Modul2 kb2, parasit patogen

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uraian mengenai OPT golongan parasit dan patogen

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Modul2 kb2, parasit patogen

  1. 1. MODUL II:GOLONGAN ORGANISME PENGGANGGU TUMBUHANKegiatan Belajar 2:OPT Golongan Parasit dan Patogen<br />I W. Mudita<br />Prodi IHPT Faperta Undana<br />http://iwayanmudita.blogspot.com<br />http://citrusbiosecurity.blogspot.com<br />http://perlintanfapertaundana.blogspot.com<br />
  2. 2. ALUR URAIAN<br />5.2.1. Cara OPT Golongan Parasit dan Patogen Menimbulkan Kerusakan dan Kerugian<br />5.2.2. Faktor-Faktor yang Menyebabkan OPT Golongan Parasit dan Patogen Menjadi Merusak dan Merugikan<br />5.2.3. Penggolongan dan Identifikasi OPT Golongan Parasit dan Patogen <br />
  3. 3. APA ITU PARASIT DAN PATOGEN?<br />Parasit: an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant); it obtains nourishment from the host without killing the host. Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the host.<br />Patogen: A parasite is an organism that obtains its nutrients from living organic matter, whereas a saprophyte obtains nutrients from dead organic matter. When a parasite harms its living host, or causes disease, it becomes a pathogen.<br />
  4. 4. APA ITU PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN?<br />Pengertian luas (sensu lato) dan pengertian sempit (sensu stricto)<br />Pengertian luas: "Any malfunctioning of host cells and tissues that results from continuous irritation by a pathogenic agent or environmental factor and leads to development of symptoms.” (G. N. Agrios, 2005) atau “an impairment of the normal state of the living animal or plant body or one of its parts that interrupts or modifies the performance of the vital functions, is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms, and is a response to environmental factors (as malnutrition, industrial hazards, or climate), to specific infective agents (as worms, bacteria, or viruses), to inherent defects of the organism (as genetic anomalies), or to combinations of these factors.” (The Merriam-Webster Online Medical Dictionary 2005)<br />Pengertian luas: “A disease is the result of a dynamic, detrimental relationship between an organism (emphasis added) that parasitizes or interferes with the normal processes of cells or tissue, or both, of the plant. The organism that incites or causes the disease process with the host is called a pathogen. … Plant stresses or plant injuries are not diseases because they are not dynamic; that is, they do not change over time” (Windham and Windham, 2004)<br />
  5. 5. PENGERTIAN PENYAKIT<br />
  6. 6. PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN DALAM KONTEKS PERLINTAN<br />Perlintan merupakan upaya untuk melindungi tanaman dari gangguan dan atau kerusakan yang disebabkan oleh OPT<br />OPT adalah<br />Penyakit dalam konteks perlintan adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh OPT, bukan karena faktor abiotik<br />Mengingat gangguan oleh OPT golongan binatang telah dibahas tersendiri maka penyakit dalam konteks perlintan dibatasi pada gangguan yang disebabkan oleh jamur, bakteri, dan virus. Gangguan yang disebabkan oleh nematoda juga dikategorikan sebagai penyakit, tetapi nematoda juga dapat dipandang sebagai hama dalam arti sempit<br />
  7. 7. EKSPRESI PENYAKIT: GEJALA DAN TANDA<br />Perubahan yang terjadi dan tampak secara visual pada tanaman sakit disebut gejala penyakit (disease symptoms). Terdapat bermacam-macam gejala penyakit, penyakit berbeda dapat menimbulkan gejala yang sama<br />Perubahan yang tampak dari perkembangan patogen pada tanaman sakit disebut tanda (disease signs). <br />Gejala berkaitan dengan perubahan yang terjadi pada tanaman, tanda berkaitan dengan perubahan yang terjadi pada patogen<br />
  8. 8. CARA PATOGEN MERUSAK DAN MERUGIKAN<br />Mengganggu proses fisiologis tanaman dengan berbagai cara sehingga produksi berkurang<br />Menimbulkan bekas pada hasil tanaman sehingga kualitas hasil berkurang. Contoh: apple scab.<br />Menghasilkan racun yang dapat mengkontamionasi hasil pada saat penyimpanan maupun pengolahan<br />Mengkontaminasi lahan sehingga lahan tidak dapat digunakan untuk kegiatan budidaya dan nilai ekonomis lahan menjadi menurun<br />Mengkontaminasi air irigasi sehingga lahan yang diairi menjadi terkena penyakit<br />
  9. 9. ARTI PENTING PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN<br />World Food Crisis: Meeting The Demands Of A Growing Population by J. Batten<br />http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/worldhunger/top.html<br />A description of several plant diseases that have been responsible for famines.<br />The Future World Food Situation and the Role of Plant Diseases by P. Pinstrup-Andersen. 2001.  The Plant Health Instructor.  DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2001-0425-01.<br />http://www.apsnet.org/education/feature/FoodSecurity/Top.html<br />A discussion of the future of the world’s food supply and the potential impact of plant diseases.<br />The Ecology and Economics of Elm Replacement in Harvard Yard by P. Del Tredici<br />http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/DoanePerry/TRElmHar.htm<br />A case study of the economics of replacement of the elms in Harvard Yard.<br />
  10. 10. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MENYEBABKAN PARASIT DAN PATOGEN MENJADI MERUSAK DAN MERUGIKAN<br />Konsep segitiga dan piramida penyakit. <br />
  11. 11. SEGITIGA PENYAKIT<br />Patogen: introduksi dari luar, peningkatan patogenisitas patogen lokal, resistensi patogen lokal<br />Tanaman: tanaman berketahanan vertikal (unggul), monokultur, tanam terus menerus, budidaya intensif<br />Lingkungan: perubahan iklim, perubahan permintaan pasar, globalisasi<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. KLASIFIKASI<br />
  14. 14. KELOMPOK PATOGEN<br />Bacteria as Plant Pathogens. Anne K. Vidaver and Patricia A. Lambrecht, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE <br />Fastidious Vascular-Colonizing Bacteria. Jacqueline Fletcher and Astri Wayadande, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK <br />Why are Phytophthora and other Oomycota not true Fungi? Amy Y. Rossman and Mary E. Palm. 2006. <br />Introduction to Parasitic Flowering Plants.Daniel L. Nickrent and Lytton J. Musselman, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University<br />Introduction to Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Kris Lambert and Sadia Bekal, University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, Urbana, IL<br />Introduction to Plant Viruses, the Invisible Foe. Rose C. Gergerich and Valerian V. Dolja Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR and Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR<br />
  15. 15. JAMUR<br />Fungi are characterized by non-motile bodies (thalli) constructed of apically elongating walled filaments (hyphae), a life cycle with sexual and asexual reproduction, usually from a common thallus, haploid thalli resulting from zygotic meiosis, and heterotrophic nutrition. Spindle pole bodies, not centrioles, usually are associated with the nuclear envelope during cell division. The characteristic wall components are chitin (beta-1,4-linked homopolymers of N-acetylglucosamine in microcrystalline state) and glucans primarily alpha-glucans (alpha-1,3- and alpha-1,6- linkages) (Griffin, 1994). <br />Exceptions to this characterization of fungi are well known, and include the following: Most species of chytrids have cells with a single, smooth, posteriorly inserted flagellum at some stage in the life cycle, and centrioles are associated with nuclear division. The life cycles of most chytrids are poorly studied, but some (Blastocladiomycota) are known to have zygotic meiosis (therefore, alternation between haploid and diploid generations). Certain members of Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota may lack hyphal growth during part or all of their life cycles, and, instead, produce budding yeast cells. Most fungal species with yeast growth forms contain only minute amounts of chitin in the walls of the yeast cells. A few species of Ascomycota (Ophiostomataceae) have cellulose in their walls, and certain members of Blastocladiomycota and Entomophthoromycotina lack walls during part of their life cycle (Alexopoulos et al., 1996).<br />
  16. 16. BAKTERIA<br />Traditional classifications have placed the archea and bacteria into a single taxonomic kingdom due to theri morphological similarity. In fact the two groups are extremely different, as different from each other biochemically as eukaryotes are from either group. Under the recently devised domain system, the achaea and bacteria are placed into two separate domains, with the third one containing all the eukaryotes.<br />Bacteria are classified into:<br />Chemosynthetic bacteria are autotrophic, and obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as ammonia, nitrite (to nitrate), or sulfur (to sulfate). <br />Photosynthetic Bacteria. Photosynthetic bacteria carry out conversion of sunlight energy into carbohydrate energy. Some early cyanobacteria may have formed the oxygen released into the early atmosphere, transforming our planet from one with an oxygen-free atmosphere, to the modern one that has a significant amount of oxygen present.. In addition to chlorophyll a, cyanobacteria also have the blue pigment phycocyanin and the red pigment phycoerythrin.<br />Heterotrophic Bacteria. Members of this large and diverse group must derive their energy from another organism by feeding. Two main types: saprophytic and symbiotic. Saprophytes feed on dead or decaying material and are important nutrient recyclers. Symbiotic bacteria live within a host multicellular organism and contribute to the health of the host. Examples include cows and other grazing animals: the bacteria convert cellulose from plant leaves and stems eaten by the animal into glucose for digestion by the animal. Normally cellulose is nondigestible. <br />The Archea. The most primitive group, the archaebacteria, are today restricted to marginal habitats such as hot springs or areas of low oxygen concentration. Archaebacteria (now more commonly referred to as the Archaea) are considered among the oldest and most primitive types of organisms known. They have significant differences in their cell walls and biochemistry when compared to the bacteria. These differences are sufficient in most schemes, to place the Archaea into a separate kingdom or domain. Under the three domain model, they are the taxonomic equivalents of the other bacteria and the eukaryotes.<br />
  17. 17. VIRUS<br />A virus is a submicroscopic infectious particle composed of a protein coat and a nucleic acid core, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. Viruses are similar in size to a large protein macromolecule, generally smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Viruses, like cells, carry genetic information encoded in their nucleic acid, and can undergo mutations and reproduce; however, they cannot carry out metabolism, and thus are not considered alive. Viruses are classified by the type of nucleic acid they contain, and the shape of their protein capsule.<br />Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that can be maintained only inside living cells. Whern we refer to something as "obligate" that indicates that the virus (in this case) must do or behave in the specified manner. Since viruses are obligate intraellular parasites, the term conveys the idea that viruses must carry out their reproduction by parasitizing a host cell. They cannot multiply outside a living cell, they can only replicate inside of a specific host. Viruses infect all sorts of cells, from bacteria to human cells, but for the most part tend to be host specific. For example, the tobacco mosaic virus infects certain plants<br />
  18. 18. TATANAMA<br />Fungi: ICBN, http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/main.htmThe ICBN can only be changed by an International Botanical Congress (IBC), with the International Association for Plant Taxonomy providing the supporting infrastructure. The present edition is the Vienna Code (2006), based on the decisions of the XVII IBC at Vienna 2005. This was preceded by the St Louis Code (2000) and the Tokyo Code (1994), both available online. Each new edition supersedes the earlier editions and is retroactive back to 1753, except where expressly limited.<br />Bakteria: The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific names for bacteria, including Archaea[1][citation needed]. It denotes the rules for naming taxa of bacteria, according to their relative rank. As such it is one of the Nomenclature Codes of biology. Originally the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature dealt with bacteria, and this kept references to bacteria until these were eliminated at the 1975 IBC. An early Code for the nomenclature of Bacteria was approved at the 4th International Congress for Microbiology in 1947, but was later discarded. The latest version to be printed in book form is the 1990 Revision (which may be referred to as the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), but the book does not represent the current rules, as the Code has been amended since. The rules are maintained by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP; formerly the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology, ICSB).<br />Virus: The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses(ICTV) is a committee which authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses.[1] They have developed a universal taxonomic scheme for viruses and aim to describe all the viruses of living organisms. Members of the committee are considered to be world experts on viruses[2]. The committee formed from and is governed by the Virology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. Detailed work such as delimiting the boundaries of species within a family is typically done by study groups, which consist of experts in the families.The committee also operates an authoritative database (ICTVdB) containing taxonomic information for 1,950 virus species, as of 2005. see also (ICTV2009) <br />

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