24507529 hrm-recruitment-and-selection
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24507529 hrm-recruitment-and-selection Presentation Transcript

  • 1. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Dr Joe Azzopardi
  • 2. Purpose and Process • Purpose: to attract sufficient and suitable potential employees to apply for vacancies in the organisation. • Process: External labour market Recruitment activities Organisation’s need for additional labour Selection activities 2
  • 3. Recruitment Policy Represents the organisation’s code of conduct A typical policy statement: In its recruitment activities the company will: 1. Advertise all vacancies internally. 2. Reply to every job applicant with the minimum of delay. 3. Aim to inform potential recruits in good faith about the basic details and job conditions of every job advertised. 4. Aim to process all applications with efficiency and courtesy. 5. Seek candidates on the basis of their qualification for the vacancy concerned. 6. Aim to ensure that every person invited for interview will be given a fair and thorough hearing. The company will not: 1. Discriminate unfairly against potential applicants on grounds of sex, race, age, religion or physical disability. 2. Discriminate unfairly against applicants with a criminal record. 3. Knowingly make any false or exaggerated claims in its recruitment literature or job advertisements. 3
  • 4. Procedures Recruitment checklist: 1. Has the vacancy been agreed by the responsible manager? 2. Is there an up-to-date job description for the vacant position? 3. What are the conditions of employment (salary, hours, holidays etc)? 4. Has a candidate specification been prepared 5. Has a notice of the vacancy been circulated internally? 6. Has a job advertisement been agreed? Have details of the vacancy been forwarded to relevant agencies? 7. Do all potential candidates (internal or external) know where to apply and in what form? 4
  • 5. Procedures 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. What arrangements have been made for drawing up a shortlist of candidates? Have the interviewing arrangements been agreed, and have shortlisted candidates been informed? Have unsuitable candidates, or candidates held in reserve, been informed of their position? Have offer letters been agreed and dispatched to successful candidates? Have references been taken up, where necessary? Have suitable rejection letters been sent to unsuccessful shortlisted candidates, thanking them for their attendance? Have all replies to offer letters been accounted for? Have the necessary procures for placement, induction and follow-up of successful candidates been put into effect? 5
  • 6. Person Specification or candidate profile The Seven Point Plan (devised by Prof Alec Rodger in the 1950s) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Physical Make-up – What is required in terms of health, strength, energy and personal appearance? Attainments – What education, training and experience is required? General Intelligence – What does the job require in terms of thinking and mental effort? Special Aptitudes – What kind of skills need to be exercised in the job? Interests – What personal interests could be relevant to the performance of the job? Disposition – What kind of personality are we looking for? Circumstances – Are there any special circumstances that the job requires of candidates? 6
  • 7. Applying the Seven Point Plan Feature sought Essential Desirable Physical make- Weight in proportion to height; eyesight, None up hearing, perfect; neat, clean appearance; age between 21 - 28 Attainments Secondary school level of education Experience in nursing/catering Intelligence Alert, quick-thinking None Aptitudes Social skills adequate to deal firmly but politely with passengers Fluency in relevant languages Interests none Travel, flying, firstaid Disposition Friendly personality; ability to remain cool Sense of humour and calm in an emergency; ability to work short periods under intense pressure Circumstances must be able to work irregular hours; must Flexible domestic be willing to stand for long periods; must be situation willing to live near the airport 7
  • 8. Person Specification or candidate profile Five Point Grading developed by Munro Fraser (1978) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Impact on others – embraces Rodger’s physical make-up and also aspects such as dress, speech, manner and reactions. Important to look at individual objectively. Acquired knowledge or Qualifications – this part deals with general education, work experience and training, and is similar to Rodger’s attainment category. Innate abilities or ‘Brains’ – the individual’s ability to exercise his/her intelligence in a range of situations. Especially applicable in cases where the individual has few formal qualifications. Emphasis on potential. Motivation – ‘goal-directed’ aspect of human personality. How has the individual achieved his/her personal needs and ambitions, rather than trying to identify these needs. Adjustment – The individual’s emotional status: stability, maturity, ability to cope with stress. Basically the individual’s reaction to pressures. 8
  • 9. What for? Some concerns: • Can people be ‘chopped up’ in five or seven separate sections? • Are we not over-simplifying personal characteristics? Justification: • A means to an end – to concentrate attention on one facet at a time; • Provides a practical framework to enable selectors to make reasonable consistent comparisons between candidates; • To try to introduce a greater element of predictability and control in HRM processes – to minimise the effects of personal prejudice and judgement and increase objectivity. 9
  • 10. Advertising To entice potential applicants and to inform them about the basic features of the job in question. Main sources of job advertising (external): • Local newspapers • National newspapers • Technical/professional journals • Via the internet (employer’s website or on agency’s) • Via job centres • Via other agencies • Posters at the gate 10
  • 11. Effectiveness of Advertisements Can be judged by: 1. The number of enquiries it stimulates 2. The number of applications submitted 3. The suitability of the applicants 11
  • 12. Effectiveness of Advertisements An effective job advertisement: • Identifies the organization and/or its industry with a few brief references • Provides brief but sufficient details about the salient features of the job • Summarises all the essential personal features required by the jobholder • Refers briefly to any desirable personal features • States the main conditions of employment, including salary, for the job • States how and to whom the enquiry or application can be made • Presents all the above points in a concise but attractive form • Conforms to legal requirements • Attracts sufficient numbers of suitable applicants 12
  • 13. The Selection Process Salient features: REFERENCES APPLICATIONS •Application forms •CVs •Letters INTERVIEWS SIFTING/ SHORTLISTING PROCESS •One-to-one •Two-to-one SELECTION DECISION •Panel SELECTION TESTS •Intellectual ability •Aptitudes •personality 13
  • 14. Application forms Advantages: • To have information about candidates in a standardised format that facilitates comparison • Enable applicants to give a full and fair account of themselves and their suitability for the vacancy • Can be used as the basis for the interview 14
  • 15. Application forms We need to have different forms to meet differing demands of major employee groups, e.g. managers, professionals, clerical, manual. One way of differentiating is to employ: ‘closed’ forms (requiring only routine information for unskilled manual and clerical jobs) Or ‘open’ forms (requiring the expression of opinions and judgements + routine info for managerial, executive and professional positions) 15
  • 16. Example of a ‘closed’ form Job applied for: Surname: Address: Date of Birth: Marital Status: First Name(s): Tel No.: Place of Birth: Children Educational Qualifications: School: College: Training Courses: Work Experience: Present/last Job: Employer: Previous jobs: Weekly Pay: Bonus: Notice required in present job: Referee: Signed: Date: 16
  • 17. Example of a ‘open’ form (first two sections as in closed form) Career Details: Current Position & Salary: Brief Details of Previous Posts: (commencing with most recent) Principal Interests/Hobbies What attract you to this post? What contribution do you think you can make? What has given you the greatest satisfaction at work to date? How do you see your career developing in the next few years? Notice required by present employer: Referees: Please supply the names of two persons abel to provide a reference on your behalf. Signed: Date: 17
  • 18. The Curriculum Vitae The candidates own description of how they see their personal history in relation to a job application. A combination of two elements: 1. Standard/routine information 2. Personalised information 18
  • 19. Standard information 1. Name, address, telephone, email 2. Age, marital status 3. Education: secondary school/college/university 4. Qualifications: GCSE’s, A levels, certificates, diplomas and degrees 5. Professional memberships, e.g. ACCA, MCIPD 19
  • 20. Personalised information Scope: to elaborate on one’s work/professional experience Includes: – Job history/achievements – Motivation/skills (e.g. IT, Languages) – Personal interests/other activities Requirements: Neat, clear print-out, brief 20
  • 21. Shortlisting Also referred to as: ‘pre-selection’ or ‘selecting out’ • Economic conditions determine whether pre-selection is needed • Application forms and CVs form the core of preselection • Reliability depends strongly on well-designed systematic pre-selection procedures 21
  • 22. References Brief statements about a candidate made by a third party, usually the candidate’s superior • Intended to confirm information supplied by applicants • Referees are asked to provide: 1. Factual information about the candidate’s period of employment in their organisation 2. Evidence concerning the candidate’s personal character (sobriety, honesty, reliability etc) • Effects of referees on outcome of selection process not known – they serve mainly to encourage applicants to tell the truth 22
  • 23. The Interview A formal exchange of facts, impressions and viewpoints between a prospective employer and a prospective employee with a view to their mutual selection or parting. Research shows that selection interviews are neither particularly reliable nor valid: – Reliability: the degree of agreement between different interviewers about a set of candidates. – Validity: the extent to which the interview can predict suitability for the job. Research also shows that where selection criteria are employed in a structured way, reliability and validity increase. 23
  • 24. Structuring the Interview Full use of application form, personnel specification, CV and references provide a framework for more reliable and valid interviews. Some practical suggestions: • The Interviewer should – – – – – possess and have read all the relevant documents. Establish what precise issues need to be drawn out in the interview. Prepare crucial questions and comments to put to the candidate. Be in control of the situation. Be aware of his/her own prejudices and needs. • All candidates should be given every opportunity to give a full and fair account of him/her self. 24
  • 25. Interviewing Skills • The ability to prepare adequately • Ability to listen, including picking up points implied in the candidates responses • Questioning skills – ability to ask relevant questions at the right time • Ability to analyse the picture of the candidate that is emerging during the interview • Ability to summarise and make notes on the candidate’s performance • Ability to supply relevant information to the candidate without boring him/her • Skill in building and maintaining a relationship with the candidate (rapport) • Ability to control the interview with tact, diplomacy and firmness 25
  • 26. Listening Requires people to give their undivided attention to another Looking at the candidate 1. Nodding the head 2. Making verbal signs 3. Asking follow-up questions or making follow-up comments 4. Picking up any implied points, often accompanied by changes in voice/facial expression Distractions from listening: • Interruptions • Thinking about the next question while half-listening to the answer to the current question 26
  • 27. Questioning Through questioning an interviewer: – Selects the issues that need to be covered – Elicits relevant information – Controls the pace and direction of the interview Two broad categories: ‘open’ – seek to draw the candidate out and usually begin with ‘what’, ‘how’ or ‘why’: get the candidate talking about key issues ‘closed’ – require a specific answer, usually ‘yes’, ‘no’ or some specific piece of information like numbers: used to redirect the line of questioning, curtail it, or to confirm a point 27
  • 28. Analysing and summarising • Making sense of what the candidate is saying • Building up a picture of the candidate • Identifying any significant blanks in overall information How? • Good analysis cannot be carried out unless we have a clear idea of what we are looking for • Interviewers need to make notes immediately after seeing the candidate – this will assist in coming to a final choice • Pre-prepared assessment forms (based on the personnel specification) can help the process 28
  • 29. Supplying Information – Information about the job and the organisation additional to that given via the recruitment process, i.e. personnel specification and advertisement. E.g. specific details about the job or about the team he/she may be joining. – An interchange of impressions and ideas revealed spontaneously, en passant, during the interview. – Opportunity for candidate to learn more about the organisation – contributes to higher validity. – Avoid long monologues at beginning, when candidate is ill-at-ease waiting for the moment to respond to the first question. 29
  • 30. Rapport Face-to-face encounters pose a challenge to both interviewer and interviewee. • It is essential to get the candidate talking and putting him/her at ease • Good eye-contact • Encourage facial expressions and comments • Ensure that candidate feels that the interview is a constructive and enjoyable experience 30
  • 31. Control & Conclusion An interview is a costly and time-consuming business – ensure that the time available is not wasted. Tactful control by: – Interrupting – Stopping – Re-directing Politely but firmly Conclude by: – Thanking the candidate for interest and response – Acknowledging effort invested by candidate – Being diplomatic to promote the ‘company image’ aspect of recruitment and selection 31
  • 32. Guide to Good Practice • • • • • • • Be prepared Welcome the candidate Encourage candidate to talk Control the interview Supply necessary information Close interview Final steps 32
  • 33. Be prepared • Obtain available information (job details, candidate specification, application form) • Arrange interview room • Ensure no interruptions • Plan the interview 33
  • 34. Welcome the candidate • After initial courtesies, thank candidate for coming • Explain briefly what procedure you propose to adopt for the interview • Commence by asking relatively easy and non-threatening question 34
  • 35. Encourage candidate to talk • • • • Ask open-ended questions Prompt where necessary Indicate that you are listening Briefly develop points of interest raised by candidate 35
  • 36. Control the interview • Direct you questions along the lines that will achieve your objectives • Tactfully, but firmly, clamp down on the over-talkative candidate • Do not get too involved in particular issues just because of you own interests • Keep an eye on the time 36
  • 37. Supply necessary information • Briefly add to information already made available to candidate • Answer candidate’s questions • Inform candidate of the next steps in the selection procedure 37
  • 38. Close interview • Thank candidate for his responses to your questions • Exchange final courtesies Final steps • Write up your notes about the candidate • Grade, or rank, him/her for suitability • Operate administrative procedures regarding notification etc 38
  • 39. Selection Tests Also referred to as psychological tests. Usually standardised tests designed to provide an objective measure of certain human characteristics by sampling human behaviour. Typically used to identify: • an individual’s level of verbal, numerical and diagrammatical reasoning • and his/her personality profile Caution: use tests that have been tested over many years and that have acquired a reasonable reputation for both reliability and validity 39
  • 40. Issues to consider • Is such a test appropriate in the circumstances and will it provide the information that we are looking for? • Is a test to be used as an aid to short-listing or as an element in final selection? • How will test evidence be weighed in comparison with other elements of the selection process? • Should candidates be given an opportunity to prepare for the test beforehand? • Will they be given feedback on their results? • How will confidentiality of test results be protected? • Should the test be administered and/or analysed by organisation’s own staff or by specialist consultants? • What steps would we take to monitor the use of tests and to assess their value and effectiveness? 40
  • 41. Categories • Tests of intelligence: designed to measure performance of a number of standardised mental tasks – closely related to the general ability to learn • Aptitude tests: special aptitudes – mechanical ability, spatial and numerical ability • Attainment test: attempt to test previous learning – include tests for spelling, arithmetic, typing • Personality tests: aim to provide a profile of individual personality – the most controversial – validity open to question • Occupational preference tests: to bring out individual preferences for certain categories of employment – also useful for career counselling 41
  • 42. Assessment centres 1. 2. 3. 4. Not a place but a process A combination of assessment methods A central role for simulation exercises Groups of candidates assessed by groups of observers An extended period of the selection process (half to one and a half days) 42
  • 43. Advantages • Considerable data about candidates can be collected • Candidates can display a range of knowledge and skills over the course of half to one and a half days • If successful, can produce valid and reliable choices of candidates • Has the potential for use as a staff development tool as well as for selection purposes • Provides useful experience for assessors who have to test their personal judgements against those of their fellow assessors 43
  • 44. Disadvantages • Complexities of putting an assessment centre together (selecting tests, devising simulations, organising interviews and assessors) • Costliness of setting up and they running a centre • A poorly designed centre, or one which fails a particular group of participants, (e.g. women or minority groups) can bring adverse publicity and ill-will as well as representing poor value for money • Assessment centres cannot accurately measure tacit skills or capability 44