The leader should have the courage to bring change
The leader should have the patience to wait for the right time to act
The leader should have the wisdom to understand what cannot be changed
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP IS THAT FUNCTION IN A GROUP OR ORGANIZATION PERFORMED BY A PERSON
WHO DETERMINES THE IDEOLOGY OF A GROUP
[THE MISSION, CLIMATE, CULTURE AND VALUES]
WHO PLAYS A CENTRAL ROLE IN DEFINING GROUP GOALS AND FACILITATES THEIR ATTAINMENT AND
WHO INFLUENCES THE ACTIVITIES OF THE GROUP TO WHICH HE OR SHE BELONGS
Leadership is the ability to persuade others in order to achieve the designed goals with maximum perfection, in the right time, in the right way and with the right people.
In psychological terms, leadership is basically an influence and communicative system
Leadership also consists of communicating objectives and plans to subordinates, motivating them, directing their efforts and appraising their performance
According to Kelth Davis “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivate it towards goals”
Nature & Features
The features & characteristics of leadership are as under
Leadership is basically a personal quality
Leadership is the ability to form a group of followers voluntarily without the use of coercion
Leadership presupposes the existence of a group of followers. The essence of leadership is followership
Leadership is a process of inter-personal influence by which leader influences the followers in a situation to strive willingly towards the realisation of common goals
Leadership involves a community of interests between the leader and his followers. The objectives of both the leader and his followers are one and the same
NATURE OF LEADERSHIP
When a group is performing at its peak capability, at its head is someone skilled in the art of leadership
This skill is a combination of three major ingredients:
Ability to inspire
Ability to understand that human beings have different motivating forces at different times and at different situations
Ability to act in a way that will develop a climate for arousing motivation and bringing a job to successful completion
Functions of Leadership
Developing team work
Representing the team
Counselling the team members
Managing the time
Using proper power
Securing the group effectiveness
Timely evaluation and corrective steps
An Ideal leader should be a good
He should have good:
Conceptual back ground
Political skill (power placing skill)
Efficiency is concerned with doing things right
Effectiveness is concerned with doing right things
Leadership is an important factor for making any type of Organisation successful.
Without a good leader, Organisation cannot function effectively and efficiently
Here we are more concerned about Manager as a leader.
Since the Organisation is basically a deliberate creation of human beings for certain specified objectives, the activities of its members need to be directed in a certain way.
Importance of Leadership
Importance of good Leadership
1. MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES – Motivation is necessary for work performance. Higher the motivation, better would be the performance.
A good leader, by exercising his leadership, motivates the employees for high performance.
2. CREATING CONFIDENCE – A good leader may create confidence in his followers by directing them, giving them advice and getting through them good results in the organisation.
3 . BUILDING MORALE – Morale is expressed as attitudes of employees towards organisation, management and voluntary cooperation to offer their ability to the organisation. Through providing good leadership in the organisation, employees morale can be raised high ensuring high productivity and stability in the organisation.
Thus, Good leadership is essential in all aspects of managerial functions whether it be motivation, communication or direction. It ensures success in the organisation, and unsatisfactory human performance in any organisation can be primarily attributed to poor leadership.
The leader is one who:-
Knows the way
Shows the way
Goes the way
The new challenge
The leader is a person who receives habitual obedience from the bulk of the given society , by demonstrating his concern about the society through visible actions , and by encouraging communication both ways and always acting as a benefactor to the society.
What is the 3C’s of a leader
Concern about the well being and up gradation of the team.
Command respect ( leader by choice not by office)
Communication skills , to narrate the goals and ways unambiguously and listen the opinion of the group.
Leadership styles and patterns
Leadership style denotes the way in which the leaders themselves behave while using their influence and power to affect the behaviour of others over whom they have or seek control
There are many leadership styles
The studies on leadership has broken down it in to 5 basic styles They are :-
STYLES OF LEADERSHIP 1. AUTOCRATIC 2. BUREAUCRATIC 3. DIPLOMATIC 4. DEMOCRATIVE OR PARTICIPATIVE 5. FREE REIN
1) Authoritarian or autocratic style
The leader decides everything and leaves nothing to chance and to the discretion of his followers
Task and authority oriented
He expects his subordinates to do what they are asked to do
He remains aloof from the group socially
It lies on leader's ability to increase efficiency, save time and get quick results
Work effectively in a crisis situation
Negative effect on team members
It excludes them from involvement and reduce them to machine like cogs
2) Laissez faire style / Free – Rein style
Sets goals, policies, dead lines and budgets for his subordinates and then drops the reins and sets his subordinates free to operate without further direction or control
Non leadership style
This behaviour allows the subordinates to do whatever they like
The leader neither inspires nor directs his group members
Full managerial delegation with its benefits of optimum utilisation of time and resources
Very little or no managerial control, which may leads to chaos or crisis, if the leader does not know his subordinates capacity, competence, talents, potential etc.
3) Bureaucratic Style
This is an impersonal, rule-ridden style
The leader rationalises and de personalises everything in terms of established routine procedures, due processes and rules
There is more emphasis on activity than on achievement
He looks for mechanistic formality, uniformity and conformity
Team members know where they stand with the bureaucratic leader
Since the decisions are made by known rules, there will be :- Transparency
Sense of fairness etc.
Inflexibility in situation where exceptions to rules should be made or requested
4) Democratic – Participative style
It is a supportive, human relation oriented style
The leader encourages two way communication between himself and his followers
He reposes a high degree of confidence and trust in them, respects their values and view points, invites their suggestions, initiates group process and discussions and in general both leads and is led by the group
He gives more freedom of thinking and action to his subordinates
He is at once employee oriented and production oriented so that employee morale positively contributes to employee productivity
Establishment of Good organisational work climate and culture
Unleashes the enormous power of team members
Sense of responsibility and belongingness among team members
Delay and lapse
It may degenerate into complete loss of managerial control if it is not handled consciously and rationally
5) Diplomatic style (Self type leader)
He uses a large variety and degree of persuasion – tactics, ranging from simple explanation of the reasons for an order to full – scale bargaining with people
This leaders normally relates his organisational goals to the individual needs and aspirations of his team members. People co operate and work more enthusiastically with diplomatic leaders.
Unless handled with judgement Skill and sincerity, this style quickly degenerates and comes through to people as insincerely
Which style is the Best?
The best style of leadership depends on 3 ingredients
In short there is no formalised recipe for effective leadership and any of the said styles can be effective in certain instances
Leader Vs Manager
Difference between Leadership & Management
Major differences between manager and leader
Manager manages the situation
Leader always take an innovative approach.
Be a visionary
Manager always looks at short term or immediate goals.
Leader always looks at long term vision
( short cuts does not intoxicate him )
The loved ones
Manager loves the phrases when ? & How?
Leader always asks what ? And why not?
Manager stops where stumbling blocks come
Leader looks for options to turn the stumbling blocks to stepping stone.
Manager happy about the status quo
Leader challenges status quo.
Leaders , practice what they preach.
He never looks at short cuts to fulfil his tasks.
He has strong belief in the bigger cause for his team and stands for , thus for him the means justified ends.
Leader lives with his visions, which are well defined , transparent, and reachable
For a leader the purpose for which he works becomes religion for him.
He never compromises on what he believes is right ,
Different patterns of Leadership
1) The leader makes decisions and announce it
This is the extreme form of autocratic leadership where by the decisions are handed over by the boss to be obeyed by the subordinates
2)The leader sells his decisions
Rather than simply announcing it he takes additional steps of persuading his subordinates to accept it. (try to reduce the resistance)
3) The leader presents his ideas and invites questions
The boss arrives at the decision but provide full opportunity to his subordinates to get a fuller explanation of his thinking and his intentions
4) The leader presents his tentative decision subject to change
The initiative for identifying and diagnosing the problems remains with the boss but his meeting with the subordinates gives him an opportunity to review his ideas
5) The leader presents the problem, gets the suggestion and then makes the decision
In this kind of leadership behaviour The leader does not reach a decision of his own. He provides the chance first to his subordinates for making suggestion
6) the leader defines the limits and requests the group to make a decision
Here the group have the right to make the decision. However he defines the problem and the boundaries with in which the decision must be made
7) The leader permits the group to undertake the whole decision making with in the prescribed limits
This represents the extreme form of permissive and democrative decision. The leader commits himself to go by the groups decision
What do we know about leadership?
Current research has the following, inter alia, to say concerning leadership
1) It rejects :
a) The old maxim : “ Leaders are born not made”
b) The notion that leadership consists in the possession of certain personality traits
c) The dilemma that one must choose between being either an autocrat or a democrat.
d) The belief that there is one ideal leadership style suited for all organisation and situations
e) The assumption that people naturally dislike work, avoid responsibility, have no deep need for involvement in serious endeavor
2) It indicates that :
a. Leadership calls for an ability to diagnose a situation and a wide and flexible range of behaviour
b. Appropriate leadership behaviour always “all depends” on :
1) The person of the leader himself
2) The group he leads
3) The situation
c. Great concern for people is not incompatible with great concern for organisational purpose d. There is a great difference between doing things right and doing the right things e. Effective leadership, even when circumstances prohibit their immediate utilization, sets great value on participation, mutual goal setting, open and linked communication systems, confronting rather than avoiding problems, team building and trust
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
THE GREAT MAN THEORY
TWO DIMENSIONAL THEORY
I - THE GREAT MAN THEORY
LEADERS ARE BORN AND NOT MADE
II - BEHAVIOURAL THEORY
BEHAVIOURAL THEORY THREE PATTERNS TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT LINKERT'S SYSTEM BLAKE & MOUTON
CONTINUM OF LEADERSHIP THEORY
II - BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES [CONTD.]
B . TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT
LEADERSHIP EXISTS ALONG A CONTINUUM OF STYLES
1. Leader makes a decision and announces it.
2. Leader “sells” decision
3. Leader presents ideas and invites questions
Boss Centred Subordinate Centred Use of authority by leaders Area of freedom for subordinates 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
4. Leader presents a tentative decision subject to change
5. Leader presents a problem, invites suggestions, makes the decision
6. Leader defines limits, and asks the group to make the decision
7. Leader permits subordinates to function within limits defined by the superior