Timber

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Timber

  1. 1.
  2. 2. WELL COME<br />
  3. 3. TIMBER<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. DEFINITION<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Wood suitable for building or other engineering purpose is called “TIMBER”<br />
  8. 8. STANDING TIMBER<br />
  9. 9. When it forms part of a living tree it is called “STANDING TIMBER”<br />
  10. 10. ROUGH TIMBER<br />
  11. 11. When the tree has been felled it is called “ROUGH TIMBER” <br />
  12. 12. CONVERTED TIMBER<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. When it has been sawn to various market forms such as beams , battens and planks etc, it is called “CONVERTED TIMBER”<br />
  15. 15. CHARACTERISTICS OF HARD WOOD<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. This wood is heavier and darker color .<br />Annual ring are not distinct.<br />It is hard and difficult to work upon.<br />It resists shearing stresses.<br />It is close-grained and strong.<br />It is non resinous.<br />
  18. 18. CHARACTRISTICS OF SOFT WOOD<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. It is light in weight and color.<br />Annual ring are very distinct.<br />It has straight fibbers.<br />It is resinous.<br />It is strong for resisting tensile forces.<br />Its texture is soft and regular.<br />
  21. 21. DEFECTS IN TIMBER<br />
  22. 22. (1)DEFECTS DEVELOPED DURING THE GROWTH OF TREE<br />
  23. 23. (I) STAR SHAKES<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. These are radial splits wider on the surface of the tree and becoming narrower as they move towards the centre.<br />
  26. 26. (ii) HEART SHAKES<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. These are wide running right through the heart wood of the tree . These splits , radiate from the pith running toward the sapwood .<br />
  29. 29. (iii)CUP SHAKES OR RING SHAKES<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. These are curved splits separating one annual ring from adjacent one either wholly or partly.<br />
  32. 32. (iv)KNOTS <br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. A knot is either the root of a branch that is embedded in the stem with the formation of annual ring at right angle to those of the stem or the tissues set in elliptical or concentric circles.<br />
  35. 35. (2)DEFECTS DEVELOPED AFTER THE TREE HAS BEEN FELLED OR DISEASES OF TIMBER<br />
  36. 36. (i) Dry ROT<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. It is an attack of the timber by fungus . The fungus reduces the timber to a dry power .Unseasoned timber become an easy prey to the fungus.<br />
  39. 39. (ii) WET ROT<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. It is decay of timber due to alternate wetting and drying . In it there is no attack of any fungus . To prevent wet rot should be protected against alternate wetting and drying.<br />
  42. 42. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TIMBER<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. It should be free from sap .<br />It should have straight and close fibers.<br />It should be of uniform color.<br />It should give a clear ringing sound when struck.<br />It should have regular annual rings .<br />Timbers with narrow annual rings are generally the strongest.<br />
  45. 45. Freshly cut surface should give sweet smell. <br />Teeth of saw should not get clogged while sawing .<br />It should have bright and smooth surface when planed.<br />Same variety of timber ,darker and heavier pieces are stronger . <br /> It should be free from dead knots, from too many knots , shakes or other defects.<br />It should have firm adhesion of fibers and compact modularly rays<br />
  46. 46.
  47. 47. CHARACTERISTICS AND USES OF COMMON PAKINTAN TIMBER TREE<br />
  48. 48. (1) BABUL<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. It is a thorny tree with small leaves and having yellow flowers . It grows all over Pakistan . It can grow in poor soils even without water.<br />
  51. 51. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  52. 52. The wood is hard , tough and elastic.<br />It is very durable .<br />Difficult to procure seasoned . <br />It is close –grained . <br />It take good polish .<br />It weighs 880 kg/cu meter.<br />Color is pinkish white turning radish brown on exposure.<br />
  53. 53. USES<br />
  54. 54. It is used for bodies and wheels of carts, agricultural implement , handles of tool and for inferior building work .<br />
  55. 55. (2) CHIR<br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57. It is generally found in Himalayas at heights ranging from 500meter to 2500meter.<br />
  58. 58. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  59. 59. It is pale grayish to yellowish or radish brown in color.<br />It is easily worked and seasons well.<br />It weighs 560 kg/cu meter.<br />It is inferior to deodar in all respects.<br />
  60. 60. USES<br />
  61. 61. Used for inferior work in building construction , mostly interior work . It should in no case be used for outside work.<br />
  62. 62. (3) DEODAR ( DIAR)<br />
  63. 63.
  64. 64. It is tall tree with pointed leaves found in western Himalayas from 1000 to 3000 meter high.<br />
  65. 65. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  66. 66. It is strong and durable timber.<br />Its color is yellow but darkens on exposure .<br />Moderately hard . <br />Strongly scented and oily .<br /> It is close grained .<br /> It is easily worked .<br />On planning and varnishing it looks beautiful.<br />It weighs 560 kg/cu meter.<br />
  67. 67. USES<br />
  68. 68. It is used in construction of buildings and for railway sleepers , bridges and piles.<br />
  69. 69. (4) SAIL<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71. It grows in sub-Himalayan ranges and in Madhya Pradesh .<br />
  72. 72. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  73. 73. It is close grained.<br />It is hard and heavy.<br />It is very strong and durable.<br />It is not easy of work.<br />It does not take polish.<br />The timber is pale brown in color ,darkening on exposure<br />
  74. 74. USES<br />
  75. 75. Excellent timber for almost all uses but as it does not give a good finish so it is unsuitable for ornamental work.<br />
  76. 76. (5) TEAK<br />
  77. 77.
  78. 78. It is a large deciduous tree growing in Madhya Pradesh and in south Pakistan.<br />
  79. 79. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  80. 80. It is strong and very durable.<br />It wood is golden yellow to dark brown.<br />It is easy to work upon and take up smooth polish.<br />It is easily worked .<br />Its grains are even and straight.<br />It seasons early.<br /> It weight 770kg/cu meter.<br />
  81. 81. USES<br />
  82. 82. It is used for railway sleepers, ship-building , furniture making, all sorts of building works , bridges and railway carriages.<br />
  83. 83. SHISHAM TALI OR SISSU<br />
  84. 84.
  85. 85. It is widely available in northern Pakistan and Mach . It is one of the most valuable timber of Pakistan<br />
  86. 86. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  87. 87. The wood is dark brown is color.<br />It is close grained.<br />It is quite tough and durable .<br />It is very hard . <br />It seasons well.<br />It take well polish.<br />It weight 880kg/cu meter.<br />
  88. 88. USES<br />
  89. 89. It is also used for high class furniture , beams and other important building work. It is also used for making carries wheels.<br />
  90. 90. (7) MANGO<br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92. It is a famous fruit tree growing all over Pakistan.<br />
  93. 93. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  94. 94. It is of deep grey color.<br />It is coarse and open grained inferior timber.<br /> It is easy to work upon.<br />It weight 650kg/cu meter.<br />
  95. 95. USES<br />
  96. 96. It is used for inferior building works, tough bodies, packing cases, cheap furniture and toys<br />
  97. 97. (8) WALNUT (AKHORT)<br />
  98. 98.
  99. 99. It grows in the Himalayas and in upper burns.<br />
  100. 100. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  101. 101. It is strong , hard, tough and elastic.<br />It is uniforms in texture .<br />It take well polish.<br />It is easily worked and does not split.<br />It is slow to season and shrinks on seasoning .<br />It weight 650kg/cu meter.<br />
  102. 102. USES<br />
  103. 103. Excellent timber for high class furniture, cabinet work, paneling , carving work and for making veneers and plywood.<br />
  104. 104. (9) KAIL<br />
  105. 105.
  106. 106. It is large evergreen tree , found in the Himalayas from Bhutan to Afghanistan at heights ranging from 2000 meter to 4000 meter.<br />
  107. 107. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  108. 108. Wood is of pale brown color .<br />Wood is close grained .<br />It is quite durable .<br />It is season well.<br />It is less brittle and more free from oil than deodar.<br />
  109. 109. USES<br />
  110. 110. Used for house building , water channels, poles matches and match boxes and railway sleepers.<br />
  111. 111. (10)MAHOGANY<br />
  112. 112.
  113. 113. Found extensively on the western Ghats .<br />
  114. 114. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  115. 115. Color of wood is reddish brown .<br />It is moderately hard and durable .<br />It takes fine polish .<br />It is hard but easy to work .<br />It weights 690 kg/ cu meter .<br />
  116. 116. USES<br />
  117. 117. Used for cabinet making, furniture , pattern making and for building work.<br />
  118. 118. (11)BAMBOO<br />
  119. 119.
  120. 120. It is available in hills and terrain areas almost all over Pakistan .<br />
  121. 121. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  122. 122. It is flexible, very strong and durable.<br />Bamboo of smaller diameter with a thin bore are stronger thin those of bigger diameter with bigger holes.<br />
  123. 123. USES<br />
  124. 124. It is used for scaffolding, construction of temporary bridges, in thatch roofs and in the construction of cheep and big sheds.<br />
  125. 125. (12)MULBERRY<br />
  126. 126.
  127. 127. It grows in the Punjab .<br />
  128. 128. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  129. 129. It seasons well.<br />It is of brown color.<br />It is strong, tough and durable .<br />Easily turned, carved and finished .<br />Weights 670kg/cu meter.<br />
  130. 130. USES<br />
  131. 131. Used mostly for making spots good like tennis and badminton rackets, hockey strikes and cricket bats.<br />
  132. 132. (13) JACK<br />
  133. 133.
  134. 134. It is large evergreen tree found wild in the warmer regions all over Pakistan and jungle of western Ghats up to a height of 1000 meter.<br />
  135. 135. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  136. 136. It is bright yellow color .<br />When dry it is moderately hard but is brittle.<br />It take a good finish .<br />It is close and crooked grains.<br />It seasons well.<br />It weights 590 kg/cu meter.<br />
  137. 137. USES<br />
  138. 138. Used for making musical instruments, furniture and well kerns, carts and wheels.<br />
  139. 139. (14) TOON<br />
  140. 140.
  141. 141. It is large evergreen tree found in sub-Himalayan tracts and western Ghats.<br />
  142. 142. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  143. 143. Its color is dull red .<br />It is easy of work .<br />It give smooth finish.<br />It is light but not strong .<br />It seasons well.<br />It weights is 550kg/cu meter.<br />
  144. 144. USES<br />
  145. 145. Used mostly for furniture making . Also for planking and door panels .<br />
  146. 146. (15)HALDU<br />
  147. 147.
  148. 148. It is a large deciduous tree found in Deciduous forests in Pakistan.<br />
  149. 149. CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  150. 150. Wood is yellow color .<br />It is moderately hard .<br />It is even grains and smooth finish .<br />It is fairly durable .<br />It is seasons well .<br />Its weights 670 kg/cu meter.<br />
  151. 151. USES<br />
  152. 152. Used for furniture, plants and making agricultural implements. Suitable for ornamental and cabinet work .<br />
  153. 153. VENEERS<br />
  154. 154.
  155. 155. Veneer are thin sheet of wood that are peeled off, sliced or sawn from a log of wood having attractive and artistic arrangement of grains . Thickness of these sheets varies from 0.4mm to 6mm .Veneers sheets should be dried carefully. Veneer are used in the manufacture of plywood, lamina boards and bittern boards.<br />
  156. 156. PLYWOOD<br />
  157. 157.
  158. 158. Plywood are made by gluing together plies in odd numbers .Gluing is done under pressure .Plywood are generally available up to 1.5 meter in width and 13.4meter in length . Thickness of plywood varies from 3mm to 6mm.<br />
  159. 159. ADVANTAGES<br />
  160. 160. It give better appearance .<br />It is stronger.<br />It can be easily bent to give any shape.<br />It is an elastic material .<br />It give uniform tensile strength.<br />It is available in such large sizes.<br />
  161. 161. USES<br />
  162. 162. It is used for covering or paneling walls, for door, furniture and shuttering in R.C.C.<br />
  163. 163. HARD BOARDS<br />
  164. 164.
  165. 165. These are manufactured from wood waste obtained from saw mills, inferior timber or short logs etc . Other materials may be added during manufacture to improve contain of its properties. Width of sheets is usually 1.25 meter but even 1.75 meter . Wide sheets too are available . The maximum length is 4.75 meter .The thickness varies from 2mm to 20 mm.<br />
  166. 166. ADVANTAGES<br />
  167. 167. Unlike sawn wood these can be made of any sizes.<br />As these are homogeneous so their strength is uniform in all directions .<br />These are free from nature defect of timber like shakes and knots etc.<br />
  168. 168. Group Members<br />
  169. 169. MUDASSIR NIAZ<br />
  170. 170.
  171. 171. H. M . TAHIR<br />
  172. 172.
  173. 173. RANA . HAMAD<br />
  174. 174. SHAHZAB . HUSSAN<br />
  175. 175. QAMBAR- ALI - RAJA<br />
  176. 176. Special thanks :-<br />
  177. 177. MUDASSIR NIAZ<br />Made By:-<br />

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