Communication: Process of creating or sharing meaning in informal conversation, group interaction or publicspeaking.Participants: are the people who communicate, assuming the rule of sender and receiver during thecommunicationContext: is the physical, social, cultural, historical or psychological setting in which communication occurs. Physical context: location, environmental conditions, the physical distance between communicators and time of the day Social Context: the purpose of the event as well as the existent relationship among the participants. Psychological Context: the moods and the feeling each person brings to the communication. Historical Context: the background provided by the previous communication episodes between the participants that influence the understandings in the current encounter. Cultural Context: beliefs, attitudes, meaning, social hierarchies, religion, notion of times, and roles of group of peoples.Message: the element of the meaning, symbols, encoding and decoding, and form or organization. Symbols: Words, sounds and actions that represents specific content meanings. Encoding and decoding: process of transforming ideas and feeling into words and actions is encoding, while process of transforming message back into idea and feeling in decoding.Channels: Both the route travelled by the message and the mean of transportation.Noise: any stimulus that interferes with sharing meanings. External Noises: Sights, sounds and other stimuli that draw people’s attention away from what is being said or done Internal Noises: thoughts and feeling that interfere with communication process Semantic Noises: unintended meanings aroused by certain symbols inhabiting the accuracy of decoding.Feedback: Response to the messageCommunication Functions 3. To fulfill our social obligations 4. To develop relationships 1. We communicate to meet needs. 5. To exchange information 2. To enhance and maintain our sense of self 6. To influence othersCommunication settingsInterpersonal: informal, 2 or more people Problem Solving group Settings: participants, problem solving
Electronically mediated: participants who don’t Newsgroup: An electronic gathering place ofshare the physical location but communicate people with same intereststhrough use of technologyEmail: electronic correspondence conductedbetween two or more users on a network.Internet Chat: interactive message exchange between two or more people Communication PrinciplesCommunication has Purpose: Communication is always goal directed (“Has Purpose”). Speakers may notalways be aware of their purposeCommunication is continuous: Because communication is non verbal as well as verbal, we are always sendingbehavioral messages from which other draws inferences.Communication Vary in Conscious ending: Spontaneous Expression: Messages encoded without much conscious thought. Scripted Messages: Conversational phrases we have learned from past experiences to be appropriate for the situation. Constructed Messages: Messages we encode at the moment to respond when our known scripts are thought to be inadequate.Communication is relational: Complementary Relationship: One in which a person let the other define who is to have greater power Symmetrical Relationship: One in which people don’t “agree” about who is in control.Communication is culturally bound: Cultural diversity: Variations between and among people.Communication has ethical implications: Ethics: A set of moral principles that may Fairness: achieving the right balance of be held by a society, group or individual interest without regard to one’s own feelings and without showing favor to any side in a Trustfulness and honesty: Standards that conflict. compel us to refrain from lying, cheating, stealing, or deception. Respect: showing regard or consideration for a person and for that person’s right. Moral Dilemma: a choice involving an unsatisfactory alternative. Responsibility: being accountable for one’s actions. Integrity: maintaining a consistency of belief and action (“Keeping Promises”).