ALKANES Defination <ul><li>Alkane – a family of  </li></ul><ul><li>hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Structural formula – </l...
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ALKANE

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ALKANE

  1. 1. ALKANES Defination <ul><li>Alkane – a family of </li></ul><ul><li>hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Structural formula – </li></ul><ul><li>shows how the atoms in </li></ul><ul><li>a molecule are bonded </li></ul><ul><li>together and by what types </li></ul><ul><li>of bonds. </li></ul>General Formula C n H 2n+2 n= 1,2,3,4…. <ul><li>The molecular formula, </li></ul><ul><li>name, structural formula of </li></ul><ul><li>the first ten alkanes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 n=1 , Methane </li></ul><ul><li>H </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>H-C-H </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>H </li></ul>Physical properties <ul><li>As the number of carbon atoms increases, </li></ul><ul><li>Melting and boiling point increase </li></ul><ul><li>Density increase </li></ul><ul><li>Physical state change from gas to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>2. All alkanes : </li></ul><ul><li>Insolubility in water </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot conduct electricity </li></ul>Chemical properties 1.Combustion – reaction with oxygen Example : CH 4 + 2O 2 -> CO 2 + 2H 2 O 2. Substitution – reaction with halogen Example : CH 4 + Cl 2 -> CH 3 Cl + HCl

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