Ch02

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organizational design, structure

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Ch02

  1. 1. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-1 Chapter Two Strategy, Organization Design, and Effectiveness
  2. 2. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-2 Top Management Role in Organization Direction, Design, and Effectiveness CEO, Top Management Team External Environment Opportunities Threats Uncertainty Resource Availability Internal Situation Strengths Weaknesses Distinctive Competence Leadership Style Past Performance Strategic Direction Organization Design Effectiveness Outcomes Define mission, official goals Select operational goals, competitive strategies Resources Efficiency Goal attainment Competing values Structural Form – learning vs. efficiency Information and control systems Production technology Human resource policies, incentives Organizational culture Interorganizational linkages Source: Adapted from Arie Y. Lewin and Carroll U. Stephens, “Individual Properties of the CEO as Determinants of Organization Design,” unpublished manuscript, Duke University, 1990; and Arie Y. Lewin and Carroll U. Stephens, “CEO Attributes as Determinants of Organization Design: An integrated Model,” Organization Studies 15, no. 2 (1994): 183-212
  3. 3. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-3 Goal Type and Purpose Type of Goals Purpose of Goals Official Goals, mission: Legitimacy Operative goals: Employee direction and motivation Decision guidelines Standard of performance
  4. 4. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-4 Porter’s Competitive Strategies Competitive Scope Competitive Advantage Strategy Example Broad Low Cost Low-Cost Leadership Dell Computer Broad Uniqueness Differentiation Starbucks Coffee Co. Narrow Low Cost Focused Low-Cost Leadership Enterprise Rent-a- Car Narrow Uniqueness Focused Differentiation Edward Jones Investments
  5. 5. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-5 Miles and Snow’s Strategy Typology  Prospector  Learning orientation; flexible, fluid, decentralized structure  Strong capability in research  Values creativity, risk-taking, and innovation  Defender  Efficiency orientation; centralized authority and tight cost control  Emphasis on production efficiency, low overhead  Close supervision; little employee empowerment Source: Based on Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersema, “How Market Leaders Keep Their Edge,” Fortune February 6, 1995, 88-98; Michael Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, and Robert E. Hoskisson, Strategic Management (St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1995), 100-113; and Raymond E. Miles, Charles c. Snow, Alan D. Meyer, and Henry L. Coleman, Jr., “Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process,” Academy of Management Review 3 (1978), 546-562
  6. 6. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-6 Miles and Snow’s Strategy Typology (cont’d)  Analyzer  Balances efficiency and learning; tight cost control with flexibility and adaptability  Efficient production for stable product lines; emphasis on creativity, research, risk-taking for innovation  Reactor  No clear organizational approach; design characteristics may shift abruptly depending on current needs Source: Based on Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersema, “How Market Leaders Keep Their Edge,” Fortune February 6, 1995, 88-98; Michael Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, and Robert E. Hoskisson, Strategic Management (St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1995), 100-113; and Raymond E. Miles, Charles c. Snow, Alan D. Meyer, and Henry L. Coleman, Jr., “Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process,” Academy of Management Review 3 (1978), 546-562
  7. 7. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-7 Contingency Factors Affecting Organization Design Organizational Structure and Design The Right Mix of Design Characteristics Fits the Contingency Factors
  8. 8. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-8 Contingency Approaches to the Measurement of Organizational Effectiveness Organization Internal activities and processes Resource Inputs Product and Service Outputs Resource-based approach Internal process approach Goal approach External Environment
  9. 9. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-9 Reported Goals of U.S. Corporations Goal % Corporations Profitability 89 Growth 82 Market Share 66 Social Responsibility 65 Employee welfare 62 Product quality and service 60 Research and development 54 Diversification 51 Efficiency 50 Financial stability 49 Resource conservation 39 Management development 35 Source: Adapted from Y. K. Shetty, “New Look at Corporate Goals,” California Management Review 22, no. 2 (1979), pp. 71-19.
  10. 10. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-10 Four Models of Effectiveness Values Human Relations Emphasis Primary Goal: human resource development Subgoals: cohesion, morale, training Internal Process Emphasis Primary Goal: stability, equilibrium Subgoals: information management, communication Rational Goal Emphasis Primary Goal: productivity, efficiency, profit Subgoals: planning, goal setting Open Systems Emphasis Primary Goal: growth, resource acquisition Subgoals: flexibility, readiness, external evaluation Flexibility Control Internal External STRUCTURE F O C U S Adapted from Robert E. Quinn and John Rohrbaugh, “A Spatial Model of Effectiveness Criteria: Toward a Competing Values Approach to Organizational Analysis,” Management Science 29 (1983): 363-377; and Robert E. Quinn and Kim Cameron, “Organizational Life Cycles and Shifting Criteria of Effectiveness: Some Preliminary Evidence,” Management Science 29 (1983): 33-51.
  11. 11. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-11 ORGANIZATION B ORGANIZATION A Effectiveness Values for Two Organizations Human Relations Emphasis Internal Process Emphasis Rational Goal Emphasis Open Systems Emphasis STRUCTURE F O C U S FLEXIBILITY CONTROL INTERNAL EXTERNAL
  12. 12. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-12 Identifying Company Goals and Strategies Goals from Exhibit 2.8 Strategies from Porter Company #1 Company #2 Company #3 Workbook Activity
  13. 13. Thomson Learning © 2004 2-13 Competing Values and Organizational Effectiveness Workshop Activity Goal or subgoal Performance Gauge How to measure Source of data What do you consider effective? (Example) Equilibrium Turnover rates Compare percentages of workers who left HRM files 25% reduction in first year 1 Open System 2 3 Human Relations 4 5 Internal Process 6 7 Rational Goal 8
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