Definition and nature A persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object. E.g. Smith doesn’t like working the night shift. He has a negative attitude toward his work assignment.Attitudes can be characterized in 3 ways:1. Tend to persist unless something is done to change them. E.g. Smith is transferred to the day shift, his attitude may become positive.
Nature2. Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. E.g. Smith’s attitude may be moderately unfavorable. If he is transferred to the day shift, his attitude may change to highly favorable.3. Attitudes are directed toward some object about which the person had feelings and beliefs. E.g. in Smith’s case this is the work shift.
Components of AttitudesC Cognitive ComponentThe opinion or belief segment of an attitude.A Affective ComponentThe emotional and feeling segment of an attitude.B Behavioral ComponentAn intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Cognitive dissonanceAny incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.To reduce dissonance:• Importance of the elements• Degree of influence• Rewards
Does behavior always followattitudes? Moderating variables• Importance• Specificity• Accessibility• Social pressures• Direct experience Self perception theory
Functions of attitudes
The Adjustment FunctionAttitudes often help people adjust to their work environment. E.g. when employees are well treated they develop a positive attitude toward management and the org. when employees are berated they develop negative attitude.
The value-expressive functionAttitudes provide people with a basis for expressing their values. E.g. a manager who believes strongly in the work ethics will tend to voice attitudes toward specific individuals as a means of reflecting this value
The knowledge functionAttitudes help supply standards and frame of reference that allow people to organize and explain the world around them. E.g. a union organizer may have a negative attitude toward management. This attitude may not be based on facts, but it does help the individual relate to management. So, regardless of how accurate a person’s view of reality is, attitudes toward people, events, and objects help the individual make sense out of what is going on.
Major job attitudes
Job SatisfactionA pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. Job satisfaction being the global aspect is affected by a large array of variables, such as salary, promotion, primary, & secondary needs, opportunities for advancement, congenial working conditions, competent and fair supervision and degree of participation in goal setting and perception of employees. Dissatisfaction with these factors causes stress.
Organizational CommitmentA relative strength of an individual’s identification and involvement in a particular organization. entails three factors:(a) a strong belief in acceptance of the organization’s goals and values,(b) a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and(c) a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization.Stronger among long term employees, good attendance records, willing for devotion to company policies, also lower turnover rates
Job InvolvementA person identifies his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance important to self worth.• Fewer absences• Lower resignation rate
Changing Attitudes1. Providing new information2. Use of fear3. Resolving discrepancies4. Influence of friends and peers5. The co-opting approach