It is a branch of psychology devoted to organizations and the workplace. "Industrial-organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being of its people. An I-O psychologist researches and identifies how behaviors and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, and feedback systems.
Job Selection & Placement
Selection is a process of gathering information for the purposes of evaluating and deciding who should be employed or hired for the short and Long-term interests of the individual and the organisation.In other words it is the process of getting the best of most qualified candidates from the pool of job seekers adjudged to have potential for job performance.
Importance of selection and placement
To fairly and without any element of discrimination evaluate job applicants in view of individual differences and capabilities .
To employ qualified and competent hands that can meet the job requirement of the organisation
To place job applicants in the best interest of the organisation and the individual.
To help in human resources|manpower planning purposes in organisation.
To reduce recruitment cost that may arise as a result of poor selection and placement exercises.
Steps taken in Job selection
Pre-employment testing is a common form of screening. Aptitude tests can provide valuable information regarding applicant’s personality traits, practical skills, intellectual ability and more. Conducting a psychometric test could have avoided the situation as the employer would have become aware of particular personality traits of the applicant prior to placement.
An application for employment , job application , or application form (often simply called an application ) is a form or collection of forms that an individual seeking employment , called an applicant, must fill out as part of the process of informing an employer of the applicant's availability and desire to be employed, and persuading the employer to offer the applicant employment.
The interviewing process is a good method of filtering best talent matching with required job, and used by almost all companies across the globe. A structured interview that reflects the position’s needs and company requirements commonly provides added value to the employer, and also plays an important role in the process of establishing good interpersonal communication links.
Types of Interview
Lunch and Dinner Interviews
Interviewing in a Public Place
Job Interview Tips
Practice for interview
Do remember to keep Watch
Get Ready in proper dress
Be On time
Show What You Know
Example of Interview questions
Tell me about yourself:
Why did you leave your last job?
What experience do you have in this field?
4. Do you consider yourself successful?
5. What do co-workers say about you?
6. What do you know about this organization?
7. What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year?
8. Are you applying for other jobs?
9. want to work for this organization?
10. Do you know anyone who works for us?
11. What kind of salary do you need
12. Are you a team player?
13. How long would you expect to work for us
14. Have you ever had to fire anyone? How did
you feel about that?
15. What is your philosophy towards work?
16. If you had enough money to retire right
now, would you?
17. Have you ever been asked to leave a
18. Explain how you would be an asset to this
19. Why should we hire you?
20. Tell me about a suggestion you have made
State The Problem
Evaluate The Alternatives
Make A Decision
Implement Your Decision
Duties of Senior members
planning for the staffing needs of a practice.
staffing the practice.
appraising the performance of staff.
training and developing staff.
meeting legislative requirements.
Environment plays an important role in job satisfaction. All businesses must ensure their workplace - whether this is a factory, office or shop - meets minimum health and safety standards.
Facilities for customers and employees
Meeting legal obligations to provide toilet, food, rest, storage and other facilities for workers and employees
Smoking policies, drugs and alcohol abuse
Identifying and dealing with problems caused by smoking, drugs and alcohol
Protect employees and the environment from air pollution
Understanding the effects of air pollution and what your business can do to reduce them
Dealing with noise and noise pollution
When and why noise can be hazardous or anti-social, and meeting your legal duties to prevent harm and nuisance
Manage harmful substances safely
Dealing with chemicals, hazardous, dangerous or toxic materials or substance
Some other points
carrying out a risk assessment
providing clean toilets and sanitation facilities
meeting fire safety standards
ensuring employees use IT equipment safely
reporting accidents or dangerous incidents in the workplace to the relevant authorities
Accidents and its control
An accident at work is defined as an external, sudden, unexpected, unintended, and violent event, during the execution of work or arising out of it, which causes damage to the health of or loss of the life of the employee (the insured ).
Workplace safety is a category of management responsibility in places of employment.
To ensure the safety and health of workers, managers establish a focus on safety that can include elements such as:
management leadership and commitment
safety programs, policies, and plans
safety processes, procedures, and practices
safety goals and objectives
safety inspections for workplace hazards
safety program audits
safety tracking & metrics
hazard identification and control
safety committees to promote employee involvement
safety education and training
safety communications to maintain a high level of awareness on safety
Things you should do for your safety
Take responsibility for your own health and safety
Try and avoid wearing loose clothing or jewellery if operating machinery
In conjunction with your employer ensure that you get all of the correct training that you need to safely complete your job
Take sufficient steps to avoid putting other people, as well as yourself at risk by what you do or don't do whilst working
Keep long hair tied back and out of the way
Inform your employer if you have injured yourself or have something that might prevent you from doing your job properly
Detail any injuries, illnesses or strains that you might have incurred to your employer as soon as they happen
Do not interfere with anything that has been provided for your health and safety
Refrain from misusing the equipment in the correct manor
Inform your employer if you are required to take any medication that could prevent you from doing your job correctly -
Managers cannot overlook employee morale when evaluating a team's success or productivity. Although it is often difficult to measure and takes several data points to gauge its impact, when morale is low, you feel it. Unfortunately, low morale is contagious and can spread like a cancerous cell through a team or organization.
Top Three tips, managers can use on a daily basis to make sure they're contributing to high morale:
Notice when your people do something well and tell them about it.
Listening cultivates respect. Do not just talk at employees; listen to their ideas, concerns, and opinions.
Show more appreciation. Appreciation is the biggest motivator for employees. Managers who do not express appreciation sow the seeds of discontent and disengagement.
Ten ways of improving Morale
Let employees express their feelings about the difficulties and changes that are going on. Telling them they need to move on and get over it will only foster anger and resentment, or result in employees becoming disengaged.
Don't focus all your efforts on getting buy-in to the changes you seek. People need to know you understand their perspective and their feelings before they will listen to your exhortations.
Support constructive criticism. Make it safe for employees to express dissent or criticism without being labeled as not being a team player. Ignoring this will create a workforce that learns not to care.
Give employees many opportunities to solve problems and take constructive action, the strongest antidote to fear and feeling helpless.
Establish and communicate clear short-term goals to build confidence and a sense of purpose.
Amp up your communication, giving details about what is going on each step of the way. When people feel vulnerable, their tolerance for ambiguity decreases.
When talking about your vision and challenges, use stories and analogies, rather than PowerPoint slides filled with statistics and facts. Great leaders are masters at inspiring people through compelling stories.
Make sure you are wired into the voice of your internal customers through employee advisory groups, presidents' breakfasts, team meetings, and focus groups. You will get valuable feedback to form effective strategies for executing and communicating changes.
When asking for employee input and ideas, clearly define the parameters of their input.
Celebrate victories and examples of excellence during difficult times; it is important especially then for employees to feel like winners.
Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service .
Types of Advertisements
Print Advertising: newspapers, magazines, local entertainment guides, etc.
Online Advertising: pay per click, search engines, banners, flash movies, etc.
Media Advertising: radio, television, Internet radio, etc.
Outdoor Advertising: billboards, blimps, sporting events, etc.
Mobile Advertising: print on car, billboard towed by truck, billboard on bus, etc.
The main objectives of advertising are:
Increasing the usage of a certain product and hence acquiring more orders.
Creating new customers and increasing brand recognition.
To obtain feedback from customers regarding a certain product.
To indicate introduction of new products or replacement of old ones.