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WSoE ELP School Functionality
 

WSoE ELP School Functionality

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    WSoE ELP School Functionality WSoE ELP School Functionality Document Transcript

    • WSoE Executive Leadership Programme Focus: School Functionality Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) 17 & 24 October 2009 1 Content Content 1. Introduction; 2. School Functionality (4-19); 3. Turning around UPS (21-34); 4. Teaching (36-66); 5. Learning (68-76); 6. Concluding Remarks (78-87). 2 1
    • 1. School Functionality 3 1.1 Dysfunctionality vis-à-vis Under-performance Figure 10: Three levels of school functionality in relation to the support needed by schools 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% -10% -20% Basics Non-Functioning Low-Functioning High-Functioning -20% – +20% 21% - 60% 61% - 100% 4 Gallie 2006 2
    • 1.2 Success rate = 8,1% •Success-rate of the system = 8,1% •Of every 12 learners starting Grade One, only 1 learner attains what the system is promising them - data 2005! 5 1.3 Where are we now? 20% (5%) 50% 30% 6 3
    • 1.4 Questionnaire on School Functionality (SFI) A. School Ethos Responses Questions Yes No I don’t know 1. Are attendance, discipline and vandalism by learners major problems in school? B. Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning Responses 1. Do the principal and you, as staff member share a common vision about the school’s future development? C. The Principal Responses 1. Does the principal provide strong leadership and a definite sense of direction through a clear vision based beliefs and values? D. The Principal and the Senior Management Team Responses 1. Are they working well together as a team through clearly defined roles and responsibilities known to staff? E. Structures, Roles and Responsibilities Responses 1. Is there a clear organisational structure that is appropriate for meeting the school’s aims? F. Decision Making and Communication Responses 1. Are staff meetings used for the discussion of major policy issues? G. Professional Working Relationships Responses 1. Is there a good team spirit? H. Links with Parents and the Community Responses 1. Are teachers working to build and maintain good relations with parents? I. The Governing Body and Department of Education Responses 1. Are the staff and governing body enjoying a positive and harmonious relationship? J. Managing Change 7 Responses 1. Is the school receptive to innovation and change? 1.5 Summary of Analysis of Questionnaire responses Y = Preferred response (both Yes and No) Summary Y=n A. School Ethos Responses Pos Percentage Yes No Don’t Diff. % Don't Y=p Questions know Yes No know 1.1 Are attendance, discipline and vandalism by learners major 23 1 0 n problems in school? 2 4 96% 4% 0% 1.2 Are most of the parents proud that their children are attending 4 4 16 p this school? 2 17 17% 17% 67% 1.3 Is there a general concern through the teaching and learning 19 3 2 p process to provide quality education? 2 79 79% 13% 8% 11 10 3 1.4 Is a questioning, critical attitude actively encouraged, and a n complacency attitude actively discouraged among staff? 2 46 46% 42% 13% 1.5 Is there a continual striving for improvement and growth 10 9 5 p among teachers? 2 42 42% 38% 21% 4 15 4 1.6 Are teachers holding high expectations of learner behaviour p and achievements through displaying confidence in them? 3 17 17% 65% 17% p 1.7 Is there an open atmosphere for change in the school? 8 9 6 3 35 35% 39% 26% p 1.8 Are teachers talking freely about professional matters? 16 6 2 2 67 67% 25% 8% 4 17 2 p 1.9 Are learners and teachers feeling safe and secure at school? 3 17 17% 74% 9% 1.10 Are teachers working in a stimulating, enjoyable and 1 21 2 p satisfying atmosphere? 2 4 8 4% 88% 8% 4
    • 1.6 Entire summary 9 Graph 9 - School Ethos Graph 10 - Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 1.7 Results 100 1 1 100 1 10 80 2 10 80 2 60 60 40 40 9 793 17 9 21 20 3 20 4 4 8 13 38 17 0 13 0 13 25 46 67 8 17 4 8 4 35 42 38 52 54 7 5 7 5 6 6 Results 2 Graph 11 - The Principal Results 3 Graph 12 - The Principal and SMT 1 1 100 100 10 2 10 80 2 80 60 60 63 50 40 21 4025 9 3 9 29 3 20 17 33 20 43 42 42 0 0 33 25 42 39 8 4 8 30 4 38 38 46 42 63 7 5 7 5 10 6 6 Results 4 5
    • Graph 13 - Structures, Roles and Responsibilities Graph 14 - Decision Making and Communication 1 1 100 100 96 10 80 2 10 80 2 60 67 60 54 40 33 39 40 9 3 9 3 20 78 25 8 20 39 92 0 0 35 58 61 67 8 4 8 26 4 38 26 33 54 52 7 5 7 5 1.8 Results 6 6 5 Results 6 Graph 16 - Links with Parents and Community Graph 15 - Professional Working Relationships 1 1 100 100 10 2 10 80 2 80 60 50 60 38 40 40 9 29 3 9 29 3 20 67 17 20 38 8 42 67 0 0 21 0 4 54 42 74 8 4 8 4 35 46 75 7 70 5 7 5 11 Results 7 6 6 Results 8 Graph 17 - The SGB and DoE Graph 18 - Managing Reform 1 1 100 100 10 80 2 10 80 2 60 54 50 60 43 40 9 3 40 9 3 20 8 54 17 20 17 00 21 33 0 25 4 0 0 21 14 4 21 8 4 13 8 21 4 7 5 7 5 1.9 Results 6 Results 10 9 6 A. School Ethos 32.8 Graph 19 - Level of school Functionality A B. Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 27.5 C. The Principal 38.4 School Ethos Managing Change 100 D. The Principal and the Senior Management Team 37.7 90 80 Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 70 E. Structures, Roles and Responsibilities 33.6 SGB and DoE 60 50 40 F. Decision Making and Communication 64.5 30 The Principal 20 G. Professional Working Relationships 44.0 10 0 Links with Parents and Community H. Links with Parents and the Community 36.6 The Principal and SMT I. The Governing Body and Department of Education 20.5 J. Managing Change 21.5 Professional Work Relationships Structures, Roles and Responsibilities Decision making and Communication 12 Average 35.7 6
    • Graph 20 - Level of School Functionality B 100 School Ethos 90 Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 80 The Principal 70 The Principal and SMT 60 Structures, Roles and Responsibilities 50 Decision Making and Communication 40 Professional Work Relationships 30 Links with Parents and Community SGB and DoE 20 Managing Change 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1.10 Level of School Functionality 9 10 (SFI) 13 Requests for use of the SFI - eduquest@movingup.co.za 1.11 Defining Dysfunctional schools • Schools who continue to function, but do not accomplish the purpose for which they were created; • Schools exist to help each child realise his or her fullest potential as a human being; • Schools become dysfunctional when they stop serving the needs of the individuals with them; • School can take on a life of their own where their main objective becomes self-preservation; • One of the key indicators that a school has become dysfunctional is the ‘no talk rule’. Those within the school are not permitted, and do not permit themselves, to speak (or even think) critically about the school • Critical thinking begins with the question “why?” Why are we doing this? Why are things arranged this way? Why do we do it this way and not that way? These kinds of questions are not allowed in a dysfunctional group; • The other indicator is the evolution of a priestly caste whose allegiance is more strongly tied to the school than it is to the learners the school is meant to serve - this means the teachers and administrators within the school 14 7
    • 1.12 Conceptual Argument - Types of Functionalities (relating to the Core Purpose) Non- Low High Functioning Functioning Functioning Schools Schools Schools (NFS) (LFS) (HFS) Leadership Level 1 Management Level 2 Administration Level 3 15 1.13 Ten Different mentalities 1. Definition of Teacher Quality; 2. Subject and/or learning area choices; 3. Time tabling; 4. Measuring productivity systems; 5. Quality Assurance systems; 6. Learner Expectation (success); 7. Data, Information, Knowledge, Intelligence Systems; 8. Multiple Opportunities; and 9. Time Utilisation; and 10.Difference between Home-work and School-work. 16 8
    • 1.14 Maslow 17 1.15 Activity 1 • Is your school Dysfunctional? • Ten critical questions for every school leader 1. Does every teacher teach everyday in every class for 196 school days in the year? [10] 2. Do you as school leader regularly observe teachers teaching in their classrooms? [10] 3. Do you spend at least 70% of your time in school on matters of teaching and learning? [10] 4. Do you regularly visit parents of learners in their homes? [10] 5. Is your school consistently clean, ordered and well-decorated in ways that convey positive sentiments about the learning environment? [10] 6. Do more than 95% of learners pass the highest grade in the school every year for the past five years? [10] 7. Do more than 98% of learners enrolled attend school everyday? [10] 8. Does every learner have a textbook in every subject? [10] 9. Does your school bring in at least R100,000 every year in external (private) funds e.g. the business community? [10] 10. In the case of High Schools, do at least 80% of your learners go on to university/university of technology? In the case of Primary Schools, do all your learners go on to high school? 18 Prof. Jonathan Jansen (Executive Leadership Programme 2008) 9
    • 1.16 Functionality Score for your school 100 A Functional School 80 A Moderately Functional School 60 A Marginally functional School 40 A Seriously Dysfunctional School 20 A School? 19 2. Turning around UPS 20 10
    • 2.1 Logistics of Teaching and Learning Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% School Readiness Assess- HFS Components 30% Teaching 40% 90% Learning 50% ment 10% School Readiness Disrup- LFS Teaching Learning 50% Assessment Components tions 30% 20% 20% 30% 10% School Readiness Learn- Disruptions Learning for NFS Teaching Components 30% 20% 30% ing 10% & Chaos 20% 21 Assessment 20% Time-on-Task 2.2 School Readiness Components 8 Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% School Readiness 8 School Readiness Components HFS Components Indicators of NFS SRC Component 30% 1.1 High rate of staff absenteeism 1. Teacher and Learner 1.2 High rate of learner absenteeism Attendance 2.1 High rate of staff turnover 2. Teacher Information 2.2 Negative school atmosphere School Readiness 3.1 Low learner performance 3. Learner Information LFS Components 3.2 High dropout rates of learners 30% 4. High level of disruption and violence 4. Annual Planning 5. Unclear academic standards 5. Implementable and flexible timetable 6. Quarterly Teaching School Readiness schedules NFS Components 7. Organogram 30% 22 8. Learner and Teacher support materials 11
    • 2.3 School Readiness Components 8 Indicators of LFS SRC 1. Low student performance 2. Learner information 2. High rate of student absenteeism 1. Learner attendance 3. High dropout rates of students 2. Learner information 4. High level of disruption and violence 4. Annual planning 5. Unclear academic standards 5. Implementable and flexible timetabling 6. Quarterly teaching schedule 7. Organogram 8. Learner support material 6. High rate of staff turnover 3. Educator information 7. High rate of staff absenteeism 1. Teacher attendance 8. A negative school atmosphere 3. Educator information 23 2.4 Time-on-Task Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% HFS Teaching 40% 90% Learning 50% •4.5 days p.w. •176 days p.a. LFS Teaching Learning 30% 50% 20% •2.5 days p.w. •98 days p.a. Learn- NFS Teaching •1.67 days p.w. 24 20% 30% ing 10% •65 days p.a. 12
    • 2.5 Time-on-Task Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% HFS Teaching 40% 90% Learning 50% 4.5 days p.w. LFS Teaching Learning 30% 50% 20% 2.5 days p.w. Learn- NFS Teaching 25 20% 30% ing 10% 1.67 days p.w. 2.6 Traditional Approach Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% School Readiness Assess- HFS Components 30% Teaching 40% 90% Learning 50% ment 10% School Readiness Disrup- LFS Teaching Learning 50% Assessment Components tions 30% 20% 20% 30% 10% School Readiness Learn- Disruptions Learning for DFS Teaching Components 30% 20% 30% ing 10% & Chaos 20% 26 Assessment 20% Time-on-Task 13
    • 2.7 Anti-traditional Approach (Innovation) 27 2.8 ATA 1 28 14
    • 2.9 ATA 2 29 2.10 ATA 3 30 15
    • 2.11 ATA 4 31 2.12 Activity 2 School Readiness Components 0 1 2 3 4 5 Diff. 1. Attendance (T&L) Dysfunctionality Functionality 2. Teacher Information 3. Learner Information 4. Annual Planning 5. Timetable 6. Quarterly Teaching Schedule 7. Organogram 8. Teaching and Learning Support Materials 32 16
    • 2.13 SRC Example: Teacher Attendance • No attendance system; • Tick next to name (!); • Sign their names; • Indicate ‘time in & out’; • Comments from Principal; • Number of days absent, late arrival, leaving early; • Leave form submitted (24h); • Leave form processed; 33 2.14 Self-Evaluation of SRC SRC 1 2 3 4 5 Teacher Tick Sign Time in Principal Absent Attendance name name and out monitors submitted daily and processed 6 7 8 9 10 SMS - SMS - Computer Swipe Finger-print present Time in based card and out 34 17
    • 3. Teaching 35 3.1 Pedagogy versus Androgogy Pedagogy Androgogy It is the method of teaching It is the method of teaching adults. children. Learners are dependent. Learners are independent. Learners have less or no Learners are experienced, hence experience to share, hence teaching involves discussion, problem teaching becomes didactic. solving, etc. Learners learn whatever the The content has to be modified curriculum offers. according to the learner’s need. Teachers are required to direct The learners are self-motivated. the learner. Learners need teachers’ guidance. Learning is curriculum oriented. Learning is goal oriented. 36 18
    • 3.2 Adult Learning -- ion Fe t cia e lin so gs As Facts 37 Information 3.3 Focus on Teaching 38 19
    • 3.4 Focus on Learning 39 3.5 Models of Teaching and Learning 40 20
    • 3.6 Proctor Model 41 41 3.7 Cruickshank Model 42 42 21
    • 3.8 Gage and Berliner Model 43 43 3.9 Huitt Model (1) 44 44 22
    • 3.10 Huitt Model (2) 45 45 3.11 Huitt Model (3) 46 23
    • 3.12 Slavin QAIT Model of Instruction 47 3.13 Transactional Model 48 48 24
    • 3.14 Improving Classroom Effectiveness 49 3.15 New Teaching and Learning Process 50 25
    • 3.16 A. Framework for Thinking about Effective Teaching • Input or Context variables • Process variables • Product or Outcome variables 51 3.17 B. Models for Thinking about Effective Teaching 1. A surface level of analysis; 2. A psychological level of analysis; 3. A pedagogical level of analysis 52 26
    • 3.18 C. Nature of Learner Learning Four major questions: 1. What mental processes are involved when a learner is engaged in learning? 2. What changes occur in the learners’ cognitive structure which themselves constitute learner learning? 3. Which psychological factors (concepts, principles and processes) facilitate learner learning? 4. What are the main types of learner learning? 53 3.19 D. Setting up the learning experience Learners’ learning is school can be fostered in two main ways: 1. Teacher exposition: listening to teacher exposition, which may include asking or being asked questions, watching a demonstration, and genuine teacher-learner discussion. 2. Academic work: being instructed to undertake or engage in academic tasks and activities, either on one’s own or together with other learners. 54 27
    • 3.20 E. Taking account of learner differences • Ability (intelligence; gifted; learning difficulties); • Motivation (upbringing; previous success and failure; relationship between home and school; aspiration of parents); • Social class (professional; intermediate; skilled; semi-skilled; unskilled occupations); • Gender (perceptions in society; biological differences; stereotypes); • Race/Culture (‘apparent lower average educational attainment of groups’; use as power/status); • Special Educational Needs (physical, psychological and emotional). 55 3.21 F. Key Classroom Teaching Qualities and Tasks • Ten characteristics having a strong association with success; • Six qualities of high ‘performance’ teachers; • Five qualities of classroom teaching; • Teaching Assessment Rating Scales. 56 28
    • 3.22 Example Total divide by 8 Name of Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ave. Teacher T1 English 3 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 T2 Maths 5 T3 Science 5 T4 Life Or. 3 T5 Bus.Ec. 4 T6 History 4 Ave. 4 57 Total divide by number of Teachers 3.23 Teaching Assessment Rating Scales (Kyriacou and McKelvey 1985) 1. Preparedness; 2. Pace and Flow; 3. Transition; 4. Cognitive Matching; 5. Clarity; 6. Business-like; 7. Withitness; 8. Encouragingness. (see additional page) 58 29
    • 3.24 G. Key Classroom Teaching Tasks 1. Planning; 2. Presentation and Monitoring; and 3. Reflection and Evaluation. 59 3.25 H. Relationships with Learners 1. The teacher’s authority; 2. Mutual respect and rapport; 3. Classroom climate; and 4. Pastoral care. 60 30
    • 3.26 (1) Teacher’s Authority Four main factors: • Status; • Teaching competence; • Exercising control over the classroom; • Exercising control over discipline. 61 3.27 (2)Teaching Competence Three main elements: • Subject knowledge; • Interest in and enthusiasm for the subject; and • Ability to set up effective learning experiences. 62 31
    • 3.28 (3) Example Total divide by 3 Name of Subject Subject Interest in Set up Ave. Knowledge subject learning Teacher experience T1 English 3 5 5 4 T2 Maths 5 T3 Science 5 T4 Life Or. 3 T5 Bus.Ec. 4 T6 History 4 Ave. 4 63 Total divide by number of Teachers 3.29 There is no management without monitoring and evaluation 64 32
    • 3.30 Why should we M&E? In general, the purpose of monitoring & evaluation can be: • To assess results - to find out if and how objectives are being met and are resulting in desired changes. • To improve management and process planning - to better adapt to contextual and risk factors such as social and power dynamics that affect the research process. • To promote learning - to identify lessons of general applicability, to learn how different approaches to participation affect outcomes, impact, and reach, to learn what works and what does not, and to identify what contextual factors enable or constrain the participatory research. • To understand different stakeholders' perspectives - to allow, through direct participation in the monitoring and evaluation process, the various people involved in the organisation to better understand each others views and values and to design ways to resolve competing or conflicting views and interests. • To ensure accountability - to assess whether the organisation is effectively, appropriately, and efficiently executed to be accountable to they key agencies (Estrella and Gaventa, 1998). What?, When? How?, Who? 65 3.31 Money taken by Administration 66 33
    • 4. Learning 67 4.1 What do we know about our teachers and/or officials? Remembering Teaching (Information Sharing) Remembering Understanding Teaching Learning (Information Sharing) (Taking ownership of Information) 68 34
    • 4.2 Types of Teaching - Learning None or to Little time and support for Learning Teaching and Learning Teaching Learning Plenty of time and support for Learning Teaching for Learning Teaching and Learning All the time and support are for Learning Teaching as Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning 69 4.3 Activity 3 70 35
    • 4.4 Knowing learning 71 4.5 Cone of Learning 72 36
    • 4.6 Types of Learning - Ausubel Discovery Learning - content has to be discovered by learner 2.1 3 through some learning activity Reception Learning - entire content is presented to learner in its 1 2.2 final form Rote Learning Meaningful Learning - what is learned is characterised - essential characteristic of the learning by arbitrary associations with the is that it can be related in a meaningful, learner’s previous knowledge non-arbitrary way to what the learner already knows 73 4.7 Five Levels of Learning Level Teaching Type of Teaching Days 1 35 Facts 2 70 Information 3 105 Know-How 4 140 Comprehension 5 175 Wisdom 74 37
    • 4.8 Bloom’s Level of learning and Thinking 1. Know - Define, match, repeat, memorise, label, outline, record, recognise, state, sort, list 2. Understand - Restate, show, illustrate, summarise, predict, locate, paraphrase, describe, explain 3. Apply - Demonstrate, solve, test, use, manipulate, organise 4. Analyse - Examine, debate/defend, compare/contrast, refute, relate, generalise, classify, research 5. Synthesise - Propose, design, construct, invent, formulate, plan, imagine 6. Evaluate - Judge, recommend, critique/criticise, justify, choose 75 4.9 Learning: From Past to Future 76 38
    • 5. Conclusion 77 5.1 Three Steps approach to QE 78 39
    • 5.2 Graphical display of 3 steps QE Quality Education Low Functioning Basic Education Schools Dysfunctional Rights-based Education Schools *Availability *Accessibility * Acceptability * Adaptability 79 5.3 Influences on achievement 80 40
    • 5.4 John Hattie 10-1 81 81 5.5 John Hattie - Teaching or Working Conditions? 82 82 41
    • 5.6 Teacher Professional Path 1. First five to eight years (as teachers); 2. Second phase [nine to twelve years] as teacher; 3. First five to eight years (as senior teachers/mentor); 4. Second phase [nine to twelve years] as mentor; 5. First three to five years (as Head of Department); 6. First three to five years (as Deputy Principal); 7. First three to five years (as Principal); 8. Second phase [six to ten years] as Principal; 9. Third phase [eleven to twenty years +] as Principal; 10. Etc. BT1- T5-8 T9- HoD1 HoD5 HoD9- Pr1- Pr5- Pr9- Pr13 4 12 ST1- -4 ST5-8 -8 ST9- 12 DP1-4 4 DP5 8 DP5- 12  22- 27- 4 31- 35-38 12 39-42 43-46 -8 47- 8 51- 55-58 59-62 83 26 30 34 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 50 4yrs 54 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 5.7 Internal and external strength 84 42
    • 5.8 Ten Untruths in UPS 1. Democratic decision making in schools create a conducive school tone or culture; 2. Parent involvement is crucial; 3. OBE approach is resource intensive; 4. Resources (computers and libraries) will make all the difference; 5. The Dept. is not supporting teachers and therefore they are de-motivated; 85 5.9 Ten Untruths in UPS 6. Lack of learning is caused by the ill-discipline of learners; 7. Our classrooms are overcrowded - small classes will make the difference; 8. It is difficult to achieve learner success in poverty stricken communities; 9. Learners are not at the level they should be when they get to our schools (no pre- or nursery school; can’t read and write) 10. Teacher development will solve most of our performance problems. 86 43
    • 5.10 Five Basic Assumptions of Effective Schools 1. The central purpose of a school is to teach; 2. The school is responsible for providing the overall environment; 3. Schools must be treated holistically in terms of instruction (unity); 4. The most crucial characteristics of a school are the attitudes and behaviours of the teachers and staff; 5. The school accepts responsibility for the success and failure of the academic performance of learners - all learners are capable of learning. 87 Thank You! 88 44