through a telescope orbinocular eyepiece, or through a 1/16-inch hole in a card, onto a white sur-MUFON UFO JOURNALNo. 278 June 1991
  • 23. NIGHT SKY, Continuedface. Although there are a number of safe direct-viewing filters, I alwayshesitateto recommend them to large audiences or readerships due to the possibility ofimproper handling, especially by children.Meteor Shower:Although the July Aquarid meteors achieve maximum on the morning of the29th, a bright gibbous Moon will interfere and reduce the normal count (about20 per hour). Some members of this shower can be seen from mid-July to mid-August, emanating from low in the southern sky.Moon Phases:Last quarter —July 4 (JNew moon — July 11 ^^ Nearest Moon of 1991First quarter — July 18Full moon — July 26The Stars:At the end of evening twilight the summer patterns hover around the meridianin the south — Summer Triangle, Hercules, Ophiuchus, Sagittarius and Scor-pius. In the north Draco curves between the Big and Little Dipper. In the westthe stars of spring approach the horizon, while in the east the autumn constella-tions already have begun to appear.MUFON 1991 INTERNATIONAL UFOSYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS"UFOs: The Big Picture" proceedings will be availableby mail after July 15, 1991 for $20 plus $1.50for postage and handling.Please send check, money order .or cash to:MUFON, 103 Oldtowne Rd., Seguin, TX 78155-4099.(Foreign orders must be International Postal Money Order,cash or a check made payable to a US. Bank withelectronic routing code on the bottom of the check.)MESSAGE, Continuedtheme for the MUFON 1991 Interna-tional UFO Symposium to be held July5, 6 and 7 at the Hyatt Regency OHareHotel at OHare International Airportnear Chicago. A complete agenda ofevents and the speaking program ispublished in this issue of the Journal.A flyer advertising the symposium andan advance registration form wereenclosed in the April 1991 edition of theJournal for the convenience of peopleplanning to attend.Special rates at the Hyatt RegencyOHare Hotel have been contracted at$68 per night for single or double oc-cupancy, triple occupancy $78 or fourpeople at $88. Hotel reservations maybe made by calling (708) 696-1234 ortoll free (800) 228-9000 and advisingthe desk that you are attending theMUFON 1991 UFO Symposium. TheAuditorium will seat 1500 people so wewill have adequate room for everyoneplanning to attend. Six hundred roomshave been reserved at the Hyatt Regen-cy OHare.Reservations for the symposium arenow being taken. The special advancedprice for all five sessions is $45 beforeJune 1, 1991 or $50 thereafter and atthe door. Individual sessions are $10each. College students may secure ad-mission to all five sessions for $40 ifthey present their I.D. cards. A recep-tion with hor doeuvres will be held Fri-day evening, July 5th at 6 p.m. for $5with a cash bar. Reservations for thereception will be honored till July 5,1991. Your tickets and reservationpacket will be held at the symposiumregistration desk for your arrival. Ad-vance reservations may be made bywriting to: Paul Fisher, 3952 NorthSheridan Road, Chicago, IL 60613 andenclosing a check made payable to"MUFON 1991 UFO Symposium."A contract has been signed withAmerican Airlines to be the official car-rier for the symposium which also in-cludes American Eagle flights toChicago from the contiguous 48 states,Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the VirginIslands. To obtain Americans MeetingSaver Fare Discounts call toll free1-800-433-1790 to the Meeting ServicesDesk and give the Star File #S-0171K6for the 1991 MUFON InternationalSymposium. Your International Direc-tor is looking forward to meeting manyof our new members in person for thefirst time and renewing old friendshipswith everyone else in Chicago.National UFO Information WeekThe Seventh National UFO Informa-tion Week has been scheduled forAugust 10-18, 1991. This will be an idealopportunity for State and State Sectiongroups to set up photo exhibits,displays, booths for receiving UFOsighting reports from the public andclosed circuit TV showing of UFOdocumentaries, etc., in shopping mallsand libraries. Advance planning is re-quired in order to reserve space in thesefacilities and to construct the exhibitsand displays. MUFON endorses thisprogram as a Public Education projectin order to take advantage of the resurg-ing interest in UFOs by the public,printed media, radio and television.Stan Gordon, State Director for Penn-sylvania, is again planning for a largeexhibit at a shopping mall inGreensburg, PA, as he has done in pastyears.Continued on page 22MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991
  • 24. I>inect0rs {MessageWalt AndrusRe-Opening the Ed Walters CaseA few days prior to the MUFON 1990International UFO Symposium in Pen-sacola, Florida, two spectacular an-nouncements occurred that impactedseriously upon the credibilityof the EdWalters case in Gulf Breeze. First, apaper plate UFO model was found inthe attic above the garage in the Waltersformer home by the present owner. Andsecond, a young man named TommySmith telephoned the Gulf BreezeMayor, Ed Gray, and the Police Chief,Jerry Brown, telling them in a record-ed call that he was a participant in hoax-ing UFO photos with Ed Walters andothers. Tommy claimed that Ed had toldhim how each of the photographs wasproduced at the time when they were be-ing made. Mark Curtis of WEAR-TVin Pensacola and Craig Meyers, areporter for the Pensacola Ne^s-Joumalnewspaper, were present during thetelephone call to the mayor.This disturbing news prompted theMutual UFO Network to officiallyreopen the Ed Walters case in order toinvestigate the validity of Tommy Smithsclaims and to determine if the modelwas the object photographed by Ed. Rexand Carol Salisberry had been selectedby Dan Wright to receive the 1989-90award for the most outstanding UFO in-vestigation or investigations. Recogniz-ing the honor bestowed upon them andthe fact that Rex was not part of the ini-tial investigationteam, Charles D. Flan-nigan, the lead investigatorand FloridaState Director, recommended to WaltAndrus that Rex Salisberry spearheadthe reopening of the case. Your Inter-national Director concurred with Mr.Flannigan. At a private meeting on Ju-ly 5, 1990, Mr. Salisberry accepted thisresponsibility with one stipulation. Hewould accept the assignment only ifWalt Andrus would be willing to acceptthe disclosure based upon Rexs in-vestigation that the Ed Walters casecould be a hoax. Walt Andrus repliedin the affirmative, because he had issueda press statement that MUFON hadreopened the case based upon the in-credible claims being made.It was the concensus and agreementby these three gentlemen that thereopened investigation was to be con-fidential until a final report was preparedand released. As of this writing, RexSalisberry has promised to complete hisinvestigation and submit a final reportto MUFON. Several monthsago he pro-vided a "question and answer" formatof his findings to both the PensacolaNeHs-Joumal and the Gulf Breeze Sen-tinel for publication without advisingCharles Flannigan or Walt Andrusbeforehand. This act was in direct con-tradiction to the conditions under whichhe accepted the assignment.Mr. Salisberry has now written "ALetter to the Editor" elaborating uponhis personal viewpoints of the casereopening. I must make it clear that Rexstill has not submitted his final reportto MUFON with the documentedevidence substantiating the assertionsmade in his letter. His letter is beingpublished, as he requested, in this issueof the MUFON UFO Journal for theperusal of our readers. Wehope that hewill produce and submit a final reportin the near future.In the event that Mr. Salisberry failsto submit a final report, a second in-vestigation team under the leadership ofGary Watson, the Chief Investigator forPensacola MUFON, was authorized andassigned the same task and will submitthe results of their reopening of the EdWalters case. Each of these reports maybe very revealing and even contradic-tory. Stay tuned to what has developedinto a very controversial subject inUfology, both pro and con. Like anyother UFO sighting, the authenticity ofthe Ed and Frances Walters experiencemust rest upon the documented facts,not hearsay and rumors by "armchairUfologists."1990-91 AwardThe annual MUFON award plaquefor the most outstanding contribution toUfology for 1990-91 will be presentedat the MUFON 1991 International UFOSymposium in Chicago, Illinois, on July6, 1991. The actual contribution or workis not restricted to the calendar year of1990-91, but may include significant ac-complishments during the past fiveyears. In addition to presenting to pla-que to the recipient, the Fund for UFOResearch will provide a $500 cash awardin memory of Isabel Davis as inprevious years. A special runner-up cashaward of $500 will be presented by theMutual UFO Network in memory of Dr.Dan C. Overlade.Four candidates havebeen nominatedfor this prestigious award. Inalphabetical order, they are Charles D.Flannigan, Florida State Director;Robert J. Gribble, Western RegionalDirector; Howard J. Hoffman, Fundfor UFO Research and Dan Wright,Deputy Director, Investigations. A ballotwas enclosed with the May 1991 issueof the Journal so all members andsubscribers may vote for their choicefrom the candidates nominated. This isyour opportunity to not only recognizethe fine work of these gentlemen, butto express your personal thanks to theperson you feel has contributedsignificantly to the progress of Ufology.All ballots must be received in Seguin,Texas by June 26, 1991, so adequate timeis available to engrave the plaque.1991 MUFON Symposium"UFOs: The Big Picture" is theContinued on page 23MUFON UFO JOURNAL No. 278 June 1991

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