An emotion is a mental and physiological state associated with a wide variety of feelings , thoughts , and behavior .
A conscious mental reaction (as anger or fear) subjectively experienced as strong feeling usually directed toward a specific object and typically accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes in the body.
Plutchik's model is based on an emotion wheel. This shows eight basic emotions. These are made up of four pairs of opposites: joy and sadness, acceptance and disgust, fear and anger, and surprise and anticipation. According to Plutchik we cannot experience opposite emotions at the same time. They are also positive (joy, acceptance, anticipation and surprise) or negative (anger, fear, disgust and sadness). Positive emotions are seen to have a positive impact on our health while negative emotions can make us ill.
Positive Affectivity/Negative Affectivity pleasantness/unpleasantness and attention/rejection, proposed by Schlosberg1941, PA and NA are independent dimensions i.e. person can be high on both at the same time e.g. enthusiastic yet angry also.
The James-Lange theory of emotion argues that an event causes physiological arousal first and then we interpret this arousal as an emotion. If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any thought, then we will not experience any emotion based on this event.
EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. You notice these physiological changes and interpret them as your body's preparation for a fearful situation. You then experience fear.
The Cannon-Bard theory argues that we experience physiological arousal and emotion at the same time, but gives no attention to the role of thoughts or outward behavior.
EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. At the same time as these physiological changes occur you also experience the emotion of fear.
According to this theory, an event causes physiological arousal first. You must then identify a reason for this arousal and then you are able to experience and label the emotion.
EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. Upon noticing this arousal you realize that is comes from the fact that you are walking down a dark alley by yourself. This behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the emotion of fear.
Lazarus Theory states that a thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. In other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion.
EXAMPLE: You are walking down a dark alley late at night. You hear footsteps behind you and you think it may be a mugger so you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens and at the same time experience fear.
Eustress is a type of short-term stress that provides immediate strength. Eustress arises at points of increased physical activity, enthusiasm, and creativity. Eustress is a positive stress that arises when motivation and inspiration are needed. A gymnast experiences eustress before a competition.
Distress is a negative stress brought about by constant readjustments or alterations in a routine. Distress creates feelings of discomfort and unfamiliarity. There are two types of distress. Acute stress is an intense stress that arrives and disappears quickly. Chronic stress is a prolonged stress that exists for weeks, months, or even years. Someone who is constantly relocating or changing jobs may experience distress.
Hyperstress occurs when an individual is pushed beyond what he or she can handle. Hyperstress results from being overloaded or overworked. When someone is hyperstressed, even little things can trigger a strong emotional response. A Wall Street trader is likely to experience hyperstress.
Hypostress is the opposite of hyperstress. Hypostress occurs when an individual is bored or unchallenged. People who experience hypostress are often restless and uninspired. A factory worker who performs repetitive tasks might experience hypostress.