Slaying the sugar toothed tiger: Why we crave sugar and how to calm the beast

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Discussion reviewing a range of factors that influence taste preferences and cravings for refined starch and sugar. Specific recommendations to reestablish a more grounded metabolism and effective self

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  • How does farm policy play out in the grocery store? Fresh fruits and vegetables cost more
  • Slaying the sugar toothed tiger: Why we crave sugar and how to calm the beast

    1. 1. Strategies to tame sugar and other food cravings Bonnie Y. Modugno, MS, RD www.muchmorethanfood.com
    2. 2.     Discuss what influences cravings for sugar and/or refined starch Explain how the body responds to excess sugars and refined starches Survey the current food supply’s role in driving food cravings Explore strategies to reduce cravings and intake of sugar and refined starch Sugar/Starch cravings Ways to reduce cravings Body’s response Food supply
    3. 3.  Develop during gestation & are detected at birth  More sensitive for babies  Reinforced with breastfeeding or formula feeding  Continue to dramatically change through childhood Grill & Berridge (1985); Grill & Norgren (1978).
    4. 4.  Varies between people, gender, cultures  Can vary at different times for one person  Changes with the intensity of sweet   Optimum amount of sweetness Never too much
    5. 5.  Genetic, Epigenetic  Familial/Cultural  Sensory Mouth feel  Texture   Behavioral  Reward  Economic  Subsidized food supply  Biochemical Glucose tolerance  Hyperinsulinemia  Insulin resistance  Leptin resistance   Microbial  Neurological Dopamine  Serotonin   Environmental
    6. 6.  Family    History Diabetes Central body fat Weight struggles
    7. 7.  Mom’s   Central body fat Poor metabolic health  Mom’s   health status before pregnancy health status during pregnancy Fast or excessive weight gain Gestational diabetes
    8. 8.  Mom’s diet before & during pregnancy  Babies detect aroma, flavors in amniotic fluid  Mom’s diet when breastfeeding  Babies detect aroma, flavor of breast milk
    9. 9.  25% of population are “non” tasters  50% are medium tasters  25% are considered “super tasters”   35% of women 15% of men
    10. 10.  Mostly a biological phenomena  More sensitive to bitter    Often prefers sweet ? Prefers starchy May be linked to “picky eaters”, but not always
    11. 11.  Copyright © 10/7/05 Los Angeles Times Taste preferences  What parents eat  What is special or valued  What may be used as a reward or bribe
    12. 12. 90 Soda 2.5 80 Bread 70 60 2 Potat o chips Cooki es 40 30 20 10 0 100 Calories Cost in cents 1.5 Licori ce 50 0.5 Orang e Organic Milk Organic Apple GF Beef 0 1 WC Salmon 100 Calories Cost in $$
    13. 13. How   does your body respond to what you eat? More important than the total calories we eat: Do you burn energy or store it? Evidence of an “efficient” metabolism       Central obesity or deep visceral fat stores with normal weight Pre-diabetes, Type II diabetes, gestational diabetes PCOS (number one cause of infertility) PMS, irregular periods Fatty liver or elevated liver enzymes Elevated triglycerides, low HDL-Cholesterol levels
    14. 14. NW Obese Lomenick J P et al. JCEM 2009;94:4463-4471 ©2009 by Endocrine Society
    15. 15. NW Obese NW Pre-adol. Obese Pre-adol. Lomenick J P et al. JCEM 2009;94:4463-4471 ©2009 by Endocrine Society
    16. 16.  Gut microbes influence inflammation, immune response, bowel function, appetite, metabolism, even sugar cravings (linked to insulin sensitivity)  What you eat influences the majority (57%) of gut bacteria   Short term within days of eating Over time
    17. 17.  Factors that shape microbiota maternal stress  mode of delivery  feeding method  introduction of solid foods  antibiotic exposure  Christoph Reinhardt, Christopher S. Reigstad, and Fredrik Ba¨ckhed. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 48:249–256 © 2009
    18. 18.  Favoring obesity   High fat, high sugar diet   Antibiotic use Excessive carbohydrates, especially refined sources Favoring leanness  More complex carbohydrates
    19. 19.  Food is not ordinarily like a substance of abuse, but intermittent bingeing and deprivation changes that.  Sweet taste elicits release of dopamine in the brain Avena, Rada and Hoebel. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008; 32(1): 20–39.
    20. 20.  Different brains have different responses to sugar  For some, the pleasure trigger is the first bite  Wanting more is a natural response  Excessive intake with diminishing pleasure is signs of a system gone awry
    21. 21. Most of us live with greater insulin resistance today which can drive sugar cravings  All of us carry a “body burden” of chemicals known as endocrine disruptors or persistent organic pollutants that interferes with normal metabolism  95% of these agents enter our bodies via the food supply 
    22. 22. Sources and Pathways to Human Exposures SOURCES TRANSPORT Reentrainment DEPOSITION Industrial Processes Combustion Direct Discharge Runoff Erosion FOOD SUPPLY
    23. 23.  BPA    Mimics estrogen in the body, binds estrogen receptors Estrogen regulates fat metabolism Elevated BPA linked to breast cancer, reproductive problems, obesity ,early puberty and heart disease
    24. 24.  Other      endocrine disruptors, target organs Pesticides (atrazine) ---- reproductive hormones Plasticizers (pthalates) ----reproductive hormones, glucose tolerance, thyroid function Industrial pollutants (dioxin) ---- impairs immune system, reproduction, metabolism, nervous system Fire retardants (PBDE’s and related compounds) ---- thyroid function Perflurochemicals (PFOA—used to make non-stick cookware) ----reproductive hormones and thyroid function In 2012 the American Academy of Pediatrics called for a re-examination of our chemical policies
    25. 25. Sugar/Starch cravings Body’s response Food supply What we buy What can you do?
    26. 26.  Weaning yourself will be challenging
    27. 27.  Emphasis on assessing hunger & satiety  Confusing cues    Expectations    Lack of satiety “Needing something” Calorie intake Right way to eat Confounding factors    Stress Sleep deprivation Unmet needs/wants
    28. 28. --but maybe eat less total carbohydrate, too
    29. 29. 250 200 Pounds 150 Total Grains Total Sugar 100 50 0 1950's 1960's 1970's 1980's 1990's 2000
    30. 30.  Balanced    Adequate protein Emphasize whole plant foods with rich fiber content Enough healthy fats  Adequate  meals calories per meal 500-700 kcal for most women (3 meals + snacks)
    31. 31. BLOOD GLUCOSE Refined Starch/ Whole Grains Sugar Vegetables/Fruit Legumes Protein + Beans/ Carbohydrate 0 5 1 2 Protein/Carbohydrate + Fat 3 TIME AFTER EATING (hours) 4
    32. 32. Too often food is a form of entertainment or self soothing, not connected to hunger or energy needs
    33. 33.  Cultivate effective self regulation & resilience  Build your tool box  Identify options that fit  Time of day  Available time  Budget limitations
    34. 34.  Cultivate  effective self regulation, resilience Practice exquisite self care    Adequate sleep Adequate down time, recreation Activities you enjoy
    35. 35. 1-2 minutes 5-10 minutes 30 min Phone call to a friend Walk outside Take a walk Look at fresh flowers Drink cup of tea Use yoga balls Listen to music Read the newspaper 1 hour 2-3 hours All Day + Yoga class Hike in the mountains Day at the beach Mani-pedi Massage Bike ride excursion Meal with a friend Read a good book Spa Browse an antique store Go to the movies Travel
    36. 36. •Eat through your day •Avoid getting over hungry •Stop when satisfied
    37. 37.  Plan for treats, when you are ready      Not every opportunity, not every day  3 day weaning Enjoy after a protein based meal Swap out starch at the meal Choose a modest amount of something delicious If possible, manage frequency by not bringing larger portions into the house
    38. 38. Question & Answer Bonnie Y. Modugno, MS, RD www.muchmorethanfood.com

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