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communication presentation

  1. 1. Basics of Communication Skills and Types of Scientific Communication PRSENTED BY: JAVID AHMAD MALIK Pre-Ph.D. student, GGV Bilaspur, (CG)
  3. 3. • Communication is an activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, message or information as speech, visual signals, writing or behavior. • Communication is not dependent only on ‘words’ ……it can also be through your ‘body language’ and ‘tonality’. • Communication is an act by which one person gives or receives information from another person. • Scientific Communication spreads scientific information among researchers, especially those outside your discipline.
  4. 4. Barrier Barrier SENDER (encodes) FEEDBACK/RESPONSE RECEIVER (decodes) MEDIUM The Communication Process
  5. 5. MOST COMMON WAYS WE COMMUNICATE Visual Images Written Word Body Language Spoken Word
  6. 6. FEATURES OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • Active Listening • Eye contact • Posture • Simple language • Questioning skills
  7. 7. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION • Noise • Inappropriate medium • Assumptions/Misconceptions • Emotions • Language differences • Cultural differences • Poor listening skills • Use of jargon • Distractions
  8. 8. TIPS TO BECOME A BETTER LISTENER • Don’t talk – listen. • Don’t jump to conclusions. • Ask questions/paraphrase. • Don’t get distracted by the environment. • Keep an open mind. • Be willing to listen to someone else’s point of view and ideas. • Provide feedback. • Take advantage of your brain power
  9. 9. IMPROVING BODY LANGUAGE - TIPS • Keep appropriate distance • Touch only when appropriate • Take care of your appearance • Be aware - people may give false cues • Maintain eye contact • Smile genuinely
  10. 10. IMPROVING VERBAL COMMUNICATION-TIPS • Eliminate Noise • Get Feedback – Verbal & Body Signals • Speak Slowly & Rephrase your sentence • Don’t Talk down to the other person • Listen Carefully & Patiently
  11. 11. TALKING TO THE PUBLIC: GENERAL TIPS • Know your audience. Tailor your presentation accordingly. • Make sure your speech is miniature , memorable (vivid language), and meaningful (to the audience). • Use your “speech” as an outline for longer descriptions. • Use lay terms (no jargon!). • Point out the broader impacts of your research.
  12. 12. Continue…. • Use clear, everyday analogies and gesticulate. • Convey why your research is meaningful to you • Be honest about how certain you are of your results, and acknowledge controversies. • Explain the basics of the scientific process. • A respectful dialogue with the public is much more effective in finding common ground than a more traditional, instructional monologue. So listen!
  13. 13. MEETING WITH LEGISLATORS • Before the meeting, identify the main points you want to make, and anticipate questions. • It is vital to point out the broader impacts of your research. • Connect your research to positive economic impacts in your area. • Remember that you are not giving a lecture. Be conversational, yet accurate.
  14. 14. Continue….. • If a legislator repeats a question, it is not necessarily because s/he is not intelligent, but perhaps your answer was not satisfactory. Please try again • Be enthusiastic and excited about your own research. • Using clear, everyday analogies. • Never read from a piece of paper, although you can use brief notes with your major points as a guide.
  15. 15. Continue…. • Be sure to separate facts from opinions. • Adding a human interest portion to your meeting or relevant personal information, such as how you got involved in your field of research, humanizes science. • If you would like, invite legislators and their staff to visit your research facility.
  16. 16. AFTER THE MEETING • Send a prompt thank-you email or letter. • Offer to be a future resource on pertinent subjects. • Follow-up on any questions that you could not answer during the meeting and make yourself available for additional follow- up questions. • If not done so previously, invite legislators to visit your research facility.
  17. 17. ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION DON’Ts • Do not instantly react and mutter something in anger. • Do not use technical terms & terminologies not understood by majority of people. • Do not speak too fast or too slow. • Do not speak in inaudible surroundings, as you won’t be heard.
  18. 18. Continue….. • Do not assume that every body understands you. • While listening do not glance here and there as it might distract the speaker. • Do not interrupt the speaker. • Do not jump to the conclusion that you have understood every thing.
  19. 19. In brief • L = Look interested- Get interested • I = Involve yourself by responding • S = Stay on target • T = Test your understanding • E = Evaluate the message • N = Neutralise your feeling
  21. 21. SCIENCE COMMUNICATION • Science communication generally refers to public communication presenting science-related topics to non- experts. • Science communication can aim to generate support for scientific research or study, or to inform decision making, including political and ethical thinking. • Science communication can also simply describe communication between scientists (e.g. through scientific journals), as well as between non-scientists
  22. 22. TYPES • ORIGINAL ARTICLE  They are articles published in scientific journals, ranging from a few to at most a few dozen pages.  They generally have a very schematic structure consisting of; • Abstract • Introduction • Experimental • Results • Discussion • Acknowledgements • References •
  23. 23. • REVIEW ARTICLE  It is an attempt to summarize the current state of understanding on a topic • A LETTER TO THE EDITOR  A letter to the editor is a letter sent to a publication about issues of concern from its readers  In academic publishing, letters to the editor of an academic journal are usually open postpublication reviews of a paper, often critical of some aspect of the original paper.
  24. 24. • SHORT COMMUNICATION  Basically a research paper of only two to six pages that presents results of lesser importance • PRELIMINARY REPORT  A preliminary report is a report prepared by a title company before issuing a title insurance policy. • CASE REPORT TYPES  A detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of an individual patient.  A case report gives the information about a sudden change, like an epidemiology or sudden reduction in the number of species in a particular area.
  25. 25. BOOK  Presents the state of knowledge in a certain field of science in an easily accessible format.  It can be aimed at very different audiences, ranging from school pupils to other professional scientists BOOK CHAPTER  One of the main divisions of a piece of writing of relative length
  26. 26. • MONOGRAPH  A book, the exact scope of which depends on the area of research. Literally, it means a work that aims to present all that is known about a specific subject. • NEWSLETTER  A newsletter is a regularly distributed publication generally about one main topic that is of interest to its subscribers.  Newspapers and leaflets are types of newsletters • BULLETIN  A brief news item intended for immediate publication or broadcast
  27. 27. • THESIS / DISSERTATION  The document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualifications presenting the author’s research and findings • PROPOSAL  A research proposal is a document written by a researcher that provides a detailed description of the proposed program.
  28. 28. • POSTER  A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or any vertical surface • CONFERENCE PRECEEDINGS  A collection of abstracts, i.e. short summaries of talks or posters that were presented at a scientific conference, in book form.