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Leadership Final Ppm
 

Leadership Final Ppm

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    Leadership Final Ppm Leadership Final Ppm Presentation Transcript

    • PCA
              • Power
              • Concern
              • Action
      • Power
      • Concern
        • Swot Analysis
        • Situational Analysis
      • Action
      Professional Personal Social
    • SWOT Analysis
      • Analysis of
        • Strength
        • Weakness
        • Opportunities
        • Threat
    • Ego Analysis
      • 1) P = Parent
              • A = Adult
              • C = Child
              • I am OK You are not OK
              • Commanding nature
      P A C Bossing
      • 2)
              • I am not OK You are OK
              • ( Over humility, immaturity)
              • Demanding nature
      P A C
      • 3)
              • I am OK You are OK Maturity
              • (An ideal leader) Requesting nature
      P C A
    • Force field Analysis to ACT
      • 1) Non – Favorable situation
      • Supporting factors_____________________
      • Inhibiting factors
    • Force field Analysis to ACT
      • 2) Balancing Situation
      • Supporting factors
      • Inhibiting factors
    • Force field Analysis to ACT
      • 3)Favourable Situation
      • Supporting factors
      • Inhibiting factors
      • The leader should have the courage to bring change
      • The leader should have the patience to wait for the right time to act
      • The leader should have the wisdom to understand what cannot be changed
    • WHAT IS LEADERSHIP
      • LEADERSHIP IS THAT FUNCTION IN A GROUP OR ORGANIZATION PERFORMED BY A PERSON
          • WHO DETERMINES THE IDEOLOGY OF A GROUP
            • [THE MISSION, CLIMATE, CULTURE AND VALUES]
          • WHO PLAYS A CENTRAL ROLE IN DEFINING GROUP GOALS AND FACILITATES THEIR ATTAINMENT AND
          • WHO INFLUENCES THE ACTIVITIES OF THE GROUP TO WHICH HE OR SHE BELONGS
    • cont......
        • Leadership is the ability to persuade others in order to achieve the designed goals with maximum perfection, in the right time, in the right way and with the right people.
        • In psychological terms, leadership is basically an influence and communicative system
        • Leadership also consists of communicating objectives and plans to subordinates, motivating them, directing their efforts and appraising their performance
        • According to Kelth Davis “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivate it towards goals”
    • Nature & Features
      • The features & characteristics of leadership are as under
      • Leadership is basically a personal quality
      • Leadership is the ability to form a group of followers voluntarily without the use of coercion
      • Leadership presupposes the existence of a group of followers. The essence of leadership is followership
      • Leadership is a process of inter-personal influence by which leader influences the followers in a situation to strive willingly towards the realisation of common goals
      • Leadership involves a community of interests between the leader and his followers. The objectives of both the leader and his followers are one and the same
    • NATURE OF LEADERSHIP
      • When a group is performing at its peak capability, at its head is someone skilled in the art of leadership
      • This skill is a combination of three major ingredients:
        • Ability to inspire
        • Ability to understand that human beings have different motivating forces at different times and at different situations
        • Ability to act in a way that will develop a climate for arousing motivation and bringing a job to successful completion
    • Functions of Leadership
      • Developing team work
      • Representing the team
      • Counselling the team members
      • Managing the time
      • Using proper power
      • Securing the group effectiveness
      • Timely evaluation and corrective steps
      • An Ideal leader should be a good
        • Goal setter
        • Team builder
        • Communicator
        • Time manager
        • Risk taker
        • Motivator
        • Role model
    • He should have good:
        • Conceptual back ground
        • Communication skill
        • Interpersonal skill
        • Political skill (power placing skill)
        • Organisational skill
        • Implementation skill
        • Efficiency is concerned with doing things right
        • Effectiveness is concerned with doing right things
      • Leadership is an important factor for making any type of Organisation successful.
      • Without a good leader, Organisation cannot function effectively and efficiently
      • Here we are more concerned about Manager as a leader.
      • Since the Organisation is basically a deliberate creation of human beings for certain specified objectives, the activities of its members need to be directed in a certain way.
      Importance of Leadership
    • Importance of good Leadership
      • 1. MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES – Motivation is necessary for work performance. Higher the motivation, better would be the performance.
      • A good leader, by exercising his leadership, motivates the employees for high performance.
      • 2. CREATING CONFIDENCE – A good leader may create confidence in his followers by directing them, giving them advice and getting through them good results in the organisation.
        • 3 . BUILDING MORALE – Morale is expressed as attitudes of employees towards organisation, management and voluntary cooperation to offer their ability to the organisation. Through providing good leadership in the organisation, employees morale can be raised high ensuring high productivity and stability in the organisation.
        • Thus, Good leadership is essential in all aspects of managerial functions whether it be motivation, communication or direction. It ensures success in the organisation, and unsatisfactory human performance in any organisation can be primarily attributed to poor leadership.
      • The leader is one who:-
      • Knows the way
      • Shows the way
      • Goes the way
    • The new challenge
      • The leader is a person who receives habitual obedience from the bulk of the given society , by demonstrating his concern about the society through visible actions , and by encouraging communication both ways and always acting as a benefactor to the society.
    • What is the 3C’s of a leader
      • Concern about the well being and up gradation of the team.
      • Command respect ( leader by choice not by office)
      • Communication skills , to narrate the goals and ways unambiguously and listen the opinion of the group.
    • Leadership styles and patterns
      • Leadership style denotes the way in which the leaders themselves behave while using their influence and power to affect the behaviour of others over whom they have or seek control
      • There are many leadership styles
      • The studies on leadership has broken down it in to 5 basic styles They are :-
    • STYLES OF LEADERSHIP 1. AUTOCRATIC 2. BUREAUCRATIC 3. DIPLOMATIC 4. DEMOCRATIVE OR PARTICIPATIVE 5. FREE REIN
      • 1) Authoritarian or autocratic style
        • The leader decides everything and leaves nothing to chance and to the discretion of his followers
        • Task and authority oriented
        • He expects his subordinates to do what they are asked to do
        • He remains aloof from the group socially
        • Strength
        • It lies on leader's ability to increase efficiency, save time and get quick results
        • Work effectively in a crisis situation
        • Weakness
        • Negative effect on team members
        • It excludes them from involvement and reduce them to machine like cogs
      • 2) Laissez faire style / Free – Rein style
      • Sets goals, policies, dead lines and budgets for his subordinates and then drops the reins and sets his subordinates free to operate without further direction or control
      • Non leadership style
      • This behaviour allows the subordinates to do whatever they like
      • The leader neither inspires nor directs his group members
      • Strength
      • Full managerial delegation with its benefits of optimum utilisation of time and resources
      • Weakness
      • Very little or no managerial control, which may leads to chaos or crisis, if the leader does not know his subordinates capacity, competence, talents, potential etc.
      • 3) Bureaucratic Style
      • This is an impersonal, rule-ridden style
      • The leader rationalises and de personalises everything in terms of established routine procedures, due processes and rules
      • There is more emphasis on activity than on achievement
      • He looks for mechanistic formality, uniformity and conformity
      • Strength
      • Team members know where they stand with the bureaucratic leader
      • Since the decisions are made by known rules, there will be :- Transparency
      • Sense of fairness etc.
      • Weakness
        • Inflexibility in situation where exceptions to rules should be made or requested
      • 4) Democratic – Participative style
      • It is a supportive, human relation oriented style
      • The leader encourages two way communication between himself and his followers
      • He reposes a high degree of confidence and trust in them, respects their values and view points, invites their suggestions, initiates group process and discussions and in general both leads and is led by the group
    • cont.....
      • He gives more freedom of thinking and action to his subordinates
      • He is at once employee oriented and production oriented so that employee morale positively contributes to employee productivity
      • Strength
        • Establishment of Good organisational work climate and culture
        • Unleashes the enormous power of team members
        • Effective motivation
        • Satisfaction
        • Sense of responsibility and belongingness among team members
        • Weakness
        • Time consuming
        • Delay and lapse
        • It may degenerate into complete loss of managerial control if it is not handled consciously and rationally
      • 5) Diplomatic style (Self type leader)
        • He uses a large variety and degree of persuasion – tactics, ranging from simple explanation of the reasons for an order to full – scale bargaining with people
        • This leaders normally relates his organisational goals to the individual needs and aspirations of his team members. People co operate and work more enthusiastically with diplomatic leaders.
        • Weakness
        • Hypocrisy
        • Unless handled with judgement Skill and sincerity, this style quickly degenerates and comes through to people as insincerely
    • Which style is the Best?
      • The best style of leadership depends on 3 ingredients
        • Leader
        • Team members
        • Situation
        • In short there is no formalised recipe for effective leadership and any of the said styles can be effective in certain instances
    • Leader Vs Manager
    • Difference between Leadership & Management
    • Major differences between manager and leader
      • Manager manages the situation
      • Where as
      • Leader always take an innovative approach.
    • Be a visionary
      • Manager always looks at short term or immediate goals.
      • Where as
      • Leader always looks at long term vision
      • ( short cuts does not intoxicate him )
    • The loved ones
      • Manager loves the phrases when ? & How?
      • Where as
      • Leader always asks what ? And why not?
    • The approach
      • Manager stops where stumbling blocks come
      • Where as
      • Leader looks for options to turn the stumbling blocks to stepping stone.
    • Leader
      • Manager happy about the status quo
      • Whereas
      • Leader challenges status quo.
      • Leaders , practice what they preach.
      • He never looks at short cuts to fulfil his tasks.
      • He has strong belief in the bigger cause for his team and stands for , thus for him the means justified ends.
      • Leader lives with his visions, which are well defined , transparent, and reachable
      • For a leader the purpose for which he works becomes religion for him.
      • He never compromises on what he believes is right ,
    • Different patterns of Leadership
      • 1) The leader makes decisions and announce it
        • This is the extreme form of autocratic leadership where by the decisions are handed over by the boss to be obeyed by the subordinates
    • Cont....
      • 2)The leader sells his decisions
        • Rather than simply announcing it he takes additional steps of persuading his subordinates to accept it. (try to reduce the resistance)
      • 3) The leader presents his ideas and invites questions
        • The boss arrives at the decision but provide full opportunity to his subordinates to get a fuller explanation of his thinking and his intentions
      • 4) The leader presents his tentative decision subject to change
        • The initiative for identifying and diagnosing the problems remains with the boss but his meeting with the subordinates gives him an opportunity to review his ideas
    • Different Patterns
      • 5) The leader presents the problem, gets the suggestion and then makes the decision
        • In this kind of leadership behaviour The leader does not reach a decision of his own. He provides the chance first to his subordinates for making suggestion
      • 6) the leader defines the limits and requests the group to make a decision
        • Here the group have the right to make the decision. However he defines the problem and the boundaries with in which the decision must be made
      • 7) The leader permits the group to undertake the whole decision making with in the prescribed limits
        • This represents the extreme form of permissive and democrative decision. The leader commits himself to go by the groups decision
    • What do we know about leadership?
      • Current research has the following, inter alia, to say concerning leadership
      • 1) It rejects :
      • a) The old maxim : “ Leaders are born not made”
      • b) The notion that leadership consists in the possession of certain personality traits
      • c) The dilemma that one must choose between being either an autocrat or a democrat.
      • d) The belief that there is one ideal leadership style suited for all organisation and situations
      • e) The assumption that people naturally dislike work, avoid responsibility, have no deep need for involvement in serious endeavor
      • 2) It indicates that :
      • a. Leadership calls for an ability to diagnose a situation and a wide and flexible range of behaviour
      • b. Appropriate leadership behaviour always “all depends” on :
        • 1) The person of the leader himself
        • 2) The group he leads
        • 3) The situation
    • c. Great concern for people is not incompatible with great concern for organisational purpose d. There is a great difference between doing things right and doing the right things e. Effective leadership, even when circumstances prohibit their immediate utilization, sets great value on participation, mutual goal setting, open and linked communication systems, confronting rather than avoiding problems, team building and trust
    • THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
      • THE GREAT MAN THEORY
      • BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES
      • TWO DIMENSIONAL THEORY
    • I - THE GREAT MAN THEORY
      • LEADERS ARE BORN AND NOT MADE
    • II - BEHAVIOURAL THEORY
    • BEHAVIOURAL THEORY THREE PATTERNS TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT LINKERT'S SYSTEM BLAKE & MOUTON
    • CONTINUM OF LEADERSHIP THEORY
    • II - BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES [CONTD.]
      • B . TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT
      • LEADERSHIP EXISTS ALONG A CONTINUUM OF STYLES
      • 1. Leader makes a decision and announces it.
      • 2. Leader “sells” decision
      • 3. Leader presents ideas and invites questions
      Boss Centred Subordinate Centred Use of authority by leaders Area of freedom for subordinates 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    • cont....
      • 4. Leader presents a tentative decision subject to change
      • 5. Leader presents a problem, invites suggestions, makes the decision
      • 6. Leader defines limits, and asks the group to make the decision
      • 7. Leader permits subordinates to function within limits defined by the superior
    • LINKERT'S MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
    •  
    • TWO DIMENSIONAL THEORY
    • MANAGERIAL GRID
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •