Geography is: The study of Earth’s surface and the people, environments and resources that shape it.
Geography helps us understand why the earth looks the way it does and what causes it to change.
Geography includes things like climate (weather), pollution, naturally made things like mountains and rivers, and even human made things like roads and bridges.
The 5 Themes of Geography Theme What it tells us about Geography Location Where are we? Place What’s it like there? Interaction How do HUMANS and the ENVIRONMENT affect each other? Movement How do HUMANS and other HUMANS interact together? Region What links where we are to the places around us?
Ex: Rocky Mountains, The Grand Canyon, Tropical Climate
Human features: What people do to change a place.
Ex: Global Warming, building roads and buildings
Interaction – How do HUMANS and the ENVIRONMENT affect each other?
Humans greatly change their environments as they adapt to living . Over long periods of time , humans have really changed the way our planet looks and acts.
Example: Humans have cut down so many trees to build houses and make every day supplies that we have actually greatly reduced the amount of oxygen in the air for us to breathe.
The environment also changes humans . Humans have evolved through a long process of learning to adapt to the challenges of their environments .
Example: People who live in warmer places where the sun is strong need darker skin to protect them from the sun rays. This is why people who live in Africa (or their ancestors) have dark skin.
Movement – How do HUMANS interact with other HUMANS?
People move around the globe often because resources are scattered unevenly around the globe . People often go where it is easiest for them to live a good life.
Examples: People migrate (move) all around the globe to get closer to resources and share ideas. People trade with each other, countries import (bring goods in) and export (send goods out).
Region – What links where we are to the places around us?
The area where we are and the areas around us have similar physical characteristics (like climates and landforms ).
Humans have drawn lines on maps and called different places by different names, but our Earth doesn’t know that!
Pennsylvania and New Jersey are not physically very different . We are part of the same “ region ” even though we are called by two different names. We have similar climates (weather) and similar types of land . We even share some important landforms like the Appalachian Mountains.
Maps and Globes A globe is a scale model of Earth . It shows the actual shapes, sizes, and locations of all Earth’s landmasses and bodies of water .
Lines of Latitude – Imaginary horizontal lines around the globe.
*Also called Parallels
Lines of Longitude – Imaginary vertical lines around the globe. *Also called Meridians Together, these lines form the global grid . Every place on the earth has its own set of coordinates on the global grid .