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WSoE ELP School Functionality WSoE ELP School Functionality Presentation Transcript

  • WSoE Executive Leadership Programme Focus: School Functionality Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) 17 & 24 October 2009
  • Content
    • Content
    • Introduction;
    • School Functionality (4-19);
    • Turning around UPS (21-34);
    • Teaching (36-66);
    • Learning (68-76);
    • Concluding Remarks (78-87).
  • 1. School Functionality View slide
  • 1.1 Dysfunctionality vis-à-vis Under-performance Basics Gallie 2006 View slide
  • 1.2 Success rate = 8,1%
    • Success-rate of the system = 8,1%
    • Of every 12 learners starting Grade One, only 1 learner attains what the system is promising them - data 2005!
  • 1.3 Where are we now? 20% (5%) 50% 30%
  • 1.4 Questionnaire on School Functionality (SFI)       1.   Is the school receptive to innovation and change? Responses J. Managing Change       1.   Are the staff and governing body enjoying a positive and harmonious relationship? Responses I. The Governing Body and Department of Education       1.   Are teachers working to build and maintain good relations with parents? Responses H. Links with Parents and the Community       1.   Is there a good team spirit? Responses G. Professional Working Relationships       1.   Are staff meetings used for the discussion of major policy issues? Responses F. Decision Making and Communication       1. Is there a clear organisational structure that is appropriate for meeting the school’s aims? Responses E. Structures, Roles and Responsibilities       1.   Are they working well together as a team through clearly defined roles and responsibilities known to staff? Responses D. The Principal and the Senior Management Team       1.   Does the principal provide strong leadership and a definite sense of direction through a clear vision based beliefs and values? Responses C. The Principal       1.   Do the principal and you, as staff member share a common vision about the school’s future development? Responses B. Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning       1.   Are attendance, discipline and vandalism by learners major problems in school? I don’t know No Yes Questions Responses A. School Ethos
  • 1.5 Summary of Analysis of Questionnaire responses           8% 88% 4% 4 2 2 21 1 1.10 Are teachers working in a stimulating, enjoyable and satisfying atmosphere? p 9% 74% 17% 17 3 2 17 4 1.9 Are learners and teachers feeling safe and secure at school? p 8% 25% 67% 67 2 2 6 16 1.8 Are teachers talking freely about professional matters? p 26% 39% 35% 35 3 6 9 8 1.7 Is there an open atmosphere for change in the school? p 17% 65% 17% 17 3 4 15 4 1.6 Are teachers holding high expectations of learner behaviour and achievements through displaying confidence in them? p 21% 38% 42% 42 2 5 9 10 1.5 Is there a continual striving for improvement and growth among teachers? p 13% 42% 46% 46 2 3 10 11 1.4 Is a questioning, critical attitude actively encouraged, and a complacency attitude actively discouraged among staff? n 8% 13% 79% 79 2 2 3 19 1.3 Is there a general concern through the teaching and learning process to provide quality education? p 67% 17% 17% 17 2 16 4 4 1.2 Are most of the parents proud that their children are attending this school? p 0% 4% 96% 4 2 0 1 23 1.1 Are attendance, discipline and vandalism by learners major problems in school? n Don't know No Yes % Diff. Don’t know No Yes Questions Y=p Pos A. School Ethos Y=n Percentage   Summary Responses Y = Preferred response (both Yes and No)  
  • 1.6 Entire summary
  • 1.7 Results 1 Results 2 Results 3 Results 4 Graph 9 - School Ethos 4 17 79 46 42 17 35 67 17 4 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 10 - Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 8 13 38 25 38 54 52 13 13 21 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 11 - The Principal 21 17 42 39 38 63 30 42 42 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 12 - The Principal and SMT 25 63 43 25 38 42 46 33 33 29 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  • 1.8 Results 5 Results 6 Results 7 Results 8 Graph 13 - Structures, Roles and Responsibilities 33 39 39 35 26 26 38 67 25 8 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 14 - Decision Making and Communication 96 54 78 61 52 33 54 58 92 67 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 15 - Professional Working Relationships 38 29 67 42 46 70 35 54 42 17 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 16 - Links with Parents and Community 50 29 67 74 75 4 0 21 38 8 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  • 1.9 Results 9 Results 10 Graph 18 - Managing Reform 54 17 33 21 4 21 13 14 21 17 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 17 - The SGB and DoE 8 50 54 21 0 0 4 25 0 43 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 35.7 Average   21.5 J. Managing Change 20.5 I. The Governing Body and Department of Education 36.6 H. Links with Parents and the Community 44.0 G. Professional Working Relationships 64.5 F. Decision Making and Communication 33.6 E. Structures, Roles and Responsibilities 37.7 D. The Principal and the Senior Management Team 38.4 C. The Principal 27.5 B. Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 32.8 A. School Ethos Graph 19 - Level of school Functionality A 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 School Ethos Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning The Principal The Principal and SMT Structures, Roles and Responsibilities Decision making and Communication Professional Work Relationships Links with Parents and Community SGB and DoE Managing Change
  • 1.10 Level of School Functionality (SFI) Requests for use of the SFI - [email_address] Graph 20 - Level of School Functionality B 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 School Ethos Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning The Principal The Principal and SMT Structures, Roles and Responsibilities Decision Making and Communication Professional Work Relationships Links with Parents and Community SGB and DoE Managing Change
  • 1.11 Defining Dysfunctional schools
    • Schools who continue to function, but do not accomplish the purpose for which they were created;
    • Schools exist to help each child realise his or her fullest potential as a human being;
    • Schools become dysfunctional when they stop serving the needs of the individuals with them;
    • School can take on a life of their own where their main objective becomes self-preservation ;
    • One of the key indicators that a school has become dysfunctional is the ‘no talk rule’ . Those within the school are not permitted, and do not permit themselves, to speak (or even think) critically about the school
    • Critical thinking begins with the question “ why? ” Why are we doing this? Why are things arranged this way? Why do we do it this way and not that way? These kinds of questions are not allowed in a dysfunctional group;
    • The other indicator is the evolution of a priestly caste whose allegiance is more strongly tied to the school than it is to the learners the school is meant to serve - this means the teachers and administrators within the school
  • 1.12 Conceptual Argument - Types of Functionalities (relating to the Core Purpose) Level 3 Administration Level 2 Management Level 1 Leadership High Functioning Schools (HFS) Low Functioning Schools (LFS) Non-Functioning Schools (NFS)
  • 1.13 Ten Different mentalities
    • Definition of Teacher Quality;
    • Subject and/or learning area choices;
    • Time tabling;
    • Measuring productivity systems;
    • Quality Assurance systems;
    • Learner Expectation (success);
    • Data, Information, Knowledge, Intelligence Systems;
    • Multiple Opportunities; and
    • Time Utilisation; and
    • Difference between Home-work and School-work.
  • 1.14 Maslow
  • 1.15 Activity 1
    • Is your school Dysfunctional?
    • Ten critical questions for every school leader
    • Does every teacher teach everyday in every class for 196 school days in the year? [10]
    • Do you as school leader regularly observe teachers teaching in their classrooms? [10]
    • Do you spend at least 70% of your time in school on matters of teaching and learning? [10]
    • Do you regularly visit parents of learners in their homes? [10]
    • Is your school consistently clean, ordered and well-decorated in ways that convey positive sentiments about the learning environment? [10]
    • Do more than 95% of learners pass the highest grade in the school every year for the past five years? [10]
    • Do more than 98% of learners enrolled attend school everyday? [10]
    • Does every learner have a textbook in every subject? [10]
    • Does your school bring in at least R100,000 every year in external (private) funds e.g. the business community? [10]
    • In the case of High Schools , do at least 80% of your learners go on to university/university of technology? In the case of Primary Schools , do all your learners go on to high school?
    • Prof. Jonathan Jansen (Executive Leadership Programme 2008)
  • 1.16 Functionality Score for your school A School? 20 A Seriously Dysfunctional School 40 A Marginally functional School 60 A Moderately Functional School 80 A Functional School 100
  • 2. Turning around UPS
  • 2.1 Logistics of Teaching and Learning School Readiness Components 30% Teaching 40% Learning 50% Assess- ment 10% HFS LFS NFS School Readiness Components 30% School Readiness Components 30% Teaching 30% Teaching 20% Disrup- tions 10% Assessment 20% Learning for Assessment 20% Learning 20% Disruptions & Chaos 20% Learn- ing 10% 90% 50% 30% Time-on-Task 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% Current Academic Year Previous Year
  • 2.2 School Readiness Components 8 School Readiness Components 30% HFS LFS NFS School Readiness Components 30% School Readiness Components 30% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% Current Academic Year Previous Year 8. Learner and Teacher support materials 7. Organogram 6. Quarterly Teaching schedules 5. Implementable and flexible timetable 5. Unclear academic standards 4. Annual Planning 4. High level of disruption and violence 3. Learner Information 3.1 Low learner performance 3.2 High dropout rates of learners 2. Teacher Information 2.1 High rate of staff turnover 2.2 Negative school atmosphere 1. Teacher and Learner Attendance 1.1 High rate of staff absenteeism 1.2 High rate of learner absenteeism SRC Component Indicators of NFS 8 School Readiness Components
  • 2.3 School Readiness Components 8 3. Educator information 8. A negative school atmosphere 1. Teacher attendance 7. High rate of staff absenteeism 3. Educator information 6. High rate of staff turnover 5. Implementable and flexible timetabling 6. Quarterly teaching schedule 7. Organogram 8. Learner support material 5. Unclear academic standards 4. Annual planning 4. High level of disruption and violence 2. Learner information 3. High dropout rates of students 1. Learner attendance 2. High rate of student absenteeism 2. Learner information 1. Low student performance SRC Indicators of LFS
  • 2.4 Time-on-Task Teaching 40% Learning 50% HFS LFS NFS Teaching 30% Teaching 20% Learning 20% Learn- ing 10% 90% 50% 30%
    • 4.5 days p.w.
    • 176 days p.a.
    • 2.5 days p.w.
    • 98 days p.a.
    • 1.67 days p.w.
    • 65 days p.a.
    100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% Current Academic Year Previous Year
  • 2.5 Time-on-Task Teaching 40% Learning 50% HFS LFS NFS Teaching 30% Teaching 20% Learning 20% Learn- ing 10% 90% 50% 30% 4.5 days p.w. 2.5 days p.w. 1.67 days p.w. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% Current Academic Year Previous Year
  • 2.6 Traditional Approach School Readiness Components 30% Teaching 40% Learning 50% Assess- ment 10% HFS LFS DFS School Readiness Components 30% School Readiness Components 30% Teaching 30% Teaching 20% Disrup- tions 10% Assessment 20% Learning for Assessment 20% Learning 20% Disruptions & Chaos 20% Learn- ing 10% 90% 50% 30% Time-on-Task 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% Current Academic Year Previous Year
  • 2.7 Anti-traditional Approach (Innovation)
  • 2.8 ATA 1
  • 2.9 ATA 2
  • 2.10 ATA 3
  • 2.11 ATA 4
  • 2.12 Activity 2 Functionality Dysfunctionality School Readiness Components 0 1 2 3 4 5 Diff. 1. Attendance (T&L) 2. Teacher Information 3. Learner Information 4. Annual Planning 5. Timetable 6. Quarterly Teaching Schedule 7. Organogram 8. Teaching and Learning Support Materials
  • 2.13 SRC Example: Teacher Attendance
  • 2.14 Self-Evaluation of SRC SRC 1 2 3 4 5 Teacher Attendance Tick name Sign name Time in and out Principal monitors daily Absent submitted and processed 6 7 8 9 10 SMS - present SMS - Time in and out Computer based Swipe card Finger-print
  • 3. Teaching
  • 3.1 Pedagogy versus Androgogy Pedagogy Androgogy It is the method of teaching children. It is the method of teaching adults. Learners are dependent. Learners are independent. Learners have less or no experience to share, hence teaching becomes didactic. Learners are experienced, hence teaching involves discussion, problem solving, etc. Learners learn whatever the curriculum offers. The content has to be modified according to the learner’s need. Teachers are required to direct the learner. The learners are self-motivated. Learners need teachers’ guidance. Learning is curriculum oriented. Learning is goal oriented.
  • 3.2 Adult Learning -- Facts Information Association Feelings
  • 3.3 Focus on Teaching
  • 3.4 Focus on Learning
  • 3.5 Models of Teaching and Learning
  • 3.6 Proctor Model
  • 3.7 Cruickshank Model
  • 3.8 Gage and Berliner Model
  • 3.9 Huitt Model (1)
  • 3.10 Huitt Model (2)
  • 3.11 Huitt Model (3)
  • 3.12 Slavin QAIT Model of Instruction
  • 3.13 Transactional Model
  • 3.14 Improving Classroom Effectiveness
  • 3.15 New Teaching and Learning Process
  • 3.16 A. Framework for Thinking about Effective Teaching
    • Input or Context variables
    • Process variables
    • Product or Outcome variables
  • 3.17 B. Models for Thinking about Effective Teaching
    • A surface level of analysis;
    • A psychological level of analysis;
    • A pedagogical level of analysis
  • 3.18 C. Nature of Learner Learning
    • Four major questions:
    • What mental processes are involved when a learner is engaged in learning?
    • What changes occur in the learners’ cognitive structure which themselves constitute learner learning?
    • Which psychological factors (concepts, principles and processes) facilitate learner learning?
    • What are the main types of learner learning ?
  • 3.19 D. Setting up the learning experience
    • Learners’ learning is school can be fostered in two main ways:
    • Teacher exposition : listening to teacher exposition, which may include asking or being asked questions, watching a demonstration, and genuine teacher-learner discussion.
    • Academic work : being instructed to undertake or engage in academic tasks and activities, either on one’s own or together with other learners.
  • 3.20 E. Taking account of learner differences
    • Ability (intelligence; gifted; learning difficulties);
    • Motivation (upbringing; previous success and failure; relationship between home and school; aspiration of parents);
    • Social class (professional; intermediate; skilled; semi-skilled; unskilled occupations);
    • Gender (perceptions in society; biological differences; stereotypes);
    • Race/Culture (‘apparent lower average educational attainment of groups’; use as power/status);
    • Special Educational Needs (physical, psychological and emotional).
  • 3.21 F. Key Classroom Teaching Qualities and Tasks
    • Ten characteristics having a strong association with success;
    • Six qualities of high ‘performance’ teachers;
    • Five qualities of classroom teaching;
    • Teaching Assessment Rating Scales.
  • 3.22 Example Total divide by 8 Total divide by number of Teachers 4 8 4 7 4 Ave. 4 History T6 4 Bus.Ec. T5 3 Life Or. T4 5 Science T3 5 Maths T2 4 4 4 3 5 5 3 English T1 Ave. 6 5 4 3 2 1 Subject Name of Teacher
  • 3.23 Teaching Assessment Rating Scales (Kyriacou and McKelvey 1985)
    • Preparedness;
    • Pace and Flow;
    • Transition;
    • Cognitive Matching;
    • Clarity;
    • Business-like;
    • Withitness;
    • Encouragingness. (see additional page)
  • 3.24 G. Key Classroom Teaching Tasks
    • Planning;
    • Presentation and Monitoring; and
    • Reflection and Evaluation.
  • 3.25 H. Relationships with Learners
    • The teacher’s authority;
    • Mutual respect and rapport;
    • Classroom climate; and
    • Pastoral care.
  • 3.26 (1) Teacher’s Authority
    • Four main factors:
    • Status;
    • Teaching competence;
    • Exercising control over the classroom;
    • Exercising control over discipline.
  • 3.27 (2)Teaching Competence
    • Three main elements:
    • Subject knowledge;
    • Interest in and enthusiasm for the subject; and
    • Ability to set up effective learning experiences.
  • 3.28 (3) Example Total divide by 3 Total divide by number of Teachers 4 Ave. 4 History T6 4 Bus.Ec. T5 3 Life Or. T4 5 Science T3 5 Maths T2 4 5 5 3 English T1 Ave. Set up learning experience Interest in subject Subject Knowledge Subject Name of Teacher
  • 3.29 There is no management without monitoring and evaluation
  • 3.30 Why should we M&E?
    • In general, the purpose of monitoring & evaluation can be:
    • T o assess results - to find out if and how objectives are being met and are resulting in desired changes.
    • To improve management and process planning - to better adapt to contextual and risk factors such as social and power dynamics that affect the research process.
    • To promote learning - to identify lessons of general applicability, to learn how different approaches to participation affect outcomes, impact, and reach, to learn what works and what does not, and to identify what contextual factors enable or constrain the participatory research.
    • To understand different stakeholders' perspectives - to allow, through direct participation in the monitoring and evaluation process, the various people involved in the organisation to better understand each others views and values and to design ways to resolve competing or conflicting views and interests.
    • To ensure accountability - to assess whether the organisation is effectively, appropriately, and efficiently executed to be accountable to they key agencies (Estrella and Gaventa, 1998).
    What?, When? How?, Who?
  • 3.31 Money taken by Administration
  • 4. Learning
  • 4.1 What do we know about our teachers and/or officials? Teaching (Information Sharing) Learning (Taking ownership of Information) Remembering Understanding Teaching (Information Sharing) Remembering
  • 4.2 Types of Teaching - Learning Teaching Learning Teaching and Learning Teaching and Learning Teaching for Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching as Learning None or to Little time and support for Learning Plenty of time and support for Learning All the time and support are for Learning
  • 4.3 Activity 3
  • 4.4 Knowing learning
  • 4.5 Cone of Learning
  • 4.6 Types of Learning - Ausubel Meaningful Learning - essential characteristic of the learning is that it can be related in a meaningful, non-arbitrary way to what the learner already knows Rote Learning - what is learned is characterised by arbitrary associations with the learner’s previous knowledge 2.2 1 Reception Learning - entire content is presented to learner in its final form 3 2.1 Discovery Learning - content has to be discovered by learner through some learning activity
  • 4.7 Five Levels of Learning Wisdom 175 5 Comprehension 140 4 Know-How 105 3 Information 70 2 Facts 35 1 Type of Teaching Teaching Days Level
  • 4.8 Bloom’s Level of learning and Thinking
    • Know - Define, match, repeat, memorise, label, outline, record, recognise, state, sort, list
    • Understand - Restate, show, illustrate, summarise, predict, locate, paraphrase, describe, explain
    • Apply - Demonstrate, solve, test, use, manipulate, organise
    • Analyse - Examine, debate/defend, compare/contrast, refute, relate, generalise, classify, research
    • Synthesise - Propose, design, construct, invent, formulate, plan, imagine
    • Evaluate - Judge, recommend, critique/criticise, justify, choose
  • 4.9 Learning: From Past to Future
  • 5. Conclusion
  • 5.1 Three Steps approach to QE
  • 5.2 Graphical display of 3 steps QE Dysfunctional Schools Low Functioning Schools Rights-based Education *Availability *Accessibility * Acceptability * Adaptability Basic Education Quality Education
  • 5.3 Influences on achievement
  • 5.4 John Hattie 10-1
  • 5.5 John Hattie - Teaching or Working Conditions?
  • 5.6 Teacher Professional Path
    • First five to eight years (as teachers); (BT)
    • Second phase [nine to twelve years] as teacher; (T)
    • First five to eight years (as senior teachers/mentor); (ST)
    • Second phase [nine to twelve years] as mentor; (HoD)
    • First three to five years (as Head of Department); (HoD)
    • First three to five years (as Deputy Principal);
    • First three to five years (as Principal);
    • Second phase [six to ten years] as Principal;
    • Third phase [eleven to twenty years +] as Principal;
    • Etc.
    4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 59-62 55-58 51-54 47-50 43-46 39-42 35-38 31-34 27-30 22-26 DP5-8 DP5-8 DP1-4 ST9-12 ST5-8 ST1-4 Pr13  Pr9-12 Pr5-8 Pr1-4 HoD9-12 HoD5-8 HoD1-4 T9-12 T5-8 BT1-4
  • 5.7 Internal and external strength
  • 5.8 Ten Untruths in UPS
    • Democratic decision making in schools create a conducive school tone or culture;
    • Parent involvement is crucial;
    • OBE approach is resource intensive;
    • Resources (computers and libraries) will make all the difference;
    • The Dept. is not supporting teachers and therefore they are de-motivated;
  • 5.9 Ten Untruths in UPS
    • Lack of learning is caused by the ill-discipline of learners;
    • Our classrooms are overcrowded - small classes will make the difference;
    • It is difficult to achieve learner success in poverty stricken communities;
    • Learners are not at the level they should be when they get to our schools (no pre- or nursery school; can’t read and write)
    • Teacher development will solve most of our performance problems.
  • 5.10 Five Basic Assumptions of Effective Schools
    • The central purpose of a school is to teach;
    • The school is responsible for providing the overall environment;
    • Schools must be treated holistically in terms of instruction (unity);
    • The most crucial characteristics of a school are the attitudes and behaviours of the teachers and staff;
    • The school accepts responsibility for the success and failure of the academic performance of learners - all learners are capable of learning.
  • Thank You!