Ion Mikel Landa & Bea Martinez
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Ion Mikel Landa & Bea Martinez






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Ion Mikel Landa & Bea Martinez Ion Mikel Landa & Bea Martinez Presentation Transcript

    • CALL IN THE 1980s
    • __________
    • Ion Mikel Landa
    • Bea Martinez
    • In 1960s and early 1970s, developments
    • In the late 1970s:
    • - These strands began to unravel
    • - Views became more circumspect
    • - New humanistic methods began to appear:
    • Community Language Learning
    • Total Physical Response
    • Communicative Language Teaching
    • Aims: - make communicative competence the goal of language teaching
    • - develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills
    • A significant change in: theories of language, language learning and language teaching
    • Rapid change also in computing
    • - 1973: Microcomputer was invented
    • - 1975: Computer clubs began to form around USA.
    • - 1976: Apple computer was formed.
    • In the early 1980s a boom in computer assisted language learning.
    • - Introduction of the microcomputer
    • - Books on the topic began to appear.
    • - Teachers started to programme in BASIC.
    • Software written by teacher-programmers was broad  centred on:
          • Single activity and examples, included text reconstruction, gap-filling, vocabulary games...
    • Other language teachers produced CALL materials using authoring programs such as:
    • HyperCard , Storyboard .
    • - Released for the Macintosh computer in 1987.
    • - A good example of: how long-standing concepts can suddenly find expression and widespread acceptance on the computer.
    • - The Hypertext concept  responsible for the extraordinary growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web.
    • The language teacher:
    • - not only played a role in developing CALL materials
    • - also using them effectively with students.
    • CALL commentators stressed: the importance of carefully integrating CALL work into the broader curriculum.
    • CALL materials are not intended to stand alone, integrated into broader schemes of work.
    • The development of word processing, because its use in language teaching.
    • Developed by John Higgins
    • Text-reconstruction program
    • AIM  To reconstruct a text using textual clues
        • e.g. Title, introductory material, textual clues within the text…
    •  teacher/students write their own text for the future use in the program
    • Before and after Storyboard many other programs
      • Masker, Textbag, CopyWrite, Developing Tray, TextPlay, Storyline, Quartext, Storycorner, Memory
    • Storyboard had plenty of modifications: new versions, different languages, software for different computers…
    • Latest version  Eclipse
      • Differences with Storyboard : Instead of hiding all the words, different hiding displays (e.g. only nouns)
    • Storyboard kind programs said to be the first generation of CALL software
    • Lengenhausen and Wolff (1991) noted 6 different strategies used bay students when using Storyboard :
      • Frequency str., form orientated str. and grammatical, semantic, textual and world knowledge str.
    • Within Anthena Project, developed by the MIT (Massachusetts’ Institute of Technology)
    • Eight-year research program to explore innovative uses of computers in education
    • Focus on: Create an experimental system for building multimedia learning enviroments  ALLP
      • ALLP’s aim: Create a communication based prototypes for beginning and intermediate courses (French, German, Spanish, Russian, and L2 English)
  • 1) MUSE: Uses hypertext and hypermedia systems to provide extensive cross-referencing of video, audio and graphic materials 2) Artificial Intelligence Techniques  develope a natural language processing system able to “guess” meanings by getting some clues · e.g. No Recuerdo (Spanish): Interactive video narrative based on a simulation game about an amnesiac Columbian scientist · Structured conversations · Strong narrative interest · Topic-based discourse structure · Students explore and try to understand the plot by asking and talking to people typing questions, commands… on the keyboard · GOALS: Vocabulary in context, reading comp, listening comp., culture awareness and conversational strategies
    • ALLP only protoype  Teacher’s role?
    • NOT supplant the teacher  use in language laboratory in combination with classroom activities
    • Started as a large-scale project (specialized programmers, sophisticated technology…)  feasible for wider group of CALL users
      • New, easier and cheaper technologies, available for more people
      • Authorware, ToolBook, Director…
    • For the empiricist theaory perfect match between language learning’s requirements and computers’s qualities.
    • For the communicative aproach
      • CALL methodology is ‘out of step’
      • Ideologies conflicted
      • CALL unadaptable to modern methodologies
    • In 1988 Pederson made an assessment of the CALL methodology. Main points: 1) Meaningful practice 2) Encourage development of language learning skills 3) Students differences and difficulties better documented 4) Differences may affect strategies, gains and attitude in CALL 5) More positive attitude from students if the CALL is made by their own teacher 6)Teachers have to secure the needed computer resources 7) Many teachers disatisfied with the software