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Star Life Cycle

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This is a presentation on the life cycle of a star.

This is a presentation on the life cycle of a star.

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  • 1. The Life Cycle of a Star
    By: Michael Morgan
  • 2. Birth of a Star
    In space, there are huge clouds of gas and dust called nebulas
    These clouds are made up of hydrogen and helium and are the birthplace of new starts
    Gravity pulls the hydrogen gas in the nebula together and it begins to spin
    As the gas spins faster and faster, it heats up and is known as a protostar
  • 3. Protostar
    The second stage of star creation
    At this point the temperature eventually reaches 15,000,000 °C and nuclear fusion occurs in the clouds core
    The cloud begins to glow brightly
    At this stage, it contracts a little and becomes stable and is called a main sequence star
  • 4. Main Sequence Star
    A star will remain in this stage, shining for millions or billions of years to come
    As the main sequence star glows, hydrogen in the core is converted into helium by nuclear reactions
    Our Sun is a main sequence star
    Although the sun is extremely large compared to Earth, it is only a medium-sized star
  • 5. Red Giant Phase
    When the hydrogen supply in the core begins to run out, the core becomes unstable and contracts
    The outer shell of the star starts to expand
    As it expands, it cools and glows red
    The star has now reached the red giant phase
    All stars evolve the same way up to the red giant phase; the amount of mass a star has determines which of the following life cycle paths it will take after the red giant phase
  • 6. Medium Stars
    Throughout the red giant phase, the hydrogen gas in the outer shell continues to burn and the temperature in the core continues to increase
    At 200,000,000 °C the helium atoms fuse to form carbon atoms and the last of the hydrogen gas in the outer shell is blown away to form a ring around the core (this ring is called a planetary nebula)
    When the last of the helium atoms are used up, the medium star begins to die
  • 7. White Dwarfs
    Gravity causes the last of the star’s matter to collapse inward and compact, this is the white dwarf stage
    At this stage the star’s matter is extremely dense
    White dwarfs shine with a white hot light
    Once all their energy is gone, they no longer emit light
    The star has now reached the black dwarf phase in which it will forever remain
  • 8. Massive Stars
    Once massive starts reach the red giant phase, the core temperature increases
    Gravity continues to pull carbon atoms together as the temperature increases forming oxygen, nitrogen, and eventually iron
    At this point, fusion stops and the iron atoms start to absorb energy
    This energy is eventually released in a powerful explosion called a supernova
  • 9. Supernova
    A supernova can light up the sky for weeks
    The temperature in one can reach 1,000,000,000 °C
    The supernova then either becomes a neutron star or a black hole
  • 10. Neutron Star
    The core of a massive star that is 1.5 to 4 times as large as our Sun ends up as a neutron star after the supernova
    Neutron stars spin rapidly giving of radio waves
    If the radio waves are emitted in pulses (due to the star’s spin), the neutron star is called a pulsar
  • 11. Black Hole
    The core of a massive star that has 8 or more times the mass of our Sun remains massive after the supernova
    No nuclear fusion is taking place to support the core, so it is swallowed by it own gravity
    It has now become a black hole which readily attracts any matter and energy that comes near it
    Black holes are not visible, they are detected by the X-rays which are given off as matter falls into the hole
  • 12. Summary